Renaissance 14th-17th Century -means “revival”, also, ‘rebirth’ revival of interest in ancient Greek, Roman culture, humanist scholars attempted to rid feudal Europe of Church domination and conservatism -old sciences revived, new science emerged -national languages and cultures took shape, free from Roman Church authority—art and literature flourished -began in Florence Italy, spread to all of Europe Due to its geographic position, foreign trade and commerce developed in Italy. – accumulation of wealth Rise of Humanism As wealth accumulated in Italy, an increased interest in other things.
Nun, academies, libraries, study. Time and money for things of beauty. Intellectuals freed from training of priests and spreading Christian faith, began to represent the views of the bourgeoisie, providing middle class with new philosophies and ideas – . –hearted humanist philosophy ” The greatness of man”. See page 131, Shakespeare quotation —promotion of wealth, pleasure, admiration for human body medieval brooding about death and ‘other world’ replaced by interest in living for resent and future progress of mankind.
Literature Vocation “Decadence”-tale of 7 women and 3 men on way to escape Black Death. Witty, naughty, praise of true love, wisdom. Began to express the voices of modern society. Considered greatest prose achievement in medieval literature. Patriarch- “Canisters” book of lyrical songs. His works expressed ‘true’ emotions. Art A break with medieval tradition at end of 13th c. Slowed up by Black Death. Revived Early 1 5th century, a decided break with medieval tradition. -art broke away from
Church domination –artists, considered craftsman by church, became distinct class like writers and poets—those considered to do ‘noble’ work. —themes once focused on Bible, now reflected an interest/appreciation for all aspects of man and nature. Reflected reality in depiction—muscles, sinews, and so on . Artists studied ruins of ancient roman and Greek temples, putting many of the perceived principles of ancient civilization into their works. Also, individual collectors began to support them—rather than
Church exclusively. —introduced into the works, scientific theories and principles of anatomy and proportion. Ghetto-?more realistic depiction of space Donated—sculptor, sought to intro. Ancient principles into his work, also engaged in anatomy for knowledge of body. “David”, a biblical hero in perfect proportions. High Renaissance Leonardo dad Vinci “Renaissance man” Scientist, architect, engineer, sculptor. “Mona Lisa”, “Last Supper” 2 of the most famous paintings in world. Scientist, architect, engineer, sculptor.
Michelangelo sculptor, painter, architect, poet went beyond decoration and realism, sought freedom of expression. “David”, “Sistine Chapel” Raphael Sweetness of temper, harmony, balance Series of Madonna paintings, ” School of Athens”—depicting Plato and Aristotle arguing, surrounded by audience in variety of postures. Titian Great colorist, became a model for the later modern mode of painting. Also established oil paint on canvas as the typical medium in western art “Reclining Nude”, “Sacred and profane love”.