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    Arts flashcard section 6

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    Early twentieth-century art movement begun in Paris, characterized by fragementation of forms into abstract or geometric pattens. Page 265
    A style of visual art and literature in Germany and Austria in the early twentieth century. The term is sometimes also applied to music, especially composers of the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg, Berg, Webern). Page 265
    Total abandonment of tonality (which is centered in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation. Page 265
    Method of composition in which various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timbre) may be ordered in a fixed series. Page 265
    Changing meter
    Shifting between meters, sometimes frequently, within a single composition or movement; also shifting meter. Page 266
    The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and certain African musics. Page 267
    Two or more streams of harmony played against each other, common in twentieth-century music. Page 267
    Late nineteenth-century piano style created by African Americans, characterized by highly syncopated melodies; also played in ensemble arrangements. Contributed to early jazz styles. Page 279
    African-American form of secular folk music, related to jazz, that is based on a simple, repetitive poetic-musical structure. Page 279
    Blue note
    A slight drop of pitch on the third, fifth, or seventh note of the scale, common in blues and jazz. Also bent pitch. Page 279
    Fairly large group of singers who perform together, usually with several on each part. Also a choral movement of a large-scale work. In jazz, a single statement of the melodic-harmonic pattern. Page 279
    Harlem Renaissance
    A literary, artistic, and sociological movement in the 1920s and ’30s that highlighted Africa-American contributions to the country’s cultural heritage. Pages 284 and 285
    Swing era
    The mid-1930s to the mid-1940s, when swing was the most popular music in the United States. Important musicians of the era were Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Benny Goodman. Page 291
    Wind band
    Instrumental ensemble ranging from forty to eighty members or more, consisting of wind and percussion instruments. Also concert band. Page 295
    Mariachi ensemble
    Traditional Mexican ensemble popular throughout the country, consisting of trumpets, violins, guitars, and bass guitar. Page 301
    Genre of twentieth-century musical theater, especially popular in the United States and Great Britain; features spoken dialogue and a dramatic plot interspersed with songs, ensemble numbers, and dancing. Page 307
    Tone cluster
    Highly dissonant combination of pitches sounded simultaneously. Page 315
    Musical interval smaller than a semitone (half step), prevalent in some non-Western musics and some twentieth-century music. Page 316
    Wind instrument technique in which the player’s tongue is fluttered as though “rolling an R” while he or she blows into the instrument. Page 318
    Musical ensemble of Java or Bali, made up of gongs, chimes, metallophones, and drums, among other instruments. Page 316
    A contemporary style of music that employs the rich harmonic language and other elements of Romantic and post-Romantic composers. Page 327
    Contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation. See also post-minimalism and spiritual minimalism. Page 335
    A technique used in films in which the music comes from an unseen source. Page 340
    Source music
    A film technique in which music comes from a logical source within the film and functions as part of the story. Page 340
    The Spanish painter who was drawn to the complexity of dreams
    Joan Miró
    Which of the following was a German Expressionist composer?
    Anton Webern
    Which of the following was a Spanish surrealist painter?
    Joan Miró
    Who was the Expressionist artist famous for the painting, The Scream?
    Edvard Munch
    Which is NOT a musical characteristic of Expressionism?
    Select one:
    a. instruments used in extreme registers
    b. dissonant, hyperexpressive harmony
    c. lyrical, conjunct melodic lines
    lyrical, conjunct melodic lines
    Which of the following characteristics is best associated with neo-Classicism?
    Select one:
    a. closer link between music and poetry
    b. a preference for absolute forms
    c. focus on program music
    a preference for absolute forms
    Which of these artists is famous for his Cubist-style works?
    Which of the following is an abstract Expressionist painter?
    Robert Motherwell
    Which of the following postmodernists wrote Beloved.
    Toni Morrison
    Which movement is known for combining popular and art music styles?
    Neoclassical artists and composers looked back to the Romantic era for inspiration.
    Expressionism was the German reaction to Impressionism.
    Impressionism as a movement was centered in France.
    Early twentieth-century styles such as Classicism arose as a reaction to Romaticism.
    Dadaists rejected the thought that art was something to be revered.
    Futurists were firm proponents of the established institution.
    Salvador Dali was a part of the Surrealism movement.
    German Expressionists, like French Impressionists, explored outdoor natural scenic beauty.
    German Expressionists explored the outer boundaries of the major-minor system.
    Neoclassical composers continued the program symphony tradition.
    The term “modernism” describes a group of stylistic movements in the early twentieth century.
    Artists in the mid-twentieth century rebelled against the principles of modernism.
    Frank Gehry’s design for the Walt Disney Concert Hall is a statement against postmodernism.
    J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter books are considered postmodernist.
    John Cage is associated with aleatoric music.
    The term aleatoric refers to an ultrarigid, total serial music.
    What is the basis of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring?
    scenes of pagan Russia
    The ideals of which movement best describes the music of The Rite of Spring?
    In the creation of The Rite of Spring, Stravinsky worked with other artists from his native country of:
    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring?
    Select one:
    a. polytonality
    b. use of chamber orchestra
    c. dissonance
    use of chamber orchestra
    The Firebird, Petrushka, and Rite of Spring are ballets by:
    Where did Stravinsky live in the last years of his life?
    the United States of America
    Which instrument begins with the melody in the introduction to The Rite of Spring, playing in a high range?
    Stravinsky’s revitalization of rhythm in The Rite of Spring is best associated with:
    The premiere of The Rite of Spring was uneventful in Paris.
    Stravinsky did not include authentic French folk songs in his ballet The Rite of Spring
    Ballet was favored by aristocratic audiences prior to the nineteenth century.
    Louix XIV of France had been vehemently opposed to dancing.??
    The premiere success of the Ballets Russes was largely due to the leadership of Serge Diaghilev.
    The orchestra that Stravinsky used in The Rite of Spring was remarkably small.
    The form of the “Dance of the Youths and Maidens” from Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring is a simple minuet form.
    Billie Holiday’s most famous song was:
    Strange Fruit
    Which best describes the form of the choruses in Billie’s Blues?
    Each chorus is 12 bars long.
    Which is NOT true of a typical blues progression?
    Select one:
    a. It has twelve bars or measures.
    b. The number of bars for each section varies.
    c. The harmonic pattern is I-IV-I-V-I
    The number of bars for each section varies.
    Scott Joplin’s rags were most often composed for which instrumentation?
    solo piano
    Which verse of Billie’s Blues has a typical blues text?
    Billie Holiday made history when she performed with _______, since blacks and whites were not allowed to perform together on stage at that time.
    Benny Goodman
    Billie’s Blues consists of an introduction and _______ choruses.
    The two instrumental solos in Billie’s Blues feature:
    clarinet and trumpet
    Early jazz developed from a blending of African music with art and popular traditions of the West.
    Ragtime was originally a piano style that featured highly syncopated melodies.
    Scott Joplin is considered the March King.
    A blue note implies a slight drop in pitch on the 3rd, 5th, or 7th scale tone.
    Louis Armstrong is credited with the invention of scat singing.
    Scott Joplin is one of the first African American composers to receive wide recognition.
    Congo Square in New Orleans historically was a place where African American music was experienced.
    Storytelling was common in the music of black slaves in nineteenth-century America.
    A chorus in blues usually is usually 19 bars long.
    Louis Armstrong was a famous New Orleans pianist.
    Billie Holiday was one of the first African American singers to sing in public with a white orchestra.
    As a young person, William Grant Still was hired to write arrangements for:
    radio and musical theater
    Which of these William Grant Still works was in part inspired by the sculpture African Dancer by Richard Barthe?
    Select one:
    a. Suite for Violin and Piano
    b. Darker America
    c. Troubled Island
    Suite for Violin and Piano
    The insistent bass in the last movement of William Grant Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano resembles which jazz piano style?
    William Grant Still was an important voice for:
    the Harlem Renaissance
    Which of the following was a noted poet of the Harlem Renaissance?
    Langston Hughes
    Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano contains how many movements?
    The third movement of Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano is programmatic and is meant to evoke:
    Harlem “street urchins”
    African-American composer William Grant Still did not write music that reflected the European art music tradition.
    William Grant Still was a representative of the Harlem Renaissance movement.
    William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony was the first symphony by an African-American composer to be performed by a major American orchestra.
    William Grant Still wrote film and TV music as well as operas and symphonies.
    William Grant Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano has several musical qualities found in the blues.
    The authors in the journal The New Negro wrote of racial equality and cultural pride in the black community.
    The third movement of Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano is devoid of syncopation.
    In the third movement of his Suite for Violin and Piano, Still utilized blues melodic features.
    Big band jazz is a:
    post-World War I large-ensemble style with sections of brass, reeds, and rhythm instruments
    Duke Ellington is associated with:
    big band jazz
    Summertime” is from the Gershwin stage work:
    Porgy and Bess
    George Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess reflects the music of:
    Select one:
    a. both a and b
    b. folk traditions of the United States
    c. European art traditions
    both a and b
    The opening aria in Porgy and Bess, “Summertime,” evokes:
    an African-American spiritual
    The tempo of the melody in Gershwin’s “Summertime” is best described as:
    By the turn of the twentieth century, Los Angeles had become the artistic and cultural center of the United States
    Jazz and ragtime were disseminated in the United States and overseas largely in part because of World War I.
    Tin Pan Alley was a street where all the composers of ragtime lived.
    The Wall Street crash of 1929 was the catalyst for the creation of escapist entertainments found in musical theater
    Gershwin’s works reflect a merger of jazz elements and classical forms.
    Gershwin is known for his songs that draw on ragtime, blues, and jazz.
    Irving Berlin was the least successful Tin Pan Alley composer.
    Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess does not reflect contemporaneous race relations.
    Leonard Bernstein was inspired to incorporate jazz into his music because of Gershwin’s efforts.
    Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring are ballets suites by:
    Aaron Copland
    Which is NOT a ballet by Aaron Copland?
    Select one:
    a. Appalachian Spring
    b. Rodeo
    c. Fancy Free
    Fancy Free
    The melody, “Simple Gifts,” heard in Appalachian Spring comes from the ________ tradition.
    Copland was removed from Eisenhower’s inaugural ceremonies for which reason?
    affiliation with the Communist party
    Copland often wrote music about which part of the United States?
    the Southwest and Mexican border
    Where did Copland receive his training in modernist composition?
    Paris, France
    What is the form of Copland’s Appalachian Spring, Section 7?
    John Philip Sousa is most known for his operatic compositions
    Brass bands were a means of entertainment in the military.
    Aaron Copland used early American songs in his work Appalachian Spring.
    Copland’s ballet Billy the Kid was composed to be a portrayal of urban life.
    Copland did not cite American folk melodies in his music.
    Copland collaborated with Martha Graham in his work Appalachian Spring.
    Simple Gifts is a traditional Roman Catholic chant.
    Copland refused to write film scores.
    An early pioneer of Mexican nationalism was:
    Diego Rivera
    The rhythm of Revueltas’s Homage to Federico García Lorca is characteristic of the Mexican________.
    mestizo dance music
    The music of Silvestre Revueltas reflects the folk songs of his native:
    The orchestration in Revueltas’s Son emulates the sound of:
    Mexican mariachi groups
    The man that Revueltas is honoring in Homenaje was a:
    Spanish poet killed by the Fascists
    From which region of Mexico does the mariachi ensemble originate?
    A guitarrón is a:
    large guitar
    The mariachi ensemble originated in France.
    Revueltas incorporated mestizo rhythms in his music.
    Strong feelings of patriotism arose in Mexico after the Revolution in 1910.
    Carlos Chávez refused to write nationalistic music.
    The third movement, Son, from Homenaje a Federico García Lorca, is based on a traditional dance form.
    The third movement, Son, can be described as rondolike with its sectional form.
    Revueltas’s Homenaje is for a chamber orchestra with piano, winds, strings, and percussion.
    Silvestre Revueltas and Carlos Chávez were representative of a movement that drew on the popular culture of contemporary Mexico.
    Revueltas used instrumentation as a means to evoke Mexican folk music.
    Which is NOT a well-known song from West Side Story?
    The American stage genre from which American musical theater drew inspiration was:
    Bernstein’s union of jazz and musical theatre resulted in:
    West Side Story
    Who wrote the lyrics for the musical West Side Story?
    Stephen Sondheim
    What is the literary basis for West Side Story?
    Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet
    The Afro-Cuban dance with a fast, syncopated beat, heard in “The Dance at the Gym,” is the:
    Which famous choreographer is responsible for the electrifying dance sequences in West Side Story?
    Jerome Robbins
    In West Side Story, Tony is:
    a former member of the Jets
    What is the overall structure of the song Tonight?
    What gives the dance sequences from West Side Story a Latin-American character?
    a. syncopated dance rhythms
    b. Latin-American percussion instruments
    c. both a and b
    Recent trends in musical theatre include shows based on older operas, novels, and dance ensembles with music from popular rock artists.
    _________ was a popular Jerome Kern musical from the “golden age” of the American musical.
    Show Boat
    Leonard Bernstein achieved fame as the first American-born conductor of the New York Philharmonic.
    Bernstein showed no interest in writing film music.
    Bernstein’s West Side Story shows a real understanding of upstate New York rural life.
    On West Side Story, Bernstein and Sondheim worked as a composer/lyricist team.
    Sondheim’s musicals represent a new sophistication in the genre.
    The literary basis for the musical, Wicked, was:
    Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
    Which is a Broadway musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein?
    South Pacific
    Which is a musical by Stephen Sondheim?
    Sweeney Todd
    Which is a rock musical based on Puccini’s La boheme?
    Into the Woods was composed by:
    Stephen Sondheim
    The musical Les Miserables was composed by:
    Claude-Michel Schonberg
    Cats was composed by:
    Andrew Lloyd Webber
    Which composer invented new instruments capable of microtonality?
    Harry Partch
    Who is considered to be the inventor of the prepared piano?
    John Cage
    Cage’s work Sonatas and Interludes is written for:
    prepared piano
    The form of Sonata V from Sonatas and Interludes is:
    binary, with each section repeated
    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Sonata V?
    Select one:
    a. gonglike timbres
    b. improvisation
    c. percussive effect
    The prepared piano called for in Sonatas and Interludes simulates a:
    gamelan orchestra
    Whose poetry did George Crumb set in his second book of madrigals?
    Federico García Lorca
    How many books of madrigal sets did George Crumb write?
    What instruments accompany the voice in Crumb’s Caballito Negro?
    metallic percussion and flute
    The prevalent rhythm in Crumb’s Caballito Negro is meant to:
    emulate the sound of a galloping horse
    The harmony in Crumb’s Caballito Negro is primarily:
    For which work did George Crumb win a Pulitzer prize in 1968?
    Echoes of Time and the River
    The “white tone” singing style in the vocal part of George Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children is a style in which the singer:
    sings without vibrato
    Which composer has written several compositions on the poetry of Federico García Lorca?
    George Crumb
    The gamelan is a traditional orchestra from Japan.
    The gamelan orchestra is made up largely of percussion instruments.
    Henry Cowell is known for combining Asian instruments with traditional Western ensembles.
    One of Henry Cowell’s innovations was the prepared piano.
    Harry Partch was a serious proponent of microtonal music.
    John Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes is a work for Javanese gamelan.
    John Cage’s work 4’33” is known for it’s consonant harmonic writing.
    John Cage’s work 4’33” challenges the differentiation between music and noise
    George Crumb is representative of avant-garde composition in the United States
    In composing, Crumb uses techniques and instruments from various world musics.
    Which musician is NOT known for performing political music in the 1950s and ’60s?
    Elvis Presley
    Bob Dylan’s singing voice is best described as:
    nasal and raspy
    Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man is a song cycle set to the texts of:
    Bob Dylan
    Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man incorporated all of the following EXCEPT:
    Select one:
    a. exact quotations of Dylan’s melodies
    b. word painting
    c. elements of jazz
    exact quotations of Dylan’s melodies
    Which of the following best describes the form of Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man?
    modified verse-chorus
    Which term best describes the instrumental accompaniment to Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man?
    electric guitar and drum kit
    Historically musicians often have referenced the work of other composers in their own works.
    Bob Dylan’s work has not had an effect on musicians outside of folk music.
    Dylan’s Mr. Tambourine Man was made famous by the Red Hot Chili Peppers.
    Laws concerning copyright and unauthorized use of music have become more lenient in the last century.
    Bob Dylan’s music was known for being irregular and surprising.
    In his early career Dylan made a name for himself as a writer and singer of protest songs.
    Throughout his career Bob Dylan refused the use of amplification.
    John Corigliano won an Academy Award for his film score to The Red Violin.
    John Corigliano does not explore avant-garde methods in composition such as microtonality in his music.
    Which of the following is NOT true of Jennifer Higdon’s blue cathedral?
    Select one:
    a. It contains a melodic dialogue between the flute and clarinet.
    b. It features tintinnabulation.
    c. It is an abstract work.
    It is an abstract work.
    All of the following are neo-Romanticists EXCEPT:
    Select one:
    a. Robert Schumann
    b. Bright Sheng
    c. Jennifer Higdon
    Robert Schumann
    Jennifer Higdon credits the music of ______________ for her understanding of music’s communicative powers.
    the Beatles
    Jennifer Higdon’s blue cathedral is:
    a tone poem
    Which musical effect in China Dreams is NOT drawn from the composer’s native culture?
    juxtaposition of brass and woodwinds
    The Chinese instrument, pipa, is:
    a 2-stringed fiddle
    Higdon’s music is viewed as neo-Romantic because
    it is firmly grounded in tonality
    In blue cathedral, Higdon incorporates___________, effectively evoking an Asian soundscape.
    Chinese reflex balls
    Which of the following is NOT true about Bright Sheng’s China Dreams?
    Select one:
    a. It is a large-scale work in four movements.
    b. He utilizes pentatonic scales.
    c. He incorporates Chinese folk string instruments.
    He incorporates Chinese folk string instruments.
    Jennifer Higdon’s title blue cathedral refers to:
    Higdon’s younger brother’s name
    Nineteenth-century orchestral sound inspired twentieth-century “neo-Romantic” composers.
    Bright Sheng is a Japanese-American composer.
    Bright Sheng often blends Eastern and Western cultures in his compositions, as heard in his work, China Dreams.
    Sheng’s China Dreams uses traditional Chinese instruments.
    Bright Sheng began his musical studies late in his career.
    Jennifer Higdon is a notable composer from the United States.
    Which of the following is NOT true of minimalism?
    a. It is often contemplative in tone.
    b. It features unwavering tonality.
    c. It emphasizes complex structures and harmonies.
    It emphasizes complex structures and harmonies.
    All of the following are minimalists EXCEPT:
    Select one:
    a. Jennifer Higdon
    b. Steve Reich
    c. Terry Riley
    Steve Reich
    Arvo Pärt is a noted advocate of:____________.
    . spiritual minimalism
    Arvo Pärt’s Cantate Domino is written for:
    chorus and orchestra
    The 90-minute masterwork In C was written by minimalist composer:
    Terry Riley
    Which minimalist composer is noted for his collaborations with actors and popular musicians?
    Philip Glass
    Arvo Pärt is associated with a style called:
    spiritual minimalism.
    Pärt’s music is noted for its use of , a sound that emulates ringing of bells.
    The text in Pärt’s Cantate Domino is in:
    Which is NOT true of Pärt’s Cantate Domino?
    Select one:
    a. Pärt uses traditional musical notation for the score.
    b. The text is in Latin.
    c. The melodies are conjunct and flowing.
    Pärt uses traditional musical notation for the score.
    The text for Cantate Domino comes from
    the Book of Psalms
    Which of the following is NOT true of the vocal style heard in Cantate Domino?
    Select one:
    a. The harmony is consonant throughout.
    b. There is contrary motion between voices.
    c. The voices are often paired.
    The harmony is consonant throughout.
    The composer Arvo Pärt abandoned serialism for a style he developed called:
    Minimalist music is based on the repetition of melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic patterns.
    Minimalism embraces the intellectual style of Schoenberg and Webern.
    Pärt’s music is spiritually motivated.
    Pärt’s Cantate Domino is an example of a style called spiritual minimalism.
    The ancient tone of Pärt’s Cantate Domino is created by largely open hollow intervals of thirds and sixths.
    Minimalists only explored musical ideas from sacred music.
    All of the following are operas by John Adams EXCEPT:
    Select one:
    a. Nixon in China
    b. Einstein on the Beach
    c. The Death of Klinghoffer
    Einstein on the Beach
    In Doctor Atomic, John Adams drew on texts from the scientists involved in the Manhattan Project, government documents, poetry from John Donne, Baudelaire, and:
    sacred Hindu scripture
    John Adams’s Doctor Atomic focuses on the conscience of:
    physicist Robert Oppenheimer
    In Doctor Atomic, the action takes place:
    in the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico
    The rhythm in the Act II, scene 3 chorus “At the sight of this” from Doctor Atomic can best be described as:
    Which of John Adams’s operas have been considered controversial:
    Doctor Atomic
    b. The Death of Klinghoffer
    c. both a and b
    In the Act II , Scene 3 chorus “At the sight of this” from Doctor Atomic, the nuclear weapon is compared to:
    Composer John Adams was influenced by rock albums such as Abbey Road and Dark Side of the Moon.
    John Adams’s Doctor Atomic is based on a comic book hero.
    Composers of historical operas strive for documentary-style accuracy.
    John Adams’s Doctor Atomic is the result of collaboration with a playwright/director.
    John Adams is considered a serialist composer.
    John Adams fuses elements of minimalism, Neo-Romanticism, and rock music in his compositions.
    John Adams won a Pulitzer Prize for a work that sets the names of the victims of 9/11.
    Some of the libretto in Doctor Atomic by John Adams comes from declassified government documents.
    The most important function of music in film is to:
    set the mood
    When the mood of the music contradicts what is being shown on the screen, it is called:
    running counter to the action
    Which of the following movies includes a famously gruesome musical/visual contradiction scene?
    The Godfather
    Besides setting the mood, film music can also:
    a. help establish the characters
    b. create a sense of time and place
    c. both of the above
    The movie __________ is an example of a soundtrack that uses only source music.
    Rear Window
    Many modern film composers have incorporated _________ in their music, a technique found in concert works by Wagner.
    the leitmotif
    Which current composer is credited as reviving the grand symphonic film score?
    John Williams
    In addition to film scores, John Williams has written music for the Olympics and:
    Barack Obama’s inauguration
    For which classic television series did John Williams write theme music?
    Gilligan’s Island
    Which is NOT a film score by John Williams?
    . The Lord of the Rings
    What is the overall form of the Raiders March?
    In the Raiders March, to whom does the first theme relate?
    the hero, Indiana Jones
    Which best describes the character of the opening theme of Raiders March
    strong and disjunct
    The composer of the soundtrack for the end of E.T. uses music to establish a sorrowful mood.
    Source music refers to music that functions as part of the drama itself, such as a character turning on a radio.
    In the movie Jaws, the shark is represented by a 2-note oscillating motive.
    Film music is not used to set the emotions of a scene.
    Running counter to the action is a technique to supply irony in film music.
    Film music can be used to create a sense of place and time.
    The vocal music in the 2009 film Avatar is sung in Nahuatl, an Amerindian language.
    Underscoring in film music refers to music being made on the screen by the characters.
    Film composers such as John Williams often incorporate the leitmotif idea.
    James Horner is known for his score for Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.

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