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    Music Appreciation Flashcard

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    Structure is not a crucial aspect of music
    The Étude Op. 10 No. 12 in C minor by Frédéric Chopin is nicknamed Revolutionary because it started a major upheaval in Paris in 1820.
    The term étude refers to pieces that are used to teach a particular technical skill to performers
    An understanding of form enhances and improves one’s appreciation of music
    Ternary form is one of the most common forms for all styles of music.
    Which of the following is an example of a cadential point? (resting point)
    excerpt a
    Structure is important because it helps our minds begin to develop expectations about what will happen next in a piece of music
    Form is a way of defining the organization of a piece of music.
    Understanding form is not necessary for enhancing the appreciation of music.

    Listen to this excerpt Listen to this excerpt from Section B of Chopin’s Étude in C minor.

    What is the function of the left hand in the following excerpt?

    Continues playing figurations (melodic patterns)
    In the Étude Op. 10 No. 12 in C minor by Frédéric Chopin, the chords played by the right hand represent the accompaniment
    Which section of Chopin’s Étude in C minor does the following excerpt come from?
    Which example comes from Section A of Chopin’s Étude in C minor?
    Example B
    The Étude Op. 10 No. 12 in C minor by Frédéric Chopin is an example of three-part form
    False; 2 part form

    Listen to this excerpt from Chopin’s Étude in C minor.

    Where does this excerpt happen in the piece?

    Towards the end
    The term timbre refers to the different sound sources used in a composition

    Handel uses different combinations of dynamics and timbre to achieve unity and variety in See Here the Conqu’ring Hero Comes.

    Which of the following two excerpts combines more instruments and louder dynamics?

    Example A – Example A combines more instruments and louder dynamics

    Handel uses different combinations of dynamics and timbre to achieve unity and variety in See Here the Conqu’ring Hero Comes.

    Which of the following excerpts combines ensemble playing and soft dynamics?

    Example B – Example B features ensemble playing and soft dynamics.
    Dynamic variety refers to the use of different sound sources.
    Which of the following excerpts from See Here the Conqu’ring Hero Comes uses loud dynamics?
    Ex A

    A cadential point brings the musical phrase to a resting point or pause.

    Which of the following excerpts ends with a cadential point that brings the phrase to a resting point?

    Ex C

    Listen to the following excerpts of Idea A from G. F. Handel’s See Here the Conqu’ring Hero Comes.

    Which one is played by a solo instrument?

    Ex B
    Unity alone sustains interest and appeals to our need and enjoyment of the new, different, and unexpected.
    Two of the most obvious musical elements that composers use to achieve variety are dynamics and timbre
    Interpretation is one of the composer’s most important tasks.
    False – Performer’s task to interpret
    The performer acts as a bridge between the composer and the listener.
    Great performers possess outstanding technique but may not have deep musical understanding.
    Deep River is a great example of a jazz piece.
    False – spiritual
    According to Booker T. Washington, plantation songs have nothing to do with religious fervor.
    Musical connotation happens when music is associated with extra-musical events or experiences
    Music only affects our feelings and thoughts.
    Absolutists derive pleasure from listening for the way that the different elements of music relate to each other, independently of any extra-musical connotations.
    Select the culture whose mythology is filled with references to the healing power of music:
    All of the above: Greek, Chinese, & Ancient Egyptian
    Music was clinically approved as a medical treatment in 1924.
    Perceptive listeners are mainly concerned with judging the quality of the performance of a piece of music
    Referential listeners are the most common type of listeners.
    Which of the following is NOT true of the perceptive listener?
    A perceptive listener would not describe music using vocabulary such as “mellow” and “upbeat”. Instead, they would use more precise language to describe music.
    Musical themes cannot represent real or fictional characters.
    The critical listener combines the characteristics of all types of listeners.
    This is a short excerpt from J.S. Bach’s Air from the Suite No. 3 in D major. Listening to that excerpt, a casual listener would be more inclined to do which of the following?
    Enjoy the music as background
    Which of the following excerpts was used in the text as an illustration of program music?
    The casual listener regards music mainly as a mood enhancer or as a pleasant part of the environment
    Music that is not associated with a particular story, image, object, or event is called _________ music
    A referential listener is a person that relates to music mainly through extra-musical connections or associations
    Music that follows an explicit story is often called program music.
    According to the text, it is a simple task to define the category of folk music.
    In jazz, performers have wide, creative freedom, even when they are playing from a score
    Art music has traditionally been created by trained professional musicians.
    Jazz incorporates elements of folk music.
    Composers of art music create works that are passed on from generation to generation by listening, remembering, and imitating.
    What are the short segments played by the piano alone
    According to the text, Folk music, jazz music, and art music are not mutually exclusive genres
    According to the text, all critics agree that jazz is a subcategory of art music
    A piece of folk music typically remains unchanged throughout the years.
    Folk music belongs to the community even though it may have been created by an individual
    Riffs refers to:
    Short melodic and rhythmic patterns
    According to the text, the folk song Dark Eyes reflects the Romanian national character
    False – Russian character
    Art music is superior to folk or popular music
    *The graphic representation of the symbol—its shape—conveys duration.
    *refers to the length of the sound; how long the sound lasts in time
    *The placement of this symbol on the music staff conveys pitch. The higher the symbol is placed on the staff, the higher its pitch.
    *The particular quality of a sound (e.g. an individual musical note) that fixes its position in the scale
    *the pitch of a sound is a person’s relative perception of how high or low that sound is
    *The number of sound waves
    *the number of vibrations or cycles per second
    In the Western music tradition, a note symbol (i.e., its shape) indicates pitch.
    The value of the ______ note serves as the basis for the relative value of all the other notes
    A rest symbol indicates:
    A period of silence
    A note’s duration is indicated by
    Whether the note head is filled or not and the number of flags on the stem
    In the Western music tradition, sound is represented in written form through musical __________.
    Just as there are quarter notes, there are quarter rests
    The text states that __________ is the essential element in music
    Time values in music are expressed in absolute terms.
    In the Western music tradition, a note symbol (i.e., its shape) indicates both duration and pitch
    Which of the two following statements is true?
    A)Time values in music are expressed in absolute terms.B)Time values in music are expressed in relative terms.
    B) Time values in music are expressed in relative terms.
    The following excerpt from Pictures at an Exhibition features low pitches
    The audible frequency spectrum in humans ranges between:
    16 and 20,000 Hertz
    A long string, if plucked really hard, will vibrate faster and thereby produce a higher pitch than a shorter string
    Vibration may be represented in terms of frequency. The basic unit of frequency is called the Hertz. What does one Hertz represent?
    One cycle per second
    It is very important to recognize that pitch is a relative concept.
    The frequency of the lowest sound that the normal human ear can perceive ranges between 16 and 20 Hertz
    a combination of letters, numbers and staff—was used for particular string instruments
    The collection of parallel lines and spaces on which notes are written is called notation
    In musical notation, pitch is indicated exclusively by:
    Pitch is represented by the position of notes on the lines and spaces of the staff
    The staff is a system of:
    Five lines and four spaces
    In the Western music tradition, a note symbol (i.e., its shape) indicates duration
    A note at the bottom of the staff has a higher pitch than a note at the top of the staff.
    Each line and space on the staff represents a different:
    Set of 8 keys
    higher in pitch
    lower in pitch
    Volume (Dynamics)
    *one of most important aspects of sound
    *Composers use volume as a way of controlling the emotional content and shape of a piece.
    * refers to the infinitely subtle shadings that are possible between discrete dynamic levels
    pianississimo (ppp)
    very, very softly
    pianissimo (pp)
    very softly
    piano (p)
    mezzo piano (mp)
    half soft
    mezzo forte (mf)
    half loud
    forte (f)
    fortissimo (ff)
    very loud
    fortississimo (fff)
    very, very loud
    al niente
    to nothing
    become louder
    descrescendo diminuendo
    becoming softer
    dying away
    Among other factors, composers started writing dynamic markings in their scores because
    New instruments allowed for more dynamic ranges and contrast.
    Volume and dynamics are interchangeable terms.
    As a musical concept, dynamics covers only the overall loudness or softness of a piece of music
    Aside from Carmina Burana (1937), Carl Orff is widely known for:
    His work in music education
    For the most part, pianists and harpsichordists don’t have direct contact with the strings of their instruments. Therefore, they manipulate sound through a _____ mechanism
    Composers started marking their scores with instructions about dynamics:
    17th century
    A pianist’s skill in manipulating volume is usually referred to as the performer’s ____.
    Percussion players produce more or less volume by changing bow pressure and speed.
    Despite being a great composer, Richard Wagner did not succeed in creating great operas
    Which of the following is a true statement
    Octave is the name of a particular interval size.
    The distance between two pitches is called a/an _____ .
    The distance between D and A (above that D) is a:
    The two notes of an octave sound exactly the same due to the simple relationship of their frequencies
    Ascending and descending intervals are calculated
    exactly the same time
    *quality of a sound
    *referred to as tone color
    Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating strings, such as the guitar. The strings may be plucked, bowed, hit, or strummed
    Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating columns of air, such as the horn.
    Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating membranes, such as the drum. The membranes may be struck or rubbed.
    Instruments that produce sounds by vibrating themselves, such as the castanets. This class includes instruments of various materials (e.g., metal, wood, glass, stone) producing sounds using various techniques (e.g., beating, scraping, shaking, plucking, stamping, rubbing)
    Instruments that produce sounds via electronic means, such as the synthesizer.
    According to the way sounds are produced, piano is considered in what instrumental classification?
    The electric guitar can be considered as both a chordophone and a/an:
    vocal range used most in a song
    highest female voice
    lower voice range than soprano
    lowest range in female voice
    highest male voice
    lowest male voice
    most common male voice; between tenor and bass
    The Entry Chorus from Nabucco by Giuseppe Verdi is sung by a chamber choir.
    The aria Lucevan le Stelle is from the opera Gianni Schicci by Giacomo Puccini.
    The aria Lucevan le Stelle is composed for a/an:
    The song Dark Eyes is sung by a choir without instrumental accompaniment. This type of vocal group is called
    A cappella choir
    The soprano register lies between the alto and tenor vocal ranges.
    The English madrigal is characterized by:
    The English madrigal is characterized by the intensity and intimacy of the choral writing
    symphony orchestra
    different instrument families when they get together
    Where do the viola players sit
    No 2
    A traditional symphony orchestra can sometimes have more than 100 players.
    What is NOT the role of the conductor in a traditional symphony orchestra?
    Makes sure that, when appropriate, players improvise their parts correctly
    The sole function of the conductor is to beat time
    Which of the following is not a decision about interpretation that the conductor of a symphony orchestra makes?
    Whether to use a modern or old-fashioned baton

    Listen to the following excerpt from Benjamin Britten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra.

    Which orchestral family performs the main theme in this selection?

    According to the text, traditional symphony orchestra musicans are permited to improvise their parts

    Listen to the following excerpt from Benjamin Britten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra

    Which brass instrument is featured in this selection?

    French horn

    Listen to the following excerpt from Benjamin Britten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra.

    Which percussion instrument accompanies the trumpets in this selection?

    snare drum
    The harp may be a part-time fifth member of the orchestral strings
    What do you call a piece of music where a violin soloist plays with an orchestra?
    violin concerto
    The main orchestral string instruments are:
    violin, viola, cello, double bass
    The sound of string instruments is produced by a _____ stretched between two points
    __________ is an instrumental technique that, in the case of string players, consists of a quick back and forth movement or rocking of the finger that is in contact with the string, with the intent of producing a fluctuation in pitch
    Listen to this excerpt from Benjamin Britten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra
    Which of the following is NOT a way to produce sound in string instruments
    How does a violinist control dynamics?
    By applying more or less bow pressure and speed on the strings
    Which string instrument carries the melody in this short excerpt
    The text states that guitars are strummed or __________
    Which string instrument is featured in this excerpt from Paganini’s 24 Caprices?
    Identify the woodwind instrument in this excerpt by the contemporary composer Aulis Sallinen
    In Prokofiev’s: “Peter and the Wolf”, which instrument represents the “grandfather”?
    In wind instruments, sound is produced by setting a column of air in motion inside the body of the instrument
    Which instrument, along with the orchestra, plays this example?
    The French technical term for “mouthpiece” is la bouche
    false – embouchure
    Which woodwind instrument plays along with the strings in this Mozart excerpt?
    Which woodwind instrument is featured in the following excerpt from Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf?
    The energy with which a player produces the air stream determines __________.
    In Prokofiev’s: “Peter and the Wolf”, which instruments represents the Peter?
    Listen to this excerpt by the Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev. Woodwind instrument?
    In Prokofiev’s: “Peter and the Wolf”, which instrument represents the “duck”?
    Identify the correct pair of double reed instruments:
    oboe, bassoon
    In Prokofiev’s: “Peter and the Wolf”, which instrument represents the “cat”?
    The four main orchestral woodwind instruments are:
    Flute, clarinet, oboe, and bassoon
    Identify the single reed instrument:
    Which of the following factors contribute to brass instruments having a “brassy” timbre?
    A) The instruments are made out of metal.
    B) The flared bell that all of them have at the end
    C) The vibration of the player’s lips on the mouthpiece
    D) All of the above
    all of the above
    The name trombone is derived from the Italian term for trumpet
    In brass instruments, pitch depends on the ______ of the air column
    The four most common brass instruments in the traditional symphony orchestra are:
    trombone, trumpet, horn, tuba
    french horn
    french horn
    Listen to the following excerpt from Sergei Prokofiev’s Symphony No. 6. There is a dialogue between a high-sounding part and a low one. Which brass instrument plays the low part?
    Which of the following is a member of the brass family?
    bass trombone
    instruments that produce sounds from the vibrations of their own bodies
    EX: castanets,
    instruments that produce sounds by vibrating a membrane or skin that is stretched over a wood or metal frame
    EX: drums
    Percussion instruments where two similar objects are clapped together to produce a sound can be further classified under the ________ group
    Listen to this excerpt from Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss.
    bass drum
    Castanets are non-pitched instruments
    Kettledrum is another name for timpani.
    Scholars have been able to determine the origin of the xylophone with absolute certainty.
    Which of the following instruments does NOT belong in the indefinite pitch group?
    Which of the following instruments does NOT belong in the definite pitch group:
    Definite Percussion Pitches:
    timpani (also known as kettledrums),
    the chimes
    xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba.
    Indefinite Percussion Pitches:
    tambourine, triangle, cymbals, and drums,
    The term concerto refers to a performer playing by her/himself.
    Construction and sound production are the same among keyboard instruments.
    The synthesizer is a very easy instrument to categorize.
    The type of music event where a soloist plays by her/himself is called a __________.
    Keyboard instruments are sometimes part of the orchestra.
    The term controller refers to:
    The device used to select pitch in an electronic instrument
    The one-piece cast-iron frame, a crucial development in the history of the piano, was invented by
    Alpheus Babcock of Boston, USA in 1825
    The upright piano was first developed in:
    The upright piano developed by John Isaac Hawkins in Philadelphia at the beginning of the 19th century.
    The pedals are a crucial component of the piano. The function of the soft pedal is to reduce the amount and quality of the sound. On an upright piano, the soft pedal
    Moves the hammers closer to the strings
    There are ___ keys in a full size piano keyboard.
    When performing, pianists are in direct contact with the source of the sound.
    In the organ, volume is determined by:
    wind pressure
    In the organ, pipe length determines
    The first organ used water to control wind pressure.
    The function of the organ’s stops is to:
    control the flow of air to pipes
    The organ is a ____________instrument, whose tone is produced by wind flowing through ____________.
    keyboard, pipes
    The sound source of a the synthesizer is an oscillator.
    Identify the false statement
    Synthesizers have always had a well-established presence in standard ensembles.
    What is the function of the amplifier?
    It amplifies loudness
    Since the synthesizer is an electronic instrument, oscillation is not a factor in sound generation.
    The synthesizer has virtually no standard repertoire.
    Lento or largo
    at ease
    at leisurely walking speed
    moderately fast
    fairly fast
    very fast
    The rhythmic “surprise” created by accents occurring in unexpected places in the following example is called..
    Tempo is an Italian universal musical term that refers to the speed at which a music composition is played.
    The top number of the time signature above, represents
    There are three beats in each measure –
    The top number (3) tells how many beats there are in each measure.
    Rhythm is defined as:
    The organization of sound in time
    The proper musical term for ‘decreasing the tempo’ is _________
    If the printed program at a concert indicated that the first movement of a symphony was titled Allegro and the second Andante, you would expect
    The first movement to be fast, the second slower
    __________ is an Italian term that describes moderately fast tempo
    Meter organizes _________ and __________ sounds into units called measures.
    stressed, unstressed
    Where are tempo markings usually written in a music score?
    over the staff
    The Italian term that describes very fast tempo is:
    Each measure contains a combination of strong and weak __________, which represent the underlying ____________ of the music.
    beats, pulse
    Syncopation is often used in jazz settings.
    The Italian term for at ease is:
    Which of the following is a false statement?
    Tempo and rhythm are interchangeable terms
    Meter in music can best be described as:
    The grouping of pulses into consistent units
    The proper musical term for “increasing the tempo” is __________
    The characteristics of a melody may be best described in terms of:
    shape, direction, and range
    When a melody acquires significant importance within a given composition, it is called a:
    A melody consists of a succession of:
    Although the violin is mostly a single melody instrument, violinists can also play chords using an instrumental technique known as:
    double stops
    Two simultaneous pitches of the same letter name and pitch (e.g., C, G, or D) constitute a harmony.
    The term harmony refers to the horizontal aspect of music.
    Consonant harmonies usually provide a feeling of tension.
    This music example illustrates a chord played one note after another. This is called:
    Musical texture refers to how melody and harmony relate to each other.
    Which of the following terms does not refer to a basic musical texture?
    Which of the following choices is the defining characteristic of polyphony?
    The independence and equality of concurrent melodic lines
    The musical texture that consists of a single melody without accompaniment is called:
    In general, operatic arias of the Romantic period, for example those by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), provide good examples of homophonic music
    Which of the following forms is NOT based on the principle of repetition?
    Which form is NOT based on the principle of contrast?
    Usually, folk tunes, songs, spirituals, and hymns are NOT good examples of strophic form.
    Arrangers can introduce some elements of variation in a piece of music without altering the basic form of a piece
    This movement from a piano sonata by Beethoven exemplifies:
    Form can be defined as the constructive or organizing element in music.
    This cello piece exemplifies __________ form
    The following composition, featuring 40 voices, was written by:
    thomas tallis
    The following excerpt features characteristics of polyphonic texture.
    The Renaissance period saw inventions and developments that:
    Changed the physical and intellectual landscape of Europe.
    Renaissance artists didn’t really care very much if their works appealed to the public at large; they were more concerned about the “purity” of their music.
    During the Renaissance, what was the name composers gave to the original chant used as the basis for the main melody in a composition?
    cantus firmus
    The following example is played on an instrument that was very popular during the Renaissance. That instrument is the:
    Which time period is generally considered the Renaissance period?
    Which of the following is a composition for the vihuela?
    ex b (1:58)
    Which of the following events occurred in America during the time period known as the Renaissance?
    Columbus discovered “The New World.”
    Venit ad Petrum was often used as the cantus firmus for the mass.
    Despite advances in other areas, Renaissance harmony and polyphony remained restricted to the music rules that governed most of the Medieval period
    The following example was composed by a musician whose career exemplifies the dominance of composers from Northern France and the Netherlands during the Renaissance
    Josquin Desprez
    According to the text, the Renaissance period was known as:
    The Golden Age of Choral Music
    Two important composers from the Renaissance period were:
    Desprez and Palestrina
    One difference between a Renaissance Mass and a motet is:
    A Mass is always based on a specific text that is part of the liturgy of a given day
    Which of the following was NOT a popular form during the Renaissance period?
    The Renaissance was the Golden Age of:
    Compositions for large choral ensembles
    The Renaissance madrigal was a sacred music form used to convey the meanings behind the poems on which they were based.
    Which of the following is not part of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass?
    The Renaissance may be described as an age in which:
    Individualism, humanism, and secular values started to flourish once again
    Concentration on vocal music during the Renaissance period meant that instrumental music continued to be used as mere accompaniment for voices.
    What element of the musical style of the following piece indicates that it is from the Renaissance period rather than the Medieval period?
    It features imitation that goes through all the voices
    The great European churches and cathedrals of the Medieval period were important to the development of Western music
    Léonin and Pérotin were two composers associated with Notre Dame and the development of polyphony.
    Goliards are famous for their inspired performances during the services at the monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain
    The two most important French composers of organum and discant during the Medieval period were:
    Léonin and Pérotin
    In the early days of the church, the only music allowed during the service was:
    vocal music
    The dates for the Medieval period are generally considered to be:
    A unifying factor for social, political, and cultural life in the Medieval period was…
    The Roman Catholic Church
    Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of sacred music from the Medieval period?
    Smooth melodies sung a cappella
    Anicius Boethius invented a system that made possible the memorization and written transmission of melodies
    Which of the following is a salient characteristic of secular music from the Medieval period?
    Strong, dance-like rhythms performed by a combination of instruments and voices
    Who is credited with the creation of plainsong?
    Pope Gregory I
    Which 8th- and 9th-century ruler had a profound influence on Church music?
    Which of the following was regarded as a leading composer of the Ars Nova style?
    Guillaume de Machaut
    Most of the notated music that survives from the Medieval period is secular in nature.
    Guido d’Arezzo wrote The Fundamentals of Music, a very important medieval treatise (essay).
    Which of the following is NOT a chant of the Proper of the Mass?
    Sederunt Principes
    Which of the following were sacred genres in the Medieval period?
    Masses and motets
    Which of the following were secular genres in the Medieval period?
    Rondeaus, ballades, and lai
    Which of the following were important composers in the Medieval period?
    Hildegard von Bingen and Guillaume de Machaut
    One characteristic of this excerpt that suggests it might be from the Baroque Period is
    It contrasts a group of instruments with a solo instrument.
    The Baroque concerto is…
    A piece that contrasts a solo instrument with an ensemble
    Which of the following is NOT a Baroque composer?
    Which of the following important events took place during the Baroque period?
    The Scientific Revolution
    Early baroque music is characterized by frequent use of polyphonic texture.
    During the Baroque period, the musical feature that lent harmonic support to the main melodic line of a composition was called
    basso continuo
    In contrast to the Renaissance, where vocal and choral music took center stage, instrumental music established itself as the most significant genre of the Baroque period
    The dates given in the course for the Baroque Period place it between:
    The following selection, sung by Historicus, comes from a well-known __________.
    The earliest surviving opera—then called dramma per musica—was written by a member of the Florentine Camerata named
    Jacopo Peri
    During the Baroque period, the term sonata was used for musical works __________.
    to be played
    Who composed La favola d’Orfeo, a work that marks the beginning of opera as a major art form?
    Claudio Monteverdi
    Which group was credited with inventing the recitative?
    The Florentine Camerata
    Which one of the following pairs of words or phrases represents the two main concepts behind Baroque music?
    Basso continuo; The Doctrine of Affections
    Farinelli was a famous:
    A Baroque sonata is…
    A piece for solo instrument or a small group of instruments
    According to Monteverdi, what is the difference between prima practica and seconda practica?
    Prima practica emphasized equality of voices whereas seconda practica emphasized a hierarchy of voices.
    A Baroque suite is…
    A multi-movement instrumental work based on rhythms of popular dances
    In the Baroque period, music for keyboard…
    Was created mainly for use in instrumental genres such as sonatas, suites, and concertos
    A Baroque oratorio is…
    A multi-movement sacred work for soloist and choir intended for a concert performance
    Which of the following is not an overture by Beethoven:
    A string _____ is composed of two violins, one viola, and a cello.
    Which of the following is a composition for an orchestral ensemble?
    The sections of the Classical sonata-allegro form are:
    Exposition, Development, and Recapitulation
    From the Classical period onwards, sonata-allegro form was replaced by other forms as the basis for most instrumental music
    The dates given in this course for the Classical period are:
    1750 – 1825
    Identify the event that did not occur during the Classical period:
    American Civil Rights Movement
    Beethoven is sometimes referred to as “The Father of the Symphony.”
    During the Classical period, opera buffa (comic opera) plots were based on myths and historical figures
    The symphony had its origins in the overture, which was the introductory music for Italian opera.
    Suppose you are listening to the first movement of a symphony written in the Classical period. You have heard the first section, in which two themes were introduced, and a second section, in which segments of those themes were expanded and developed. What would you expect next?
    A varied repeat of the first section with a return of the two original themes
    Which of the following were important composers of the Classical period?
    Mozart and Haydn
    Which of the following characteristics are associated with the rococo style?
    Elegance, delicacy, softness, and playfulness
    Sonata-allegro form was used mainly in works for solo piano and did not apply to works for larger ensembles
    According to the text, Beethoven strongly influenced the music of Haydn.
    Changes in tempo were rarely found in music of the Romantic period, in keeping with Classical period values.
    This composer pictured above wrote The Blue Danube, arguably the most famous waltz of all time. His name is
    Johann Strauss Jr
    Which one of the following is not a general characteristic of Romantic music:
    Compositions were based on logic and controlled feelings.
    Which of the following statements best describes musical form in the Romantic period?
    Romantic composers worked with traditional forms but expanded them in innovative ways to meet their expressive needs.
    Which of the following is not a composer from the Romantic period?
    Delacroix was not a composer.
    The composer pictured above, an international artist of Hungarian heritage, decided to become a technical wizard at the keyboard after hearing Paganini playing the violin. What is his name?
    During the Romantic period, choral music enjoyed its highest popularity since the Renaissance period.
    According to the text, art of the Romantic period valued emotional restraint and clarity of form.
    The following difficult piece for the violin was written by one of the few musicians of the time who could play it. Identify this composer
    Which of the following was NOT known as a composer of choral music?
    The course places the Romantic period in music between the years:
    Notes that don’t belong to the traditional scale are known as ______________ alterations.
    From the following composers, select the one that best understood the intrinsic nature and potential of the piano as an expressive instrument
    Frédéric Chopin
    The dance-like characteristics of the following piece indicate that it was written by
    The name of the composer pictured above, who wrote more than 600 art songs (lieder), is:
    Franz Schubert
    Which of the following statements best characterizes the “mood” of the Romantic period?
    Rules and logic are less important that the free expression of human feelings. Humans can only “fully become” by exploring their inner feelings.
    According to the text, which of the following are Post-Romantic composers?
    Rachmaninoff and Holst
    The following choral work, based on the German Bible, was written by:
    The composer pictured above is best known for taking older forms and styles and redefining them in modern ways. Antonín Dvorák was inspired by his Hungarian Dance No. 1. What is this composer’s name?
    An important Romantic composer founded The New Journal of Music, an influential musical periodical in which this same composer frequently published his own musical criticism and promoted the works of other musicians. His name is:
    The following piano sonata was composed by one of the first female virtuoso performers. Identify this composer
    Clara Wieck Schumann
    A musical genius, but also someone with strong anti-Semitic views, the man pictured above was one of the most influential composers of the Romantic Period. His name is:
    Richard Wagner
    According to the text, Romantic composers abandoned the principles of unity and variety in pursuit of more innovative and expressive sounds
    According to the text, composers of the Romantic period were reluctant to stray from the seven tones of the traditional scale (i.e., A, B, C, D, E, F, G).
    Which of the following composers, upon arriving in Paris in 1831, quickly became closely associated with the most prominent intellectuals, artists, musicians, political activists, and financiers of his day, thus launching his career?
    Frédéric Chopin
    Which of the following composers envisioned operas as “musical dramas”—a combination of all the arts?
    During the Romantic period, most composers were:
    Independent business persons, earning their living by performing music, writing music for specific occasions and commissions, and collecting royalties on published music.
    According to the text, which of the following is NOT considered a form of program music?
    Who was NOT a nationalist composer?
    Which of the following was not a member of the Five?
    Pyotr Tchaikovksy
    According to the text, the Traditionalists were composers of the Romantic era who:
    Held reverence for the music of the masters
    In broad terms, music and the other arts of the Romantic period…
    Gave full expression to a wide range of feelings, dreams, and the heroic human potential.
    Which one of these composers was considered a national hero in his homeland?
    Jean Sibelius
    An important artistic product of the Romantic period was:
    Vincent van Gogh’s paintings
    The Five was a group of nationalist composers who sought to incorporate elements of ______________ in their work
    : Russian music
    Which of the following trends in contemporary music does this excerpt exemplify
    Jazz influence
    Which of the following composers did NOT employ total serialism in his work?
    Ralph Vaughan Williams
    Which of the following statements best describes the role of technology with regard to art music in the Contemporary period?
    Technology has enabled art music composers to experiment with and change the way that they create music.
    Which of the following composers most heavily influenced the music of the French post-WWI school of musicians known as Les Six?
    Erik Satie
    The factor that most clearly distinguishes this example from music of earlier periods is the use of:
    Extended dissonance that doesn’t resolve directly to consonance
    Many composers in the contemporary period sought alternatives to tonality, or key-centered music. Which of the following is one such alternative?
    Which characteristic of texture in this example is most closely associated with music of the Contemporary period?
    Thick texture with full and frequently dissonant chords
    Which of the following was not a French composer?
    Carl Orff
    According to the text, what was the significance of Debussy’s work?
    It represented the first viable alternative to tonal music.
    Which of the following composers was known for using folk-based fiddle tunes like the one in the following example
    Aaron Copland
    Which of the following best describes aleatory music?
    Music that allows for an element of chance to enter the performance
    What unique feature of this example suggests that it was written in the Contemporary period?
    use of traditional instruments in different ways.
    Which one of these composers wrote music for prepared piano?
    John Cage
    Which of the following composers developed the concept of total theater?
    Carl Orff
    The composers Samuel Barber, Thea Musgrave, and Ned Rorem resisted the 20th-century trend of serialism.
    In 20th-century music, traditional harmony and tonality were redefined or rejected in favor of:
    Atonality and serialism
    Nadia Boulanger was a prominent music teacher who taught some of the most influential composers of the 20th century, including Aaron Copland, Philip Glass, and Walter Piston
    The following piece was written by a leading figure of the post-WWII German avant-garde. Identify this composer.
    Karlheinz Stockhausen
    Which of the following composers catapulted to the top of the 20th-century avant-garde after composing Firebird, Petrushka, and Le Sacre du Printemps?
    Igor Stravinsky
    Which of the following composers invented the twelve-tone system of composition?
    Arnold Schoenberg
    Which one of the following composers’ style is most closely associated with that of the commercial music world known as Tin Pan Alley?
    George Gershwin
    Which of the following excerpts is atonal music?
    Who composed the groundbreaking piece The Rite of Spring?
    Igor Stravinsky
    Which of the following were important composers in the Contemporary period?
    Stravinsky and Schoenberg
    What compositional technique is illustrated by the following excerpt?
    New ways to manipulate a traditional instrument.
    Which of the following 20th-century trends sought to restore order, harmony, and emotional restraint to music?
    Audiences immediately embraced the dodecaphonic work of Arnold Schoenberg.
    Which of the following movements is associated with Debussy and Ravel?
    Given the atonal nature of this example, which of the following is the most likely composer?
    Given the Hungarian folk music flavor of this example, which of the following is the most likely composer?

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