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    History of Costume exam 2

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    clothing closely tied to religion, more culture contact, attention to appearance
    Early western europe overview
    utilitarian, little culture contact, little attention to appearance, women’s dress becomes more fitted
    Byzantine empire influences on costume
    cross-cultural exchange, early christianity, Byzantine emperor and empress, sericulture
    chinese monopoly on silk production for 2500 years, emperor justinian and empress theodora, 552 AD monks & hollow cane–silkworms and mulberry tree seeds, held secret until 12th c., silk is possession of byzantine court and church
    Cross-cultural exchange
    constantinople is a seaport city, crossroads of major trade routes to Europe, China, Russia, Japan, Africa; silk, pearls, fur diamonds, dyes & spices; layering, pearls, rich-looking
    Early Christianity
    eastern church separated from west, rome was considered pagan, iconoclasm, christian motifs on clothing and jewelry
    destruction and rejection of images
    Byzantine Costume
    heavily embellished; embroidery and complicated weaving; could be symbolic
    rectangular or circular
    on shoulders
    liturgical garments, chausable, clothing is shapeless, to obscure the sinful body, stiff and artificial looking, no longer soft draping
    Liturgical garment
    worn by priests; distinctive to church
    sleeveless cape
    Byzantine Empire
    emperor has divine right, colors and clothes exclusive, sumptuary laws
    Empress Theodora
    influence on costume,actress & dancer; picked from beauty contest, theatrical, dramatic
    large cloak, replaces toga as men’s outer wrap, restrict decoration &color, not wrapped–closed with brooch, the only women who can wear this is the empress
    rectangular patch; embroidered, attached to paludamentum, could be religious stories
    embroidered and wrapped around body, important part of sacred dress; remains of toga
    Tunica tolaris
    men & women can wear, basic garment; fastened on shoulders, tight sleeved; long under shorter with full sleeve
    over tunic with larger sleeves worn by men
    big, high socks, woven &cut on bias, attached to belt worn by men
    Early western europe 476-1100 AD
    “dark ages”, beginning of crusades, roman empire has broken down, towns get smaller, lack of roads, increased isolation, monasteries
    class rankings
    feudal system: imbalance of power and money, famine, disease, poverty; serfs: wore coarse linen and wool; Nobles: import sumptuous silk fabrics from byzantine empire; barbarians: constant movement of tribes– germanic tribes, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, hides, skins, straps on legs
    Early Western costume
    identify women by headwear, men by leg wear
    layers, tight sleeves, ankle length, laces up back, getting away from calling tunic worn by women
    same as gowns, but shorter with larger sleeves worn by women
    worn by women nobles , way to show wealth, upper torso of gown is fitted, more revealing, laces ip sides, excess fabric–full skirt with puddles; wide hanging sleeve
    head scarf gentle wrap, *most important feature of women’s costume*
    overgarment; closed with brooch like paludamentum
    long braids
    worn by women often with ribbon
    worn by men, lengths are varied; start long, end short
    worn by men, attached to mantle or separate
    simplistic, pointed toes; straights( no left or right)
    worn by men,underwear; fitted or saggy
    worn by men, ankle length; tied at waist with drawstring
    wool or linen; cut on bias,
    Hosa: attached to girdle or waistband
    socks: shorter
    hose/shoe combo (like slipper socks)
    hold all together; leather and cloth strips
    worn by men, sleeveless poncho; open on sides
    closed on sides; often lined with fur
    Gothic 1100-1400 AD
    active and creative time, growth in prosperity, crusades had big influence on costume in europe: new textiles, designs, patterns, sucrose, pourpoint, heraldic emblems, renewed interest in arts and literature
    Heraldic Emblems
    motifs identify allegiance, come from crusades, Ex. Fleur de Lis
    Feudalism declines
    national government develop, trade and commercial life revive, cities and towns grow
    Middle class begins
    merchants and craftsmen, guild system, apprentices
    Growth of Middle Class
    new group has money, want luxury goods, new sumptuary laws, effort to prohibit merchants
    develop near end of period, first decorative then functional, clothes can be better shaped and fit
    Cult of Chivalry
    change in view of ideal beauty, from men to women, veneration of women
    Gothic costume
    differentiation of men’s and women’s dress, men’s tunics are shorter, women’s long &puddled; identified by layers and decorative elements
    very pointed shoes, signifier of class status, regulated by sumptuary law
    funny, full-fabric hat, fullness shows wealth
    Suspended purse
    hung from belt, held bible, scissors, sewing implements,etc
    sleeves with scalloped edges
    streamer off hood
    ribbons of sleeves
    worn by men, shirt to top of thigh, low hung belt; worn by women, well fitted one piece dress; flaring skirt that puddles, tight long sleeves; boat neckline
    huge robe, overgarment worn by both men and women
    from crusades, fitted quilted shirt, worn under armor, has cushion, shorter and tighter than cotehardie with hose attached worn by men
    like a “baby” bonnet, tied under chin, worn by working men
    Sideless gown
    sleeveless jumper, side seams partially sewn, worn over cotehardie, lined with fur worn by women
    worn by women over hair
    net over hair braids, on the back of the head worn by women
    net over hair braids, on sides of the head worn by women
    Women’s neckwear
    was the most important feature of women’s dress, pieces of linen wrapped around throat and chin, symbol of “good” women, all classes wore them, wimple(looks like nun neck cover), gorget, barbette
    Early Renaissance 1400-1485 AD
    begins in Italy, rich textiles and silk are symbol of prestige
    Printing Press
    helped spread design information, pattern books, cataloging of patterns and “oriental” motifs
    Centers of Fashion
    trade, mercantilism, money, power; Flaunders and Florence
    court of burgundy, gothic extreme, rich fabrics and fur trim
    Ideals of Beauty
    veneration of women, Virgin Mary was an important symbol, plucked hairline, high forehead, shaved eyebrows
    Early Renaissance Women
    “pregnant stance”–small bags of padding under costume
    Early Renaissance Men
    top heavy–shoulders padded to increase body width
    Early Renaissance costume
    influenced by war, organ pipe pleats, bag sleeves, hooks and eyes houpplande
    elevated waist, close fitting bodice (start of corset), busk, deep V neckline, tight fitting sleeves, skirt hangs in folds, long trains worn by women
    wood or whalebone–inserted in bodice
    décolletage filled with piece of fabric
    came to indicate status, length regulated by sumptuary laws
    worn by men and women, fit snugly with buckled straps: dirty streets
    Early Renaissance headwear
    abandonment of neck wraps, now only worn by nuns and widows
    Works of fantasy
    wire or willow frame, hair is usually covered, veil draped over–decorative attraction
    wire structure for hair, looks like horns
    padded heart hairstyle for women
    women’s hairstyle that looks like steeple or truncated cone; pointed
    padded turban, bulbous hairstyle worn by women
    short jacket with pleated short skirt, full sleeves, evolves when pour point is shortened, hose joined into tights worn by men
    Accessories for men
    chaperone, sugarloaf hat/toque( hat), krackowes
    worn by men, ankle length; tied at waist with drawstring
    Italian Renaissance 1400-1600
    Cities with rich, powerful families; wealthy merchants(originate and control fashion) rich textiles and silk production
    Medici Family
    bankers & rich, new style–artistic and cultural outlook; plundered expensive fabrics, cut up & patched clothes led to “slashing and puffing”
    worn next to skin, undergarment; camica- shirt for men area to show embellishment; chemise- “gown” for women; plain weave linen, coarse for lower-class and fine, soft for upper class; gusset under sleeve, peeks out from under doublet, visible at edges or openings
    whitework, redwork and blackwork
    “white on white” embroidery
    raw edges covered with buttonhole stitch
    threads are removed and bundled
    pulled-thread work
    threads are pulled together and stitched
    Black work
    also known as “Spanish Work” originated in northern africa, spread to southern Spain with the Moors and onto Europe through Italy
    ties or points hold garment parts together
    Deliberate slashing
    extreme & daring fashions
    Cut slits in garments
    pulled undergarments through
    slashing and puffing
    becomes more elaborate, important feature of fashion, expensive material, doublets, tights and gowns slashed and puffed
    worn with tights/hose, from waist length to below hip, longer with a small skirt–peplum, as fashion develops, gets smaller
    doublets got shorter and shorter; bias cut leg pieces merged into one garment, closed at back-front flap, front pouch added, laced and tied with small eyelets or buttoned, tights can be parti-colored- color-blocking, tights become fuller on top
    padded for emphasis, display feature, sovereigns, sons, soldiers
    Houppelandes/ mantles/cloaks
    long or short, wide sleeves, silhouette becomes bulkier on top
    Italian men’s shoes
    weren’t as pointed as other places in Europe, became square as period progresses
    Men’s hair and hats
    bowl cut, long and straight, floppy “beret”
    Attached bodice and skirt
    tight bodice attached to full skirt, pleats or gathers at waist, lacing up front and/or side
    one piece dress
    cut in one piece from shoulder to hem, pleats or gathers with belt, fuller toward hem
    Women’s silhouette
    as time progressed, grows wider and fuller, square, wide, low neckline, wider, puff sleeves
    Head dresses
    large, round, beehive-shaped, turban-like–turkish influence
    Italian hair and accessories
    foreheads bare and high, showed more hair; had small bags and purses, pins and pendants
    Venetian women
    dressed differently, waistline just below bust (empire) softer fabrics, bleached blonde, “horn” hairstyle
    platform shoes, worn by Venetian courtesans
    Spanish Fashion Influence
    spain influences Italian Renaissance fashion, bodice becomes more rigid, straight waistline develops V in front
    Northern Renaissance
    age of exploration, discovery of new lands, brings wealth to countries, exploring and exploiting
    Development of lace
    indication of wealth, total luxury fabric, influences design; want to show off lace
    evolves in Italy and Flanders late 16th c.; sumptuary laws that restricted wearing lace- no one under rank of Knight; certain patterns
    Needle Lace
    wrapped and bundled with buttonhole stitch; stitches link motifs
    Bobbin lace
    numerous threads twisted and crossed over; never tying knots
    on 2 needles; cut and sewn, on hose, tights, gloves, hats and caps
    Egyptians used it; maintains shape on collars and ruffs, in northern renaissance: stiff and artificial looking
    used to fill out breeches, sleeves, and doublets; shredded material or straw
    peascod belly
    part of doublet; stuffed with bombast ( for a beer belly look)
    large vest; worn over doublet; sleeveless or 1/2 sleeve; heavy chain
    slashed, puffed, and parti-colored hose separate; knitted hose; trunk hose= upper part of leg; nether hose= lower part
    Bases and Breeches
    bases= pleated skirt; breeches – bifurcated
    upper stocks
    first “real breeches”; cover thigh, “panes” create fullness
    pumpkin breeches
    full, rounded; stuffed with bombast
    standard fitted breeches, last type of breeches in period
    called “slops”, working men and sailors
    Italian Men hair and accessories
    short hair because of ruff, pointed beard, duckbillshoes, fur trim
    (Italian) Busk
    inserted in gown, crushes and flattens bosom, no breasts
    triangular piece sewn to dress, V below waistline; stand straight and tall; most extreme during Elizabeth times
    Elizabeth I
    extreme; puffed, lots of jewelry, jeweled embellishment, pearls
    Split skirts
    Spanish and Italian influences; reveal petticoats underneath, leads to fuller skirt, shape needed support
    Spanish farthingale
    triangular/cone shaped; graduated rings; floor-length; wire or willow; muslim petticoat inside
    bum roll
    padded ring or bolster, metal support, underskirt or slip
    wheel farthingale
    looks like a tabletop
    elliptical farthingale
    looks like a shelf
    standing ruff
    closed ruff; hold head high up and erect
    medici collar
    open ruff; supports
    standing cape
    sheer fabric or fine lace
    Northern Renaissance headwear
    big headdresses are gone;ruffs–hair off back of neck; close to head; wooden or stiffened frame; covered with fabric, copy gothic architecture
    Baroque period
    flourishing left from renaissance, galileo, van dyke, shakespeare, over decorated, gaudy, flamboyant; England,France, Spain competing for riches in New world
    supporters of King; Aristocracy
    all people in favor of overthrowing monarchy; still wore fashions of day with moderation; less ornate and sober colors
    Early Baroque costume
    “3 Musketeers”, flamboyant with more relaxed appearance, lighter, more flowing; draping satins
    early baroque embroidery
    invention of the steel needle, baroque ornamentation, metallic threads
    Crewel Embroidery
    new cotton textiles from India; Indiennes–printed “tree of Life” motif; english crewel embroidery= wool on linen
    huge, wide; trimmed with lace
    soft ruff
    ruff loses starch; floppy
    stands away from neck; also called whisks; mostly worn by ladies
    Baroque men costume
    appear soft and pudgy; english tailoring begins; leather;doublet, cassock–vest, breeches; longer hair “van dyke” beard, lovelock on one part of hair
    cavalier hat
    wide brimmed; swooping with feathers
    gauntlet gloves
    men and women wear; heavily decorated
    indicator of early baroque, band or ribbon over shoulder and under arm, to carry sword
    Funnel boots
    wider at top(fold over) puss in boots
    boot hose
    place to show lace
    early baroque women
    fluffy and full-looking; softer skirts, petticoats show under split skirt; farthingale
    gown with 3/4 sleeve
    wrist and forearm seen; large turned-back lace cuffs; slightly raised waistline; stomacher point eventually disappears
    “a pair of stays”, achieves ideal body shape-cone; introduced from italy into france, worn by women of the french court, layered fabric, stiffened with glue-tightly laced-incorporated the busk
    Late Baroque costume
    more decoration, over ornament, excessive frilliness, re-stuffing, stiffer, pompousness, formal and fussy; ostentation
    patches of velvet, satin, taffeta or thin leather, variety of shapes and sizes, women and men wear, stylish to have 5 or 6 at once to cover smallpox scars
    small balls of wax, held in mouth/cheeks, gives face a fashionable rounded shape
    detailed silk weaving, lyons and spitafields
    ribbon loops–hem of breeches and waistline; accent clothes
    first appeared in 1670s in coats; waistcoats by end of century
    elimination of doublet, beginning of modern dress, coats have better fit; waistcoat underneath
    a fitted vest–waist to knee length, almost as long as coats, breeches only visible just below knee, sleeved or sleeveless
    short jacket and shirt
    like a bolero, shirt shows underneath, move from undergarment to apparel
    aka petticoat breeches or plunderhose, open at hem like a split skirt, “standard” breeches– a little more fitted; worn underneath
    late baroque men hair
    longer, curled hair; gets longer and fuller, wigs become popular at end of period
    one plaited strand of even longer hair, tied at the end with a small ribbon bow, one side longer than the other, mostly men, some women
    full, very curly wigs; powdered later
    dressing gown or nightgown, influenced from india; painted/printed textiles
    neckwear, long stripe of linen; edges trimmed in lace, tied 2X around neck and then large bow
    hold up stockings
    late baroque men shoes
    high heels, red heels and soles
    late baroque women costume
    resurfacing of stiff clothes; fussier, stomacher is elongated
    gown with spilt skirt
    manipulation of overskirt, drawn back like curtains; tied or pinned
    sleeved bodice with overskirt attached, fabric pulled to back
    lace cap, vertical tiered ruffles, on wire frame
    Madame de Fontage
    mistress of Louis XIV, emerged from woods with lace garter tied in hair, impacts fashion
    Rococo 1715-1760
    trade and colonization, “anglomania”, french court, trade with china and india, cotton becomes major craze
    court dress
    formal; extreme ornamentation, fashion originates with french court, adopted/interpreted in other courts and abroad
    general Rococo appearance
    lighter, pastel colors, lounging appearance, english country style, tailors and dress makers were business of garment production
    Rococo men costume
    no significant change in appearance, more streamlined, silhouette becomes slimmer over time
    Rococo coat
    cuffs getting smaller, collarless or stand up collar, rows of buttons and buttonholes-mostly decorative, coat– bulk moved backwards with pleats
    rococo waistcoat
    gets shorter, gradual change in fabric, embroidered
    rococo breeches
    button and buckle at knee, fit more closely over time,
    black ribbon around neckcloth attached in the back to the wig, wrapped around the neck, and brought to a bow in front over a cravat
    Frock Coat
    more informal with flat, turned-down collars, leather or sturdy woven cloth
    riding breeches
    tucked into boots, front “fall” or flap closure
    english riding coat
    spats or gaiters–protect the legs
    “ponytail” wigs with rolls at side
    Rococo women costume
    more flowing, shorter sleeves at elbow with lace, more cleavage, softer floral motifs
    robe volante
    loose gown cut in 1 piece
    watteau gown
    box pleats, pleats in back, two types
    a la française
    box pleats from shoulders
    a la anglaise
    pleats stitched down, fitted bodice
    “baskets”, tied around waist to look wider, formal gown, english
    worn next to body, knee length, lace trim at neckline, full, elbow-length sleeves
    cut full, varied length, some hooded
    cape with slits for arms
    fitted jacket, based on english men’s riding dress, worn with men’s hats
    rococo women accessories
    fichu, calash, embroidered pockets and shoes
    Which of the following are considered underwear?
    chemise and braies
    the first european production of silk fiber was carried out by the:
    how were married and older women distinguished from unmarried younger women in the middle ages?
    unmarried women wore their hair loose and uncovered
    the development of long, pointed-toed shoes in the 12th century was:
    influenced by a local count wanted to hide his bunions
    only men of the byzantine empire were permitted to wear the paludamentum
    the long, narrow, heavily jeweled scarf worn by the byzantine emperor was:
    all of the above
    one of the most important elements of byzantine costume was:
    among the influences on medieval european life and costume that resulted from the crusades were:
    all of the above
    as all classes of society wore clothing cut in similar ways in the 10th and 11th centuries, class distinctions were evident in:
    tunic length and tunic decoration
    cotton was the fabric most used by poor people during the middle ages
    a houppelande and a cotehardie are outer garments worn by:
    men or women
    the pourpoint:
    all of the above
    various authors define the cotehardie in different ways, however they all agree that it was worn only by the clergy
    during the 14th and 15th centuries styles for men and women began to change much more rapidly than had been the case in earlier centuries
    the costume of students of the middle ages served as the basis for modern academic gowns
    the custom of buttoning men’s coats from the left over the right probably originated from the construction of medieval plate armor
    the use of sections of different colored fabrics in one garment:
    all of the above
    what was a chaperon with a liripipe?
    a hood with a long narrow tube of fabric at the back that was attached to a short cape
    the 15th century jacket was worn with:
    the custom of wearing black as a sign of mooring was not yet established in the medieval period
    among the developments of the renaissance that continue in use in present-day life include:
    all of the above
    evidence of influence of italian trade with the East during the renaissance is to be seen in
    the popularity of turban-like headdresses for italian women & the designs in some woven italian textiles
    tailoring skills were refined during the 14th century once the making of ___ was mastered
    buttoned closures
    the word “choppiness
    high, platform-soled shoes
    by 1500, the___ had become a very obvious feature of men’s clothing
    the word camica in italian refers to:
    a man’s shirt & a woman’s chemise
    among the distinctive characteristics of the dress of venetian women reported by foreign visitors in the 16th century were:
    all of the above
    a ferrionniere was:
    a chain of metal or pearls worn across the forehead with a jeweled decoration located at the center of the forehead
    in order to allow the arm to move easily when jacket sleeves of the italian renaissance were cut very tightly, tailors left seams open and the white of the shirt underneath was visible
    italian styles for men in the 16th century were very much influenced by:
    french styles & spanish styles
    which garment is called a conch?
    sheer, gauze-like veils worn cape-like over the shoulders, with a high, standing collar behind the head
    intermarriage among members of royal families from different parts of europe helped to spread fashions from one region to another
    a skirted extension of men’s jackets, either attached or a separate garment are:
    which of the following were called braies in the medieval period?
    the slashes decorations with contrasting fabric linings underneath are supposed to have originated:
    with the swiss army
    a pad worn around the waist to hold out wide skirts is called a:
    bum roll
    the material used for stuffing trunk hose and doublets to achieve a fashionable silhouette in the 16th century was called, in england
    spain became a major influence in both politics and fashions in the 16th century because:
    it gained enormous wealth as a result of columbus’ voyage to the new world
    the development of the fashion for wide, stiff neck ruffs came about, in part, because:
    skills for making lace developed rapidly during the 16th century
    italian influence in style were brought to france by:
    catherine de Medici and italian who married a french king & the french invasions of italy
    the puritans who settled in massachusetts in the 1600s wore restrained and simple styles, but did not wear clothing that was radically different in other respects from the clothing of other english people of their time
    fashion was especially important at the court of Louis XIV of france because the king wanted to keep his courtiers occupied with fashion and etiquette so that they would have neither the time nor the money to plot against him
    the availability and interest in cotton fabrics that grew rapidly in europe and america in the 17th and 18th centuries was a result of:
    the expansion of trade with india
    in which country did members of the royal family continue to wear a farthingale-like garment well into the 17th century even though the style had been abandoned in the rest of europe
    it was in the textile industry that first effects of the industrial revolution were felt
    methods of communicating fashion information to consumers of the 18th century included:
    Engraved drawings of fashions
    Fashion dolls dressed in the latest styles
    Advertisements from firms selling fashion items
    all of the above
    which of the following were not devices used in the 17th century in attempts to have a well-groomed appearance?
    tweezers to pluck out hair around the forehead to have a fashionably high forehead
    during the 17th century in costume for men, the trunk hose worn over the lower part of the body were replaced by a garment called:
    what was the name in france for the elaborate style of headdress known as a commode in england?
    which of the following styles are thought to have been derived from middle eastern styles?
    the manteau & the vest
    by the 18th century, the practice of having male tailors make men’s suits and coats and women make dresses for women was well established
    the mistress of King Louis XV of france who was influential not only in politics, but especially in the fine and decorative arts was:
    madame pompadour
    a style of wearing the cravat that was named after a battle is:
    which of the following would have been working class clothing during the 18th century?
    short gowns & smocks
    examples of asian and middle eastern influences on styles in costume during the 18th century would include:
    some of the prints&designs in textiles, men’s dressing gown styles, mantua-style gowns for women
    all of the above
    ribbons used to decorate the fronts of bodices were called
    how might a man of modest means in the 18th century acquire his clothing?
    purchase used clothing, join a “breeches club” save enough money over a period of several years
    the lower prices and increases in availability of cotton fabrics in the 1800s were a result of:
    improvements in the technology for spinning cotton yarns
    if a young englishman of the 18th century referred to his uncle as “square toes” he would mean that:
    his uncle was old fashioned
    which of the following describes the styles in men’s clothing that predominated in the first half of the 18th century?
    breeches cut full through the seat, full-skirted outer coats, waistcoats that were almost as long as the outer coat

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