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History of Costume exam 2

clothing closely tied to religion, more culture contact, attention to appearance
Early western europe overview
utilitarian, little culture contact, little attention to appearance, women’s dress becomes more fitted
Byzantine empire influences on costume
cross-cultural exchange, early christianity, Byzantine emperor and empress, sericulture

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chinese monopoly on silk production for 2500 years, emperor justinian and empress theodora, 552 AD monks & hollow cane–silkworms and mulberry tree seeds, held secret until 12th c., silk is possession of byzantine court and church
Cross-cultural exchange
constantinople is a seaport city, crossroads of major trade routes to Europe, China, Russia, Japan, Africa; silk, pearls, fur diamonds, dyes & spices; layering, pearls, rich-looking
Early Christianity
eastern church separated from west, rome was considered pagan, iconoclasm, christian motifs on clothing and jewelry
destruction and rejection of images
Byzantine Costume
heavily embellished; embroidery and complicated weaving; could be symbolic
rectangular or circular
on shoulders
liturgical garments, chausable, clothing is shapeless, to obscure the sinful body, stiff and artificial looking, no longer soft draping
Liturgical garment
worn by priests; distinctive to church
sleeveless cape
Byzantine Empire
emperor has divine right, colors and clothes exclusive, sumptuary laws
Empress Theodora
influence on costume,actress & dancer; picked from beauty contest, theatrical, dramatic
large cloak, replaces toga as men’s outer wrap, restrict decoration &color, not wrapped–closed with brooch, the only women who can wear this is the empress
rectangular patch; embroidered, attached to paludamentum, could be religious stories
embroidered and wrapped around body, important part of sacred dress; remains of toga
Tunica tolaris
men & women can wear, basic garment; fastened on shoulders, tight sleeved; long under shorter with full sleeve
over tunic with larger sleeves worn by men
big, high socks, woven &cut on bias, attached to belt worn by men
Early western europe 476-1100 AD
“dark ages”, beginning of crusades, roman empire has broken down, towns get smaller, lack of roads, increased isolation, monasteries
class rankings
feudal system: imbalance of power and money, famine, disease, poverty; serfs: wore coarse linen and wool; Nobles: import sumptuous silk fabrics from byzantine empire; barbarians: constant movement of tribes– germanic tribes, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, hides, skins, straps on legs
Early Western costume
identify women by headwear, men by leg wear
layers, tight sleeves, ankle length, laces up back, getting away from calling tunic worn by women
same as gowns, but shorter with larger sleeves worn by women
worn by women nobles , way to show wealth, upper torso of gown is fitted, more revealing, laces ip sides, excess fabric–full skirt with puddles; wide hanging sleeve
head scarf gentle wrap, *most important feature of women’s costume*
overgarment; closed with brooch like paludamentum
long braids
worn by women often with ribbon
worn by men, lengths are varied; start long, end short
worn by men, attached to mantle or separate
simplistic, pointed toes; straights( no left or right)
worn by men,underwear; fitted or saggy
worn by men, ankle length; tied at waist with drawstring
wool or linen; cut on bias,
Hosa: attached to girdle or waistband
socks: shorter
hose/shoe combo (like slipper socks)
hold all together; leather and cloth strips
worn by men, sleeveless poncho; open on sides
closed on sides; often lined with fur
Gothic 1100-1400 AD
active and creative time, growth in prosperity, crusades had big influence on costume in europe: new textiles, designs, patterns, sucrose, pourpoint, heraldic emblems, renewed interest in arts and literature
Heraldic Emblems
motifs identify allegiance, come from crusades, Ex. Fleur de Lis
Feudalism declines
national government develop, trade and commercial life revive, cities and towns grow
Middle class begins
merchants and craftsmen, guild system, apprentices
Growth of Middle Class
new group has money, want luxury goods, new sumptuary laws, effort to prohibit merchants
develop near end of period, first decorative then functional, clothes can be better shaped and fit
Cult of Chivalry
change in view of ideal beauty, from men to women, veneration of women
Gothic costume
differentiation of men’s and women’s dress, men’s tunics are shorter, women’s long &puddled; identified by layers and decorative elements
very pointed shoes, signifier of class status, regulated by sumptuary law
funny, full-fabric hat, fullness shows wealth
Suspended purse
hung from belt, held bible, scissors, sewing implements,etc
sleeves with scalloped edges
streamer off hood
ribbons of sleeves
worn by men, shirt to top of thigh, low hung belt; worn by women, well fitted one piece dress; flaring skirt that puddles, tight long sleeves; boat neckline
huge robe, overgarment worn by both men and women
from crusades, fitted quilted shirt, worn under armor, has cushion, shorter and tighter than cotehardie with hose attached worn by men
like a “baby” bonnet, tied under chin, worn by working men
Sideless gown
sleeveless jumper, side seams partially sewn, worn over cotehardie, lined with fur worn by women
worn by women over hair
net over hair braids, on the back of the head worn by women
net over hair braids, on sides of the head worn by women
Women’s neckwear
was the most important feature of women’s dress, pieces of linen wrapped around throat and chin, symbol of “good” women, all classes wore them, wimple(looks like nun neck cover), gorget, barbette
Early Renaissance 1400-1485 AD
begins in Italy, rich textiles and silk are symbol of prestige
Printing Press
helped spread design information, pattern books, cataloging of patterns and “oriental” motifs
Centers of Fashion
trade, mercantilism, money, power; Flaunders and Florence
court of burgundy, gothic extreme, rich fabrics and fur trim
Ideals of Beauty
veneration of women, Virgin Mary was an important symbol, plucked hairline, high forehead, shaved eyebrows
Early Renaissance Women
“pregnant stance”–small bags of padding under costume
Early Renaissance Men
top heavy–shoulders padded to increase body width
Early Renaissance costume
influenced by war, organ pipe pleats, bag sleeves, hooks and eyes houpplande
elevated waist, close fitting bodice (start of corset), busk, deep V neckline, tight fitting sleeves, skirt hangs in folds, long trains worn by women
wood or whalebone–inserted in bodice
décolletage filled with piece of fabric
came to indicate status, length regulated by sumptuary laws
worn by men and women, fit snugly with buckled straps: dirty streets
Early Renaissance headwear
abandonment of neck wraps, now only worn by nuns and widows
Works of fantasy
wire or willow frame, hair is usually covered, veil draped over–decorative attraction
wire structure for hair, looks like horns
padded heart hairstyle for women
women’s hairstyle that looks like steeple or truncated cone; pointed
padded turban, bulbous hairstyle worn by women
short jacket with pleated short skirt, full sleeves, evolves when pour point is shortened, hose joined into tights worn by men
Accessories for men
chaperone, sugarloaf hat/toque( hat), krackowes
worn by men, ankle length; tied at waist with drawstring
Italian Renaissance 1400-1600
Cities with rich, powerful families; wealthy merchants(originate and control fashion) rich textiles and silk production
Medici Family
bankers & rich, new style–artistic and cultural outlook; plundered expensive fabrics, cut up & patched clothes led to “slashing and puffing”
worn next to skin, undergarment; camica- shirt for men area to show embellishment; chemise- “gown” for women; plain weave linen, coarse for lower-class and fine, soft for upper class; gusset under sleeve, peeks out from under doublet, visible at edges or openings
whitework, redwork and blackwork
“white on white” embroidery
raw edges covered with buttonhole stitch
threads are removed and bundled
pulled-thread work
threads are pulled together and stitched
Black work
also known as “Spanish Work” originated in northern africa, spread to southern Spain with the Moors and onto Europe through Italy
ties or points hold garment parts together
Deliberate slashing
extreme & daring fashions
Cut slits in garments
pulled undergarments through
slashing and puffing
becomes more elaborate, important feature of fashion, expensive material, doublets, tights and gowns slashed and puffed
worn with tights/hose, from waist length to below hip, longer with a small skirt–peplum, as fashion develops, gets smaller
doublets got shorter and shorter; bias cut leg pieces merged into one garment, closed at back-front flap, front pouch added, laced and tied with small eyelets or buttoned, tights can be parti-colored- color-blocking, tights become fuller on top
padded for emphasis, display feature, sovereigns, sons, soldiers
Houppelandes/ mantles/cloaks
long or short, wide sleeves, silhouette becomes bulkier on top
Italian men’s shoes
weren’t as pointed as other places in Europe, became square as period progresses
Men’s hair and hats
bowl cut, long and straight, floppy “beret”
Attached bodice and skirt
tight bodice attached to full skirt, pleats or gathers at waist, lacing up front and/or side
one piece dress
cut in one piece from shoulder to hem, pleats or gathers with belt, fuller toward hem
Women’s silhouette
as time progressed, grows wider and fuller, square, wide, low neckline, wider, puff sleeves
Head dresses
large, round, beehive-shaped, turban-like–turkish influence
Italian hair and accessories
foreheads bare and high, showed more hair; had small bags and purses, pins and pendants
Venetian women
dressed differently, waistline just below bust (empire) softer fabrics, bleached blonde, “horn” hairstyle
platform shoes, worn by Venetian courtesans
Spanish Fashion Influence
spain influences Italian Renaissance fashion, bodice becomes more rigid, straight waistline develops V in front
Northern Renaissance
age of exploration, discovery of new lands, brings wealth to countries, exploring and exploiting
Development of lace
indication of wealth, total luxury fabric, influences design; want to show off lace
evolves in Italy and Flanders late 16th c.; sumptuary laws that restricted wearing lace- no one under rank of Knight; certain patterns
Needle Lace
wrapped and bundled with buttonhole stitch; stitches link motifs
Bobbin lace
numerous threads twisted and crossed over; never tying knots
on 2 needles; cut and sewn, on hose, tights, gloves, hats and caps
Egyptians used it; maintains shape on collars and ruffs, in northern renaissance: stiff and artificial looking
used to fill out breeches, sleeves, and doublets; shredded material or straw
peascod belly
part of doublet; stuffed with bombast ( for a beer belly look)
large vest; worn over doublet; sleeveless or 1/2 sleeve; heavy chain
slashed, puffed, and parti-colored hose separate; knitted hose; trunk hose= upper part of leg; nether hose= lower part
Bases and Breeches
bases= pleated skirt; breeches – bifurcated
upper stocks
first “real breeches”; cover thigh, “panes” create fullness
pumpkin breeches
full, rounded; stuffed with bombast
standard fitted breeches, last type of breeches in period
called “slops”, working men and sailors
Italian Men hair and accessories
short hair because of ruff, pointed beard, duckbillshoes, fur trim
(Italian) Busk
inserted in gown, crushes and flattens bosom, no breasts
triangular piece sewn to dress, V below waistline; stand straight and tall; most extreme during Elizabeth times
Elizabeth I
extreme; puffed, lots of jewelry, jeweled embellishment, pearls
Split skirts
Spanish and Italian influences; reveal petticoats underneath, leads to fuller skirt, shape needed support
Spanish farthingale
triangular/cone shaped; graduated rings; floor-length; wire or willow; muslim petticoat inside
bum roll
padded ring or bolster, metal support, underskirt or slip
wheel farthingale
looks like a tabletop
elliptical farthingale
looks like a shelf
standing ruff
closed ruff; hold head high up and erect
medici collar
open ruff; supports
standing cape
sheer fabric or fine lace
Northern Renaissance headwear
big headdresses are gone;ruffs–hair off back of neck; close to head; wooden or stiffened frame; covered with fabric, copy gothic architecture
Baroque period
flourishing left from renaissance, galileo, van dyke, shakespeare, over decorated, gaudy, flamboyant; England,France, Spain competing for riches in New world
supporters of King; Aristocracy
all people in favor of overthrowing monarchy; still wore fashions of day with moderation; less ornate and sober colors
Early Baroque costume
“3 Musketeers”, flamboyant with more relaxed appearance, lighter, more flowing; draping satins
early baroque embroidery
invention of the steel needle, baroque ornamentation, metallic threads
Crewel Embroidery
new cotton textiles from India; Indiennes–printed “tree of Life” motif; english crewel embroidery= wool on linen
huge, wide; trimmed with lace
soft ruff
ruff loses starch; floppy
stands away from neck; also called whisks; mostly worn by ladies
Baroque men costume
appear soft and pudgy; english tailoring begins; leather;doublet, cassock–vest, breeches; longer hair “van dyke” beard, lovelock on one part of hair
cavalier hat
wide brimmed; swooping with feathers
gauntlet gloves
men and women wear; heavily decorated
indicator of early baroque, band or ribbon over shoulder and under arm, to carry sword
Funnel boots
wider at top(fold over) puss in boots
boot hose
place to show lace
early baroque women
fluffy and full-looking; softer skirts, petticoats show under split skirt; farthingale
gown with 3/4 sleeve
wrist and forearm seen; large turned-back lace cuffs; slightly raised waistline; stomacher point eventually disappears
“a pair of stays”, achieves ideal body shape-cone; introduced from italy into france, worn by women of the french court, layered fabric, stiffened with glue-tightly laced-incorporated the busk
Late Baroque costume
more decoration, over ornament, excessive frilliness, re-stuffing, stiffer, pompousness, formal and fussy; ostentation
patches of velvet, satin, taffeta or thin leather, variety of shapes and sizes, women and men wear, stylish to have 5 or 6 at once to cover smallpox scars
small balls of wax, held in mouth/cheeks, gives face a fashionable rounded shape
detailed silk weaving, lyons and spitafields
ribbon loops–hem of breeches and waistline; accent clothes
first appeared in 1670s in coats; waistcoats by end of century
elimination of doublet, beginning of modern dress, coats have better fit; waistcoat underneath
a fitted vest–waist to knee length, almost as long as coats, breeches only visible just below knee, sleeved or sleeveless
short jacket and shirt
like a bolero, shirt shows underneath, move from undergarment to apparel
aka petticoat breeches or plunderhose, open at hem like a split skirt, “standard” breeches– a little more fitted; worn underneath
late baroque men hair
longer, curled hair; gets longer and fuller, wigs become popular at end of period
one plaited strand of even longer hair, tied at the end with a small ribbon bow, one side longer than the other, mostly men, some women
full, very curly wigs; powdered later
dressing gown or nightgown, influenced from india; painted/printed textiles
neckwear, long stripe of linen; edges trimmed in lace, tied 2X around neck and then large bow
hold up stockings
late baroque men shoes
high heels, red heels and soles
late baroque women costume
resurfacing of stiff clothes; fussier, stomacher is elongated
gown with spilt skirt
manipulation of overskirt, drawn back like curtains; tied or pinned
sleeved bodice with overskirt attached, fabric pulled to back
lace cap, vertical tiered ruffles, on wire frame
Madame de Fontage
mistress of Louis XIV, emerged from woods with lace garter tied in hair, impacts fashion
Rococo 1715-1760
trade and colonization, “anglomania”, french court, trade with china and india, cotton becomes major craze
court dress
formal; extreme ornamentation, fashion originates with french court, adopted/interpreted in other courts and abroad
general Rococo appearance
lighter, pastel colors, lounging appearance, english country style, tailors and dress makers were business of garment production
Rococo men costume
no significant change in appearance, more streamlined, silhouette becomes slimmer over time
Rococo coat
cuffs getting smaller, collarless or stand up collar, rows of buttons and buttonholes-mostly decorative, coat– bulk moved backwards with pleats
rococo waistcoat
gets shorter, gradual change in fabric, embroidered
rococo breeches
button and buckle at knee, fit more closely over time,
black ribbon around neckcloth attached in the back to the wig, wrapped around the neck, and brought to a bow in front over a cravat
Frock Coat
more informal with flat, turned-down collars, leather or sturdy woven cloth
riding breeches
tucked into boots, front “fall” or flap closure
english riding coat
spats or gaiters–protect the legs
“ponytail” wigs with rolls at side
Rococo women costume
more flowing, shorter sleeves at elbow with lace, more cleavage, softer floral motifs
robe volante
loose gown cut in 1 piece
watteau gown
box pleats, pleats in back, two types
a la française
box pleats from shoulders
a la anglaise
pleats stitched down, fitted bodice
“baskets”, tied around waist to look wider, formal gown, english
worn next to body, knee length, lace trim at neckline, full, elbow-length sleeves
cut full, varied length, some hooded
cape with slits for arms
fitted jacket, based on english men’s riding dress, worn with men’s hats
rococo women accessories
fichu, calash, embroidered pockets and shoes
Which of the following are considered underwear?
chemise and braies
the first european production of silk fiber was carried out by the:
how were married and older women distinguished from unmarried younger women in the middle ages?
unmarried women wore their hair loose and uncovered
the development of long, pointed-toed shoes in the 12th century was:
influenced by a local count wanted to hide his bunions
only men of the byzantine empire were permitted to wear the paludamentum
the long, narrow, heavily jeweled scarf worn by the byzantine emperor was:
all of the above
one of the most important elements of byzantine costume was:
among the influences on medieval european life and costume that resulted from the crusades were:
all of the above
as all classes of society wore clothing cut in similar ways in the 10th and 11th centuries, class distinctions were evident in:
tunic length and tunic decoration
cotton was the fabric most used by poor people during the middle ages
a houppelande and a cotehardie are outer garments worn by:
men or women
the pourpoint:
all of the above
various authors define the cotehardie in different ways, however they all agree that it was worn only by the clergy
during the 14th and 15th centuries styles for men and women began to change much more rapidly than had been the case in earlier centuries
the costume of students of the middle ages served as the basis for modern academic gowns
the custom of buttoning men’s coats from the left over the right probably originated from the construction of medieval plate armor
the use of sections of different colored fabrics in one garment:
all of the above
what was a chaperon with a liripipe?
a hood with a long narrow tube of fabric at the back that was attached to a short cape
the 15th century jacket was worn with:
the custom of wearing black as a sign of mooring was not yet established in the medieval period
among the developments of the renaissance that continue in use in present-day life include:
all of the above
evidence of influence of italian trade with the East during the renaissance is to be seen in
the popularity of turban-like headdresses for italian women & the designs in some woven italian textiles
tailoring skills were refined during the 14th century once the making of ___ was mastered
buttoned closures
the word “choppiness
high, platform-soled shoes
by 1500, the___ had become a very obvious feature of men’s clothing
the word camica in italian refers to:
a man’s shirt & a woman’s chemise
among the distinctive characteristics of the dress of venetian women reported by foreign visitors in the 16th century were:
all of the above
a ferrionniere was:
a chain of metal or pearls worn across the forehead with a jeweled decoration located at the center of the forehead
in order to allow the arm to move easily when jacket sleeves of the italian renaissance were cut very tightly, tailors left seams open and the white of the shirt underneath was visible
italian styles for men in the 16th century were very much influenced by:
french styles & spanish styles
which garment is called a conch?
sheer, gauze-like veils worn cape-like over the shoulders, with a high, standing collar behind the head
intermarriage among members of royal families from different parts of europe helped to spread fashions from one region to another
a skirted extension of men’s jackets, either attached or a separate garment are:
which of the following were called braies in the medieval period?
the slashes decorations with contrasting fabric linings underneath are supposed to have originated:
with the swiss army
a pad worn around the waist to hold out wide skirts is called a:
bum roll
the material used for stuffing trunk hose and doublets to achieve a fashionable silhouette in the 16th century was called, in england
spain became a major influence in both politics and fashions in the 16th century because:
it gained enormous wealth as a result of columbus’ voyage to the new world
the development of the fashion for wide, stiff neck ruffs came about, in part, because:
skills for making lace developed rapidly during the 16th century
italian influence in style were brought to france by:
catherine de Medici and italian who married a french king & the french invasions of italy
the puritans who settled in massachusetts in the 1600s wore restrained and simple styles, but did not wear clothing that was radically different in other respects from the clothing of other english people of their time
fashion was especially important at the court of Louis XIV of france because the king wanted to keep his courtiers occupied with fashion and etiquette so that they would have neither the time nor the money to plot against him
the availability and interest in cotton fabrics that grew rapidly in europe and america in the 17th and 18th centuries was a result of:
the expansion of trade with india
in which country did members of the royal family continue to wear a farthingale-like garment well into the 17th century even though the style had been abandoned in the rest of europe
it was in the textile industry that first effects of the industrial revolution were felt
methods of communicating fashion information to consumers of the 18th century included:
Engraved drawings of fashions
Fashion dolls dressed in the latest styles
Advertisements from firms selling fashion items
all of the above
which of the following were not devices used in the 17th century in attempts to have a well-groomed appearance?
tweezers to pluck out hair around the forehead to have a fashionably high forehead
during the 17th century in costume for men, the trunk hose worn over the lower part of the body were replaced by a garment called:
what was the name in france for the elaborate style of headdress known as a commode in england?
which of the following styles are thought to have been derived from middle eastern styles?
the manteau & the vest
by the 18th century, the practice of having male tailors make men’s suits and coats and women make dresses for women was well established
the mistress of King Louis XV of france who was influential not only in politics, but especially in the fine and decorative arts was:
madame pompadour
a style of wearing the cravat that was named after a battle is:
which of the following would have been working class clothing during the 18th century?
short gowns & smocks
examples of asian and middle eastern influences on styles in costume during the 18th century would include:
some of the prints&designs in textiles, men’s dressing gown styles, mantua-style gowns for women
all of the above
ribbons used to decorate the fronts of bodices were called
how might a man of modest means in the 18th century acquire his clothing?
purchase used clothing, join a “breeches club” save enough money over a period of several years
the lower prices and increases in availability of cotton fabrics in the 1800s were a result of:
improvements in the technology for spinning cotton yarns
if a young englishman of the 18th century referred to his uncle as “square toes” he would mean that:
his uncle was old fashioned
which of the following describes the styles in men’s clothing that predominated in the first half of the 18th century?
breeches cut full through the seat, full-skirted outer coats, waistcoats that were almost as long as the outer coat

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History of Costume exam 2
Byzantine clothing closely tied to religion, more culture contact, attention to appearance Early western europe overview utilitarian, little culture contact, little atte
2021-02-24 03:20:13
History of Costume exam 2
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