Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Brocade
A richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks enriched or not by gold and silver threads.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Fabric’s motifs
The most common decorative motifs for Renaissance fabrics were the artichoke, the pomegranate, and the pine cone.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Attached Sleeves
The left sleeve was the most expensive because the precious decoration were on it.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Funghetto
A mushroom shape headdress.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Calcagnini/Chopine/Pianelle
Extremely high slippers. Look in the notes for picture.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Zimarra/Roba
It is an outer garment like a jacket with long bodice. Made out of velvet, silk or even brocade. Inspired by the Turkish Caftan. (Look in PPT for picture)
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Sottana
Petticoat, combination of bodice, skirt, and sleeves.
Ex: Cosimo I de’ Medici’s coronation outfit.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Beretta
A type of hat that was made out of velvet, embellished with jewels and medals. (Look in PPT for picture)
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Skirt understructure
Spanish- Vertugado, bell-shape, Falda- Italy. Farthingale- England.
French farthingale have a barrel shape.
Made out of bombast, cane, or rope and kept together by stiff hoops.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Calzoni alla galeotta
Pants worn under the skirt by women as a type of underwear. Only prostitute wear pants.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Giuppione
Male garment used by women. It was worn over the petticoat.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Accessories
Shoes: lost the tip and female slippers became extravagant
Gloves: were perfumed, decorated with jewels and sometimes cut to show the rings
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Bia de Medici’s painting
She is shown wearing a one piece called Gamurrino.
Renaissance Costume in Italy (1500s)- Catherina de Medici
The colarette was invented by Catherina de Medici as a compromise opening front collar to allow comfort and ease. It look like a moon crescent collar at the back of a dress.
Spain’s influence on Italian costume
One of the most important thing in Italian fashion was Spain’s influence. Rigid and dark color, very lavish.
Spain’s influence on Italian costume- Balzo
It was a headcovers and hairdress. It could be enriched with jewels, made of gold , silver and precious stones, and with cameo. The 1500s balzo was flatter than the 1400s balzo. (Look at PPT for picture)
Spain’s influence on Italian costume- Farsetto
Made out of leather, have space for a prominent belly. It shows virility. Male garment from the 16th century.
(Look in PPT for picture)
Spain’s influence on Italian costume- Elements of Spain’s fashion
Rigid bustier, high ruff and vertugado.
Movie about Elizabeth I- Men’s apparel
They wore farsetto from the Spain’s ambassador to the queen lover’s Robert Dudley.
Movie about Elizabeth I- The queen’s personal looks
Most of her outfits had the Spanish high ruff and rigid bustier. She also wore gowns with the crescent colarette that Catherina de Medici created. The gowns were heavily embellished with many popular motifs like artichoke and pine cones. Finally the movie also shown her wearing different wigs as part of the looks, but historically she wore wigs because she was balding.
Movie about Elizabeth I- Additional note
She also created a compromise to the ruff like Catherina de Medici and Anne of Austria.
16th century in Italy
Toward the end of the century men always carry a sword as an accessories. Emphasizing the foot in wardrobe also became popular.
17th century in Italy
The 17th century was the century of male vanity such as longer hair, mustaches, and painted goatee.Spain influenced the male’s attire at this time. It was also the period where Italy lost its power and Rome emerged as the new attraction due to it architecture and artisan.
17th century male garments in Italy- Common men’s apparel
Consisted of the jerkin, waistcoat, flat collar, large brimmed hats, and trousers.
Jerkin: Known as a sleeveless vest, flare out at the bottom. Made out of felted wool.
Doublet: Another sort of jacket worn underneath the jerkin.
All’Italiana: Flat collar, made out of silk brocade or lace. Often seen on coat or cape.
Trousers became longer.
17th century in Italy- Caravaggio
First artist to attract commoner.
Painting “Common People”- Showed the woman wearing a white shirt with decorated collar band and mantle on top of it.
17th century in Italy- Women’s status
Women was not considered for education, only for taking care of the children and the house. They were not allow to do anything that men do. Health wise the condition was bad, a woman in that time was always at risk for death when giving birth.
17th century- Holland
While everyone in Europe abandoned the ruff, this trend continued and became bigger.
17th century in France- Louis the 13th
He designed a sort of attire, particularly a jacket for the member of the court.
17th century in France- Anne of Austria
Wife of Louis the 13th. She also made alteration to the ruff to make it more comfortable. The ruff flare out and its tips are pointed. (Look in PPT or notes for pictures)
17th century in France- Cardinal Richelieu
Prime Minister of France. He curb the luxury since France seem to be spending too much money on fabric imports. He created sumptuary laws specifying what the commoner could wear and reserved luxuries for the nobles and the king.
17th century in France- Cardinal Mazorin
He issued sumptuary laws in 1644 for the common people. They were not allowed to wear luxury materials.
17th century in France ideal
Wardrobe also stress the important of a man’s legs.
The first 2 decades of the century male and female attire remain the same, but it change afterward as women clothes started to lost rigidity. The ruff disappear and replaced by flat lace collar.
17th century in France- Male attires
Longer pants, cape, and high dome hats with large brimmed. Boots were also popular.
17th century in France- Louis the 14th
Moved to Versailles in 1682. He started the idea of seasonal clothing and French fashion. He was the first to wear high heels; shoes with red heels and bows were reserved only for the king and the courtier, called Talon Rouge. The red color was obtained from cochineal, which was a type of beetle from Mexico.
17th century in France- Male attires for the upper class
Col rabat – enormous laced collar. Rhingrave – A type of skirt/pants, invented by Count Rhin; it served as an example of the ridiculous evolution of male pants that got bigger over time. Both garments were popular from 1660-1678. (Look at PPT for picture)
End of the 17th century- Women’s attire
It became more rigid with a particular shape. However, it still consisted of three main elements: the bodice, petticoat, and gown.
Chopines- Popular high slippers
1670-1715 in France- Male attires
Male garment remained typical until the French Revolution.
The Justacorp- A tight fitting long male coat with long sleeves.
The Gilet- Vest.
The Coulotte- Tights pants.
Flare out cuffs
Pockets on the Justacorp serve as decoration that emphasize the importance of male attire.
1670-1715 in France- Male attires, Brandenburgs
Lace decorations, it can also be in gold/silver thread, usually added to the front of the jacket.
1670-1715 in France- Male attires, Tricorne
Hats with large brimmed that are folded up. (Look in PPT for picture)
18th century in France- Women’s hairstyle
A la fontanage- curly on top and curly ponytail on the bottom.
Pouf- A hairstyle that have a cage as an under-structure to support its heights and volumes. Within the cage was a small saucer filled with blood and honey in the center to keep the bugs in the hair. (look in PPT for picture).
Sometimes the different hair styles can be as big and tall as 27 inches and were often full of parasites.
Leonard Autte/Gascon was a famous and innovative hairdresser that created many extreme hairstyles for the women of the court.
18th century costume in France- Regency period from 1715-1723
Louis the 15th obtained regency in 1715 at the age of 5.
Antoine Wateau painted many aristocrats, epspecially women, wearing a certain dress called Wateau gown, a loose sack or dress, worn over a tight bodice and very full underskirt (look in PPT for picture)
18th century women’s costume in France- Panier a coudes
A skirt under-structure that create huge volume on the side of the gown. Literally two baskets on the side of the gown. Later it material was altered from whale bones to metal hinges that allow women to pull up their skirts. Popular and peeked during Marie Antoinette period (1730-1770) (Look in PPT for picture)
18th century women’s costume in France- Fichu
A scarf, edged with lace, tied around the neck. It was made out of light cotton and muslin; usually in white. It fitted in with Marie Antoinette’s natural style period. (Look in PPT for picture)
18th century women’s costume in France- Robe a la Francaise or Adrienne
Official garment worn by women of the court. It’s very formal. Contained the panier a coudes as skirt under-structure. (Look in PPT for picture)
18th century women’s costume in France- Robe a la Pollonaise
Unlike the Francaise it was a dress that draped through the use of drawstrings to create more volume in the back of the gown and made it easier to walk. The interior part were made of 3 layers of fabric. It was similar to the polished national costumes.
18th century men’s costumes in France- Habit a la francaise
Male official court dress. Include the Justacorp, Gillet, and Coulottes.
18th century women’s costume in France- Redingote
A riding coat that became the inspiration for the modern trench coat.
18th century women’s costume in France- A la marlborough
A type of hat imported from England usually decorated with white feathers.
18th century women’s costume in France- Bonnets
A type of head cover to keep the hairstyle together.
18th century women’s costume in France- Corsets
16th century version- Breast were cover up.
18th century version- Breast were prominent and they were made out of whale bones.
Another name for her style was called Rococo. The main pattern for the fabric was branches of flower and the colors were pastel. She was the first women to take frequent bath. Unusual for that time period.
Marie Antoinette- Petit Trianon
After giving birth, she wanted a simpler lifestyle, thus the small house was where she often spent time to relax
Marie Antoinette- What inspired her natural Style
Inspired by the Roman and Greeks’ antiquity and the Enlightenment philosophy.
Marie Antoinette- Chemise a la Reine
The dress that was inspired by her natural style. It has ruffle neckline, colored ribbon at waist and straw hat.
First fashion designer. Her store was called Grand Mogoul.
Vehicles of the 18th century to spread trends: Pandora dolls
Wooden dolls dressed like the ladies of the court and Marie Antoinette.
Vehicles of the 18th century to spread trends: Magazines
During the 18th century, renovations in fashion and costumes ignited. Sketches from fashion magazines help elevate the fashion elements throughout Europe.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: Marie Antoinette’s influence of simple taste
France was experiencing a bad economy, people no longer interested in keeping up with the elaborate details of dressings. Thus, her new sense of style that emits comforts and calmness fit in with the social atmosphere of the time.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: Penetration of male and female costume
Both genders went for a simpler and more modern style. This was particularly focused in England.
In England, the habit a la francaise was altered. The French male attire lose its decorations in jackets, shorter vests, longer pants, no lace, flap collar came into use, and button became more functional.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: The economical crisis and the Revolution in France
Connected both to the state of internal finances, where the population lived in the most terrible poverty and the court in an unrestrained luxury; thus, it lead to an external collapse of the court and the people’s rebellion.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: Enlightenment philosophy
J.J Rouseau’s Noble Sauvage theory.
Led people to search for a new contact with nature and to a greater personal hygiene. Going away from the fancy style of dress, because it was view as corruptions.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: Wide spread of interest in Eastern costumes and practices
People like the comfort of this trend.
Factors that lead to permanent fashion changes in the late 1700s: Rising interest in the ancient Greek and Roman’s culture and style.
Due to the discoveries of the lost cities and towns such as Pompeii and Herculaneum in the mid 18th century the peoples started to gain interest in the light and softness from drawing and light colors of the antiquity. In 79 A.D Vesuvius erupted.
Date- July 14th, 1789. Royal family members were later captured and beheaded.
Costume of the French Revolution- The peoples
Sans- Coulotte- Members of the French Revolution that wore long pants.
Muscardins- Stylish people who use certain garment to show their opposition to the Revolution.
Incroyable (Male), Merveilleuse (Female)- Young rich peoples, who love lavish costume, and against the Revolution.
Costume of the French Revolution- Phrygian hat
A hat used by peasants coming from Phrygia. Later it was used by Roman slaves who regained their freedom. During the French Revolution it was used as a symbol of freedom. Made out of sheep skin.
Costume of the French Revolution- Accessories
Cockade- Brooch decorations
Buttons- Used to spread messages of the revolution.
Costume of the French Revolution- Jacques Louis Davis
Commissioned to designed the National Costume for the French citizen.
Costume of the French Revolution- The male revolutionary costume
Consisted of trousers, a short jacket called carmagnole, a short redingote, and wooden clogs.
Costume of the French Revolution- Women patriotic costume
They were often in red, white, and blue, worn with a long redingote.
Costume after the French Revolution
Costumes became standard and simple, but remain masculine for men. Men jacket were usually grey or blue, larger pants in light colors and tight fitted. Turtle neck was popular because it invoke the idea of holding one head high as a symbol for dignity.
19th century- Napoleon Bonaparte
Staged a coup d’etat and installed himself as First Consul in 1799. Then in 1804 the French Senates proclaimed him emperor.
19th century- Josephine Bonaparte
Napoleon’s wife, she emphasize the difference between court dress and city dress. Court dress more elaborate with golds and jewels. Her style were regarded as neo-classic.
19th century- Caroline Bonaparte
Napoleon’s sister was the first woman to wear a white wedding dress.
19th century costume- Accessories
Fashionable long gloves for women. Fur stoles. Conezou which was a short jacket tied at the back, made out of muslin.
19th century costume- Fabric
It became more lavish, heavier, no longer transparent. Darker colors for court dresses.
Neo-classic period (Mid 18th century to 19th century)
The forms and styles devrided from the Greek and Roman’s antiquity. It permeated every sectors of life all over Europe.
Neo-classic period (Mid 18th century to 19th century)- Spencer jacket
A short jacket made out of cotton or wool worn over the muslin dresses.
Neo-classic period (Mid 18th century to 19th century)- Men’s wear
Tight pants, no cod piece, light colors to emphasize the leg muscles.
Dark color jackets that are short in the font and long in the back, It was worn over a white shirt.
Neo-classic period (Mid 18th century to 19th century)- 1810
Toward this time women’s fashion was influenced by different elements of other time period.
Neo-classic period (Mid 18th century to 19th century)- 1815
Napoleon was defeated and The congress of Vienna was held during this year. The congress redraw the boundary line of European countries by putting the original rulers back on the throne. This congress also had an impact on the costume in the 19th century.
Romanticism- Women’s status
Fashion was determined by the taste of queens and noble ladies. Fashion was also influenced by previous time period. Ex: Painting of Queen Victoria’s costume at the ball contain elements of the 17th century like farthingale and ruffles alongside details from the Renaissance period.
Middle class women wear more dark and severe colors with details from the Middle Age and Renaissance period.
Sleeves became the main attraction; they were large and puffy. Sew below the shoulders.
Romanticism- After 1820
The waist seam slowly descended to its natural point.
Skirts and necklines became larger
High waist and small sleeves in 1813 to lower waist, bigger sleeves and skirts in 1830. A gradual change in fashion trends.
Romanticism- Top hat
Typical male hat in the mid 19th century.
Romanticism- Innovations of the 19th century
First Sewing machine. Fashion magazines available to many. Ready to wear clothes.
Romanticism- Frederick Charles Worth
He has valuable experience in the textile production process and fabrics. Founded the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisiene. His rise as a designer coincide with the establishment of the 2nd empire in France in 1852. Peoples of the court was asking for fancy costumes and styles and Worth possess the necessary skills.
Romanticism- Caged Crinoline
Mademoiselle Millet patented the skirt under-structure. Made of concentric metal circles, which was lighter and more comfortable to wear.
Romanticism- Demi Crinoline
Flat in the front and bulky in the back. The newer version of the cage crinoline. Similar to the robe a la pollonaise.
Romanticism- Fabric tournure
It was a small pillow, hooked on the back to give more prominence to the butt.
Romanticism- Tailleur (1885)
A male suit for women, it use the same fabric as the male suit. Features a button down jacket with a fitted long skirt.
Mariano Fortuny y Mandrazo
First designer that created garments without under-structure.
Skirt under-structure timeline
Late 1400s- Vertugado
1500s to early 1600s- Farthingale
1855- Caged Crinoline
1877 to 1881- Fabric tournure
1880s- Demi Crinoline