1. Donatello, Saint Mark, 1413, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, marble. This sculpture stands 236 centimeters (or 7 feet and nine inches) high and is made out of marble. It was made during the Italian Renaissance and sculpted by Donatello. Donatello was from Florence, specialized in bas-relief, and trained under Ghiberti. The statue of St. Mark resides in the exterior niche of the Or San Michele church in Florence. The sculpture also incorporates the contropposto pose, which puts more weight on St. Mark’s right leg. This sculpture has strikingly realistic characteristics such as the details of St. Mark’s veins on his hands.
2. Nanni di Banco, Quattro Santo Coronati, 1414, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, marble. “Quattro Santi Coronati” or Four Crowned Martyrs/Four Saints, is located on the exterior of the Or San Michele church in Florence, Italy. It was commissioned by the Maestri di Pietra e Legname, or a guild of wood and stone workers. The four figures in the sculpture all look as if they are talking about something serious with one another, and the draperies resemble Roman togas and their faces reflect the classic style. Under the four saints, the tabernacle’s base has stone workers busy carving and creating figures.
3. Donatello, Saint George, 1417, CE, marble, The marble statue of Saint George exemplifies his emotional realism in his work with different characters and people. Also, Saint George incorporates contrapposto, as all the weight is on his right leg. The statue was commissioned by a guild called the Corazzai—the Armorer’s guild, and Saint George was the patron saint of the guild. The art work has a helmet and a shield (and the shield has a cross on it). Also, the cloak that Saint George has reflects the Gothic world, as the cloak is tied into a knot and folds into a spiral line. The artwork also has a tablernacle with a relief of Saint George killing a dragon with a maiden
4. Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi Altarpiece, 1423, CE, from Santa Trinita, Florence, Italy, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, tempera on wood. Commissioned by Palla Strozzi, this piece is a large tempera on wood. This piece is of international gothic style, and the individuals painted all wear elegant and fancy clothing. Palla Strozzi and his father (named Onofrio) are located in the painting (Palla as the man in a red hat in front of the painting and his father as a falcon hunter). In the painting, you can also see a variety of animals like: horses, apes, lions, leopards, oxes, and an Arabian camel. Also, another important thing to note is the kneeling stool of the painting, or Predella, has 3 paintings that consist of: the Nativity, the Flight into Egypt, and the Presentation at the Temple. Another important thing to note about the painting is that though the figures in the painting are not entirely realistic, they are anatomically correct.
5. Donatello, Feast of Herod, 1425, CE, Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, gilded bronze relief. Made by Donatello, the Feast of Herod is a bronze relief sculpture, and this piece shows a scene from St. John the Baptist’s life. The relief is from the Early Renaissance and it is on the panel of the baptismal front of the Siena Cathedral. It uses linear perspective and contains continuous narrative. In the relief, Donatello creates three levels where the viewer can view the story. In the far back, the head of John the Baptist is brought to Salome. In the middle, there is a female playing a musical instrument while 2 men are looking at her. At the front, King Herod is seen receiving the head of John the Baptist.
6. Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, 1425, CE, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, fresco. This fresco by Masaccio (patronized by the Brancacci family) boldly uses nude figures. Adam and Eve are covering themselves in shame after eating the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Life. The Eve figure is reminiscent of the famous Venus Pudica, Praxiteles’s Aphrodite of Knidos. Eve is slightly anatomically incorrect because Renaissance artists did not have many Classical female models. Some art historians believe that Adam was based off the satyr Marsyas. The angel is foreshortened to convey a sense of movement towards the couple. Masaccio uses chiaroscuro to give a three-dimensional effect to the figures and to highlight them.
7. Donatello, prophet figure (Zuccone), 1425, CE, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, marble. This marble freestanding statue was made for the bell tower of the Florence Cathdral. It is believed to depict the biblical prophet, Habakkuk. Donatello employs Classical and Hellenistic ideals of veritism (realism) and naturalism. Also, Donatello alludes to the statue Aule Metele in his prophet figure statue. The Aule Metele and Zuccone resemble ancient Roman orators. Orators were usually politicians or lawyers who spoke in public forums. Donatello also uses Roman techniques of drilling and undercutting to give the toga a flow-like quality
8. Masaccio, Tribute Money, 1427, CE, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, fresco. This fresco is part of a cycle on the life of Saint Peter from the Book of Matthew. The continuous narrative starts in the middle with Jesus, then goes to Peter finding a coin in a fish’s mouth on the right, and finishes with Peter paying the temple tax on the right. This painting uses single-point (also called vanishing) perspective converging on Jesus’s head. Masaccio uses chiaroscuro, a technique using contrasting light and dark, to create a sense of three-dimensionality and realism. To distinguish the religious figures apart from the tax collectors, Masaccio paints haloes on Jesus and his disciples.
9. Masaccio, Holy Trinity, 1428, CE, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, fresco. This buon fresco by Masaccio was patronized either by the Lenzi or Berti family as a tombstone. This depicts a crucifixion scene with Jesus on the cross with Mary and Saint John at Christ’s feet. This Mary is different from other contemporary Mary’s in that the Virgin actually looks like an old woman. The dove above Christ’s head symbolizes the Holy Spirit, while God behind Jesus completes the Holy Trinity. God is depicted as a man instead of a hand (like medieval art). Masaccio uses linear perspective in the Brunelleschi-inspired architecture. The tomb on the bottom is a memento mori.
10. Donatello, David, 1432, CE, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, bronze. This statue by Donatello was the first bronze nude freestanding statue since antiquity. David was made using lost-wax casting. Cosimo de’ Medici patronized this statue for private viewing. David stands over Goliath’s as if he’s contemplating his victory, rather than celebrating. The religious and nude David would have caused uproar in public audiences. Donatello uses exaggerated contrapposto and S-curve to emphasize the Classical Greek influences. David epitomizes Greek male beauty (arête) by displaying his athletic body. The figure is even slightly androgynous. The laurel wreath alludes to Athens and symbolizes David’s role as a poet rather than a murderer.
11. Fra Angelico, Annunciation, 1445, CE, San Marco, Florence, Italy, fresco. Part of an alterpiece, the Annunciation was created for the monastery of Santo Domenico (Domenican Order/ Order of Preachers) of which he was a part of, in Fiesole. Fra Angelico created many different versions of the Annunciation. These paintings were commissioned by the monastery to be put in each monk’s cells for contemplative purposes. It would be the first thing they see in the morning and the last thing they see before sleep. The main panel depicts the archangel Gabriel’s Annunciation beneath the portico. Adam and Eve are seen exiting the Garden of Eden, having been expelled by God.
12. Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giovanna Tornabuoni, 1448, CE, Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain, oil and tempera on wood. Profile portrait of Italian noblewoman created perhaps in memorial (she died in childbirth). The portrait placed emphasis on the quality of her garments and the elegance of her facial profile, long neck and hairstyle. The dark background is illusionary giving the impression of a figure seated in front of a window. The book and other belongs are also part of the sitter’s indentity. A cartellino (card) appears in the upper right corner; it contains an epigram from the Latin poet Martial, evidence of Giovanna’s Humanist leanings.
13. Donatello, Gattamelata (Erasmo da Narni), 1450, CE, Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy, bronze. “Gattamelata,” meaning “honeyed cat,” was the nickname of Erasmo de Narni, a Venetian condottiere (mercenary) and nobleman. His family commissioned Donatello to create the sculpture when de Narni died in 1443, and Donatello finished it
ten years later. The sculpture was atypical of many equestrian statues during the mid-fifteenth century, as the usual figures depicted on horses in sculpture
were those with power and mighty authority, such as kings. This artwork was influenced by the Roman Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius. De Narni’s face is veristic due to it’s highly realistic facial features and expression.
14. Bernardo Rossellino, Tomb of Leonardo Bruni, 1450, CE, Santa Croce, Florence, Italy, marble. Considered his greatest masterpiece, Rossellino combines both architecture and sculpture into one marble tomb. The tomb was commissioned by Leonardo Bruni himself, a Florentine chancellor, who died in 1944. He commissioned this elaborate tomb to elevate his status to more than just a chancellor after his death. The format of the tomb recalls that of a triumphal arch and within the tympanum is a relief of the Madonna. Viewers are reminded of his legacy by Bruni’s coat of arms perched on the arch surrounded by two cherubs.
15. Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna and Child with Angels, 1455, CE, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, tempera on wood. The Madonna depicted in the artwork is modeled after Lucrezia Buti, a nun whom he fell in love with. Lippi’s variation is different from Cimabue’s and Giotto’s because his version is more playful and idealized with softer curves, whereas Cimabue’s Madonna’s expression is very serious and the figures depicted in the artwork are very stiff. The Madonna sits in front of a window, casting a shadow upon it to give the artwork a more intimate and 3-D look to it. Using tempera paint, Lippi applied paint the opposite color of the actual color he wanted.
16. Paolo Uccello, Battle of San Romano, 1455, CE, National Gallery, London, tempera on wood. The Battle of San Romano is a triptych, which are displayed and dispersed in the Uffizi Museum in Florence, the National Gallery in London, and the Louvre in Paris. The painting depicts three scenes from the Battle of San Romano between the victorious Florence and Siena fought in 1432. The piece was originally commissioned by the Bartolini family, but Lorenzo de Medici wanted it so much, he removed and placed in his house. The artwork is focused on linear perspective, evidence by the Uccello’s use of foreshortening of the broken lances, which are used as the painting’s orthogonal lines to the vanishing point.
17. Luca della Robbia, Madonna and Child, 1460, CE, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, terracotta with polychrome glaze. This is also known as “Bliss Madonna” and is made of glazed terracotta. The relief sculpture is from the Early Renaissance and located in an arched niche. Mary looks like she is sitting on the ledge, and Christ is standing on the ledge, supported by his mother. This was originally in Florence, Italy. This is a Mary and Christ child depiction, and these became familiar in painting. The closest to “Bliss Madonna” is Fra Filippo Lippi’s Medici Madonna because of the Christ child’s open pose. Della Robbia is comparable to Donatello, Ghiberti, Masaccio and Brunelleschi. He had many church commissions.
18. Piero della Francesca, Resurrection, 1463, CE, Palazzo Comunale, Borgo San Sepolcro, Italy, fresco. Francesca was influenced by Masaccio, Donatello, Veneziano, Lippi, Uccello, and Masolino. This piece alluded to the name of the city, which meant “Holy Sepulchre.” It symbolizes the resurgence of Sansepolcro. Resurrection is suggested by Christ’s leg on the parapet. Christ looks iconic/abstract, and the position of the four soldiers and Christ is the difference between the human and divine spheres. The landscape has flourishing trees to the right and bare ones to the left, alluding to the renovation of men through the Resurrection’s light. The sleeping soldier in brown armor whose head touches the pole of Guelph is Francesca, which shows his contact with divinity.
19. Antonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of the Ten Nudes, 1465, CE, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, engraving. This large engraving shows 5 men with and 5 men without head bands fighting in pairs with weapons. They all have different, strained athletic positions, and it is in a classicizing style, but the men grimace fiercely and there is strongly emphasized musculature. This uses a return-stroke engraving technique. Some say Pollaiuolo did not engrave the plate himself and hired specialists, but this is a minor view because engraving is an essential skill for Pollaiuolo’s occupation, gold-smithing. He produced niello engraved plaques. This was the first print signed with the artist’s full name on the left rear of the plaque.
20. Andrea Mantegna, Camera degli Sposi, 1474, CE, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy, fresco. This piece was part of the “bridal chamber” in the Ducal palace, and the room was frescoed with illusion paintings. This was commissioned by Ludovico Gonzaga. Mantegna was known for his trompe l’oeil and di sotto in su ceilings. Di sotto in su is traditional in Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo pieces. The piece shown is the ceiling. The ceiling represents an oculus opening into a blue sky and uses foreshortening. Viewers can see putti playing around the balustrade. Putti are secular figures which represent non-religious passion. This is the earliest di sotto in su ceiling painting.
21. Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, 1482, CE, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, tempera on canvas. This piece is tempera on canvas. Venus emerges from the sea as a grown woman, arriving at the seashore. Venus is based off of one of the Medici’s lovers, Simonetta. This painting is similar to the description of events in “Stanze per la Giostra” by Poliziano. Venus has typical beauty attributes: a long neck, fair skin and light, reddish hair. Venus is seen as an earthly goddess arousing humans to physical love, or a heavenly goddess who inspires intellectual love. Venus’s figure and pose is improbable, and she’s standing in a contrapposto pose. This is a fantasy image and was in Medici hands by 1550, and it’s debated whether the Medici’s commissioned it.
22. Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, 1482, CE, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, tempera on canvas. This painting by Botticelli from the High Renaissance era in Italy, also known as the “Allegory of Spring”, illustrates the ideal of Neoplatonic love and is thought to have been inspired by a description of the arrival of Spring by poet Ovid and commissioned by Lorenzo de’ Medici. There are seven adult figures, one spirit, and one cherub which shoots an arrow of love (a common theme during springtime) at the circle of dancing women. Botticelli’s paintings are generally influenced by Gothic realism and are tempered by his study of traditional portrayals of allegorical/ mythological pieces. Botticelli indicates a clear horizon line, places emphasis on symbolism rather than naturalism and uses color to distinguish between good and evil (common in religious paintings of earlier periods). The figures are dynamic and linear
23. Perugino, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, 1483, CE, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy, fresco. Also called The Delivery of the Keys, this fresco was created for the Sistine Chapel in Rome but was too large for Perugino to finish on his own, requiring the hire of additional painters including Ghirlandaio and Botticelli. Classic expressionism as well as sentimental piety are featured techniques of Perugino’s and are apparent here along with the inspiration of Andrea del Verrocchio in the active drapery, complexity, refinement, and odd proportion. The painting shows Christ handing the keys of heaven to St. Peter while he is surrounded by other Apostles (each with a halo) in conjunction with portraits of contemporaries and one of the painter himself.
24. Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin of the Rocks, 1485, CE, Louvre, France, oil on wood. Two nearly identical paintings with this name were created by da Vinci around the same time during the High Renaissance in Italy; the above is housed in the Louvre and can be distinguished only because of the differences in the angel’s gesture. They show the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child with a baby John the Baptist (patron saint of Florence) and an angel surrounded by rocks, an allegory not featured in the Bible. Techniques used by da Vinci in this painting include sfumato which is a way of painting without lines or borders, one of four canonical modes of the Renaissance; expressionism and realism are also apparent.
25. Domenico Ghirlandaio, A Man with His Grandchild, 1490, CE, oil and tempera on wood. Ghirlandaio, a High Italian Renaissance painter, was the first to use such emotional poignancy in portraying his subjects; the man depicted is captured with unparalleled realism and is represented in a naturalistic and sympathetic way in contrast with physiognomic theories of the era which stressed the connection between outer appearance and character. Ghirlandaio worked without use of mathematics and applied chiaroscuro, which uses strong light and dark contrasts to affect the composition. Dressed in the popular red of the area and age, the grandfather holds his son lovingly and maintains his virtuousness in spite of the disfigurement of his nose.
26. Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1498, CE, Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy, fresco (oil and tempera on plaster). The mural shows the individual reactions of each of the twelve disciples of Christ in contrast with Jesus’ own stoic expression as they sit while sharing his last supper before the betrayal; it is highly realistic and contains references to the Holy Trinity in the way the disciples are grouped: Bartholomew, James, son of Alphaeus and Andrew (all surprised), Judas Iscariot, Peter and John (taken aback, angry, swooning), Thomas, James the Greater and Philip (upset, stunned, requesting explanation), and Matthew, Jude Thaddeus and Simon the Zealot (turned toward Simon for help). Dynamic tension, dry wall application with chromatic oil, and contemporaries in place of the images of the disciples are all technical choices made by da Vinci. It was commissioned by Duke Lodovico Sforza and was completed one year before the French invasion.
27. Andrea Mantegna, Dead Christ, 1501, CE, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, tempera on canvas. This painting by Italian Renaissance artist Andrea Mantegna depicts the dead body of Christ on a marble slab. The Virgin Mary and St. John weep and watch over Christ. This lamentation is different than most Lamentations of the time period which showed more contact between mourners and the body of Christ. Mantegna uses contrasts of light and shadow which gives the painting a sense of pathos. The realism and tragedy of the scene are increased by the use of violent perspective. The drapery the Christ has on also increases the dramatic effect of the painting. The faces of the mourners and holes in Christ’s feet do not have any idealism or rhetoric. Mantegna represents emotional and physical trauma in his Lamentation of Christ.
28. Raphael Sanzio, Marriage of the Virgin, 1504, CE, Chapel of Saint Joseph in Citta di Castello, near Florence, Italy, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, oil on wood. This painting by Raphael depicts the marriage between Mary and Joseph. It was completed for the Franciscan church in Citta di Castello and commissioned by Filippo degli Albezzini. Originally Raphael’s teacher Perugino was supposed to paint this painting but he was absent at the time so Raphael painted it. Raphael added many affects which make the character more fluid and it seems like they have more movement. Raphael also made the painting have a 3-dimesional appearance. Many details were also added to the clothing and building which makes the painting seem more realistic.
29. Luca Signorelli, Damned Cast into Hell, 1504, CE, fresco. A chilling propaganda piece by Signorelli, he attempts to scare the citizens of Italy by depicting a large mass of bodies trying to fight off demons who have come to torture them for their sins. They suffer due to their immorality and Signorelli depicts them writhing in pain through their agonizing facial expressions as well as the unnatural contortions of their bodies. Signorelli groups them in such a large mass to dehumanize them, losing their individual importance to the viewer as well as to St. Michael above. His stern expression demonstrates his disregard for their suffering due to their sins.
30. Raphael Sanzio, Madonna of the Meadows, 1505, CE, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, oil on panel. This is Madonna del Patro painted by Raphael. The painting depicts three figures in a green meadow touching hands. The figures are the Virgin Mary, Christ, and John. The Virgin Mary is in an elongated pose. The Virgin Mary wears blue which symbolizes the church and also red which symbolizes Christ’s death. The poppy in the background of the figures refers to Christ’s passion, death, and resurrection. Each of the figures are linked in some way. Christ reaches out to touch John’s cross while The Virgin Mary holds him.
31. Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin and Child with St. Anne and the Infant St. John, 1507, CE, National Gallery, London, charcoal heightened with white on brown paper. This painting by da Vinci was a cartoon- a rough outline that would have been later transferred to a larger canvas by tracing the outline. The painting depicts Anne, the mother of Mary and Jesus’ cousin St. John as a child. Leonardo wanted to depict the eternality of the family and did so by joining them through common lines that run from Anne, through to Mary and then to Jesus and John. The glances of the group follow a similar pattern ending with Jesus looking up at Anne’s pointed finger, prophesizing his entrance into heaven.
32. Leonardo da Vinci, Embryo in the Womb, 1510, CE, Royal Library, Windsor Castle, pen and ink on paper. This is Leonardo’s sketch and study of the embryo in the womb. Leonardo used materials such as chalk and ink wash. These drawings were a part of Leonardo’s private journals and were never published. Leonardo was actually performing illegal autopsies on corpses to find a deeper understanding in embryology. Leonardo’s use of detail in his embryo drawing reveals his true understanding of an embryo which is considered significant due to the time period these drawing were created. Leonardo is considered one of the first in history to draw and depict the human fetus in its correct place in the womb.
33. Raphael Sanzio, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1511, CE, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, fresco. This painting, commissioned by Pope Julius II to be put in his personal library was part of a larger set of paintings depicting the four divine causes. This one, dedicated to philosophy, depicts all of the great classic thinkers. The masters of grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric and dialect, and music are represented by depictions of Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Socrates, and many others. Using linear perspective, Raphael highlights the two most influential thinkers, Plato and Aristotle discussing the ways of human perception. Ultimately, these depictions demonstrate the level of reverence with which the Renaissance scholars regarded their classical forebears and their discoveries.
34. Raphael Sanzio, Galatea, 1513, CE, Sala di Galatea, Villa Farnesina Rome, Italy, fresco. This painting depicts Galatea, a sea nymph, in apotheosis-the realization that her suffering in life will allow her to be divine. The main focal point of the painting is Galatea’s face, which Raphael frames in an ” X” between the reigns of the dolphins, the other nymphs torso, and the arrows of the cupids. Her facing upward suggests the fact that she is blind to lust that consumes her companions and looks for platonic love, representing Raphael’s idea of ideal beauty. With Michelangelo as a contemporary artist, one can see the influence of his Sistine Chapel in Raphael’s human forms.
35. Raphael Sanzio, Baldassare Castiglione, 1514, CE, Louvre, France, oil on wood transferred to canvas. This portrait of Raphael’s friend Baldassare Castiglione commemorates Castiglione’s appointment as ambassador to the Holy See. Raphael sits his friend down with crossed hands and a relaxed pose-a slight homage to Leonardo’s Mona Lisa- in order to portray him as a man of the high Renaissance. The most acclaimed aspect of the portrait is its subtleness of expression. The opening of his fur skin and the scarf reflect a man that is open to conversation and ultimately able to empathize with those who converse with him. The dull background colors and soft light emphasize a genuine and unaffected gaze.
36. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David, 1504, CE, Galleria dell Accademia, Florence, marble. Commissioned by the Cathedral of Florence, David was to be placed in a top niche but was placed on the plaza of Florence’s government building instead, representing Florence as a powerful state. It is elongated and disproportional (having longer legs), like Doryphoros’s Canon. Unlike Donatello’s and Verrocchio’s David, its head abruptly turns toward Goliath, showing anticipation. Its colossal, muscular body – typical of Michelangelo – and stern facial expression exert tension and energy. Undercutting created muscles; drilling created curly hair. This unpolished sculpture has archaic smile and facial expression which differs on angle viewed. Many High Renaissance sculptures are Greco-Roman biblical heroes.
37. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1512, CE, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, fresco. Commissioned by Pope Julius II, 5000-square-feet curved ceiling of buon fresco with unusual bright colors later inspired Mannerism. On the edges, trom p’edoil and grisaille create sculptural images and illusionistic architectures. Typical Michelangelo monumental, masculine human figures show Classical idealism. Divinity of characters is shown through body movements rather than with halo or wings. Continuous narrative in central rectangular area depicts scenes from the Book of Genesis. Michelangelo used chiaroscuro with consideration of the direction of natural light. No two figures out of three hundred are in the same pose; some – puti figures – are for artistic expression, not for narrative.
38. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Moses, 1515, CE, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, marble. Moses is angry, about to rise and break his Tablets of Law, with great intensity. This is part of Pope Julius II’s tomb, which was greatly reduced in size from its original plan. This High Renaissance, massive Moses shows complexity of human body; it has body parts turned in the opposite direction from another, creating some dynamics. Deep undercutting was used to create masculine body, which shows no distinction of old age; drilling and wet drapery can also be seen. Horns on his head are due to European mistranslation of a Hebrew description. It was inspired by Hellenistic sculpture Laocoon.
39. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Bound Slave, 1516, CE, Louvre, France, marble. This sculpture was originally to be part of the tomb of Pope Julius II, along with the Dying Slave, but was excluded due to revision. The slave is bound to the rock and in himself, with head, shoulders, and hips twisted in opposite direction from each other (serpentine position), distorting himself. Its struggle against ties and the direction of its head looking up reveals its desire of freedom and yearning for God. It is usually considered unfinished due to some rough surfaces of marble and abandoning mark with tools. It was later donated to Roberto Strozzi and remained in France.
40. Jacopo da Pontormo, Descent from the Cross, 1528, CE, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita, Florence, Italy, oil on wood. This typical Mannerist work has twisted and elongated figures and uses of expressive hand gestures. It is part of Deposition altarpiece created for the small chapel of the Capponi family. Unlike works from earlier Renaissance, it has unbalanced composition and lacks a clear focal point. The hole in the center symbolizes loss and grief, correlating with that of Catholics during the Reformation. Differing from Raphael and van der Weyden’s work, action is portrayed along a vertical axis, not horizontal. Contrasting colors of light blues and pinks create dynamics. Figures are close together and uniformly have small, oval heads.
41. Bronzino, Portrait of a Young Man, 1530, CE, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, oil on wood. Bronzino’s figures usually have the same facial features, both male and female. The artwork is influenced by Pontormo’s Guard. The subject is most likely a proud intellectual patrician with his haughty posture, graceful long fingers, book, and severe architecture. The influence of Spanish etiquettes is seen through the man’s doublet and cap. Bronzino purposefully sets the color scheme as muted to emphasize the subject’s meticulously architecture silhouette. The subject is probably one of Bronzino’s literary friends. Bronzino adds a theme of identity through the grotesque heads on the furniture and masklike faces in the folds of his breeches.
42. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Tomb of Giuliano de Medici, 1534, CE, Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, marble. Guiliano’s tomb is a twin to Lorenzo’s, commissioned by Pope Leo X, neither completed. Guiliano is directly above Day and Night, wearing Roman emperor’s armor, holding a commander’s baton, and turning his head as in council. Lorenzo and Guiliano emulate needed qualities for union with God (meditation and activity). Michelangelo focuses on masculinity, saying in a thousand years, actual face depiction would be irrelevant. The two figures show figura serpentinata, influenced by Barberini Faun. Classical influence is seen with Corinthian capitals. The purpose is unverified, but the work shows struggling humanity, which in Michelangelo’s period was filled with tension, and frustration.
43. Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, 1535, CE, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, oil on wood. Parmigianino, Correggio’s pupil, is best known for this artwork. Correggio’s exquisite grace and sweetness is shown with Madonna’s small oval head, long, neck, and delicacy of hand. It is commissioned by the church of Servities. Ideal beauty is epitomized with Madonna’s elongated body. On Madonna’s left stands angelic creatures; on the right are columns without capitals, and St. Jerome with a scroll. Her attenuated neck represents an ivory tower of columns shown in medieval hymns. The Christ child sits haphazardly on her lap. The background is theatrical, figures are clustered on the left, and body parts are cut off abruptly.
44. Michelangelo Buonarroti, Last Judgment, 1541, CE, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, fresco. Christ is set at the center of the artwork, classical, and nude, showing humility. Around Christ are the Virgin, the Saints, and the Elect, awaiting the verdict. St. Bartholomew, holding his own skin, might be a self portrait of Michelangelo. Hellenistic influence is seen with exaggerated muscles and aesthetics of pain. It was commissioned by Pope Clement VIII, and clothing was added to the figures by him due to cultural norms. The left has the saved, ascending to heaven; the right holds angels and devils pushing the damned to hell. At the bottom is Charon, leading damned to Minos.
45. Bronzino, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (The Exposure of Luxury), 1546, CE, National Gallery, London, oil on wood. This erotic painting depicts Venus and Cupid, emphasized for their light skin tone. Overall, the scene is unbalanced to the left. The figures are elongated and twisted (figura serpentinata), typical of the Mannerist works with highly emotional focus on the subjects rather than correct body proportions. Also, there is no real light source. Symbolically, Folly is throwing flowers and Time is the old man with an hourglass. Other figures in the background are more ambiguous. This work was commissioned by Cosimo de’ Medici as a gift for King Francis I, so jewels and masks are incorporated.
46. Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters and Brother, 1555, CE, Methuen Collection, Corsham Court, Wiltshire, oil on panel. This family portrait is unrealistically staged with much emphasis on the simple expressions and relaxed poses of the artist’s siblings. This is a contrast to Mannerism’s exemplary idealism and exaggeration. However, the slight unbalanced symmetry, leaning towards the right, is typical of Mannerist paintings. Affectionately, for the brother holds a dog while the younger sister (right) diverts her attention to her right. The older sister shows dignity that matches the scene’s formality. Anguissola is one of the few female Mannerist painters, and she was influenced by Michelangelo.
49. Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505, Santa Zaccaria, Venice, Italy, oil on wood transferred to canvas
Giovanni Bellini was the best known of the Bellini Venetian painters. He was a teacher to Giorgione and Titian and introduced oil painting. The altarpiece, more specifically known as the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, is a sacra conversazione or “sacred conversation” depicting a group of saints around the Virgin and Child. The saints are Peter and Catherine (left), Lucia and Jerome (right), and the musician angel in the front. Subdued lines outline the figures, while serene and glowing colors fill the altarpiece. The top of the painting is missing because the French in the 19th century stole it and took it to Paris.
50. Giorgionne da Castelfranco, The Tempest, 1510, Galleria dell Accademia, Venice, oil on canvas. This Venetian painting, commissioned by the noble Gabriele Vendramin, depicts a woman (gypsy or prostitute) suckling a baby. She holds the baby at her side instead of her lap to expose her pubic area. To the left, a soldier stands in contrapposto and smiles at the woman. The pillars behind the man represent strength, but they are broken, thus representing death. The use of oil paint allows softer color tonalities and harmonies. A brewing storm of blues and greens is not a backdrop but an early contribution to landscape painting. The Tempest may have influenced Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass.
51. Titian, Isabella d Este, 1536, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, oil on canvas. This oil on canvas painting depicts the Marquess of Mantua, the daughter of the Duke of Ferrara. Though she is shown as a young woman, she was actually 62 when this work was painted. Titian originally painted the older version of her, but she was so disgusted that she made him paint her 40 years younger. In order to give Titian an idea of what she desired, she sent him a younger portrait of her by Giovanni Francesco Zaninello. Titian focuses on her high social rank, beauty, and intelligence. She is shown wearing a balzo and gown with gold and silver trim on the sleeves.
52. Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, oil on canvas. A young nude woman is depicted (goddess Venus?) in a lavish Renaissance palace. Her pose is based on a work of Giorgionne called Sleeping Venus. She looks directly at the viewer and is placed in an erotic pose. Titian domesticates her by placing her in an indoor setting and the dog behind her symbolizes fidelity. It originally would have decorated a cassoni or chest given as a wedding present. Complex spatial environment is evident with the woman placed forward, the servants in the middle, and the plants in the background. It was commissioned by the Duke of Urbino, Guidobaldo Il della Rovere and was actually intended to serve as a model for his young bride. This painting inspired Manet’s Olympia.
53. Paolo Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573, CE, Galleria dell Accademia, Venice, oil on canvas. Measuring at 18×42 feet, this painting is one of the largest from the 1500s. It was commissioned by the Dominican order of SS. Giovanni as a Last Supper painting to replace an earlier work. The previous one, by Titian, was destroyed in a fire in 1571. The painting by Veronese depicts a banquet with Christ, clothed in a green robe, in the center. He is surrounded by people in extravagant costumes and various poses. The scene is framed with pillars and archways and a staircase on the right. Veronese was investigated by the Roman Catholic Inquisition for irreverence and heresy for depicting “buffoons, drunken Germans, dwarfs, and other scurrilities.” The scene itself is also a fantasy version of an extravagant Venetian banquet. Although he was given three months to revise it, instead of changing the painting itself, Veronese changed the title to Feast in the House of Levi. The new title refers to the Gospel of Luke, chapter 5, in which Christ eats at a banquet with tax collectors and sinners. The episode is less doctrinally important than the Last Supper, and stopped the accusations.
54. Paolo Veronese, Triumph of Venice, 1585, CE, ceiling of the Hall of the Grand Council, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, Italy, oil on canvas. This painting is an allegory for the fight for peace and justice in Venice, represented by Mary. It represents Venice’s triumph over the Pope and other Italian city-states. Mary is crowned by Victory as she is taken up to heaven on a cloud. The Rape of Europa is at the bottom of the painting, and represents Europe’s art heritage and the struggle for artistic freedom. The rest of the painting depicts the different areas of Venetian society. Veronese often painted Venetian skies, animals, and historical stories. In 1508, Pope Julius II tried to limit the influence Venice and Doge Leonardo Loredan had over other Italian city-states. He was afraid that if Venice’s power was not curbed, the Papal states would turn away from the Pope and God. Julius II made an alliance with Spain, France, and the Holy Roman Empire called the League of Cambrai. This led to early Venetian losses, including the loss of Padua. Eventually, France broke with the Pope and allied with Venice and defeated the League. This ended with the Pope repaying his debts to Venice and the regaining of Padua. The victory led to the popularity of Venetian artwork, as people expressed their love for the state through art.
55. Titian, Assumption of the Virgin, 1518, CE, Santa Maria Gloriosa del Frari, Venice, Italy, oil on wood. The Assumption of the Virgin was Titian’s first major Venetian commission. It is a giant painting placed in a marble frame. Mary’s twisted pose and the apostles’ dramatic gestures, coupled with the painting’s large size and intense color scheme, broke with tradition and disturbed the public. This work helped establish Titian’s popularity in Venice. The Assumption of Mary is an official doctrine of the Catholic Church, and is celebrated every year on August 15. It commemorates Mary rising into Heaven and attaining eternal life before the decay of her earthly body. This painting is an assumption of Mary rather than an ascension, because Mary is taken into Heaven rather than going by her own power. “Ascended” is usually reserved for Jesus. It is sometimes said that it was Jesus who took Mary up into Heaven.
56. Titian, Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne, 1523, CE, National Gallery, London, oil on canvas. This painting was commissioned by Alfonso d’Este, the Duke of Ferrara. It was meant to be placed in the Camerino d’Alabastro, a room in his palazzo dedicated to paintings based on Classical texts. The original commission was given to Raphael, who died before completing the painting. The job was then given to Titian. The subject matter of this painting was based on the works of Roman painters Catullus and Ovid. The composition is divided diagonally into two triangles-the blue sky and the brownish earth. Most of the figures are on the brown side. The blue was painting using lapis lazuli. The painting depicts the story of Bacchus, the god of wine, and Ariadne. Ariadne was abandoned by Theseus, and is discovered by Bacchus, riding on his cheetah-drawn chariot. He instantly falls in love with her and saves her.
57. Titian, Madonna of the Pesaro Family, 1526, CE, Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice, Italy, oil on canvas. Virgin wearing red, blue and white Christ naked. Blue represents Mary, red and white represents the blood of Christ, and the shroud that he wears after death. St. Francis next to Christ, Pesaro family below him. St. Peters, wears the key to heaven. Jacapo Pesaro is kneeled on the floor next to the man with turban represents the Turks. Triangular principle, and hierarchical scaling. Columns and background shows that this was taking place in the portico. Contrast in color of dark and light. Altarpiece is angles in a where it corresponds with the direction of those that entered the church.
58. Antonio Allegri da Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin, 1530, CE, Dome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma, Italy, fresco. Four protector saints of Parma, John the Baptist with the lamb, Saint Hilary with a yellow mantle, Saint Thomas with angel carrying martyrdom palm leaf, Saint Bernard looking upwards. Mary, wearing red and blue robes being lifted up. Apostles stand between windows looking down at tomb, Jesus waiting for Mary. Jesus is beardless and foreshortened. Illusion of the view of the sky with figures flying over in a concentric ring. Bodies look weightless. The clouds appear soft and are bundled together into big clouds. Contains hierarchical scaling, Saints lower level, then Mary, top is Christ waiting for his mother.
59. Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1594, CE, Chancel, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy, oil on canvas. Extension of a high altar piece. Uses imbalanced composition and visual complexity. Light comes from the ceiling and from Jesus. Christ is at the center of the artwork. The figures in the artwork is elongated. The light at the ceiling is a flying upside down angel. It also casts a long shadow. Detail of everyday life. Christ is shown giving Saint Peter the Eucharist. The point of view in this painting is given from an angle where it would give the artwork more balance. The apostles radiate away from Christ in a mathematical symmetry.