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    Renaissance – Mannerism (1334 words)

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    Ghiberti
    Ghiberti “Gates of Paradise” Early Renaissance. Bronze. East doors of the Florence Baptistry
    Masaccio
    Masaccio “Trinity” Early Renaissance. fresco. Master of 1 point linear perspective.
    Jan van Eyck
    Jan van Eyck “Man in the Red Turban”. Early Renaissance. oil on panel. This is most likely a self portrait of the artist
    Glazing
    In painting – the process of building up images in transparent oil layers.
    Renaissance
    French word meaning “rebirth”
    Neoplatonism
    Views based on the ideas of Plato that one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge
    Botticelli's
    Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus”. Early Renaissance. tempera on canvas. This painting is composed of classical mythology influenced by neoplatonism.
    Donatello
    Donatello “David”. Early Renaissance. Bronze, this sculpture probably celebrated the triumph of the Florentines over the Milanese in 1428.
    Claus Sluter
    Claus Sluter “Well of Moses”. Early Renaissance. Limestone; Designed for the Duke of Burgundy.
    Rogier Van Der Weyden
    Rogier Van Der Weyden “Deposition”. Early Renaissance. Oil on panel. This is an example of Flemish art. Compositional use of repeating curves in figure of Christ echoed by fainting Mary helps viewer to emotionally identify with Virgin Mary.
    Humanism
    A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
    Jan Van Eyck
    Jan Van Eyck “Adoration of the Lamb”. Early Renaissance.From the Ghent Alterpeice. Oil on panel. The greyish or bluish cast and pale sky is an affect known as atmospheric perspective.
    Artists who worked on the new St. Peter’s and the Vatican. Renaissance.
    Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo
    Veronese
    Veronese “Feast in the House of Levi”. Oil on canvas. Originally known as Last Supper. Name of painting was changed due to opposition from the Inquisition.
    The Sistine Chapel ceiling. Renaissance. Michelangelo depicts prophets, old testament scenes, sibyls on the ceiling.
    The Sistine Chapel ceiling. Renaissance. Michelangelo depicts prophets, old testament scenes, sibyls on the ceiling.
    Pontormo
    Pontormo “Entombment”. Mannerism. Oil on Wood. Pontormo uses exagerrated facial expressions, poses and color to heighten the emotional atmosphere of this painting.
    Hans Holbein
    Hans Holbein “Henry the VIII”. Renaissance. Oil & tempera on oak. The artist uses the king’s great size to show him as a richly dressed, very imposing figure.
    Bosch
    Bosch “Garden of Earthly Delights”. Renaissance. Oil on wood. This painting could be considered a social statement as Bosch seems to be making commentary on sin and humanity’s inability to save itself.
    Painting
    Considered by da Vinci as the most supreme method for creating an illusion of the natural world.
    Protestants
    Religious reformers who permanently broke with the Catholic Church.
    Chiarscuro
    modeling forms with strongly contrasting light and shadow.
    Bramante
    Bramante “Tempietto”
    Renaissance. Built on the principles of the Roman architect Vitruvius. Based on the circle – thought to represent perfection.
    Leon Battista Alberti. Early Renaissance. Church of Sant'Andrea features a classical temple front and a triumphal arch.
    Leon Battista Alberti. Early Renaissance. Church of Sant’Andrea features a classical temple front and a triumphal arch.
    Sfumato
    smokey haze perfected in painting by Da Vinci.
    Raphael
    Raphael “School of Athens”. Renaissance. Fresco. Located in the Stanza della Segnatura. Raphael summarizes the the ideals of the Renaissance stylistically and iconographically in this work.
    Michelangelo's
    Michelangelo’s “David”. Renaissance. Marble. The nudity implies heroic or divine qualities.
    El Greco
    El Greco “Burial of Count Orgaz”. Mannerism. Oil on Canvas.
    Albrecht Durer
    Albrecht Durer “Adam and Eve”. Renaissance. Engraving.
    Titian
    Titian “Venus of Urbino”. Renaissance. Oil on Canvas.
    Fra Angelico. Early Renaissance. Annunciation. This painting is related to it's locatoin because the arches echo the curves of the monk's cell wall.
    Fra Angelico. Early Renaissance. Annunciation. This painting is related to it’s locatoin because the arches echo the curves of the monk’s cell wall.
    International Gothic
    This style is characterized by: steeply rising ground plane, graceful figural poses, brightly colored costumes and textile patterns, and a natural rendering of details.
    Sofonisba Anguissola. Late Renaissance. Portrait of the Artist's Sisters Playing Chess. Anguissola was an important female portraitist whose somewhat stiff style may be due to the fact that as a woman she was unable to study anatomy or draw/paint nude figures.
    Sofonisba Anguissola. Late Renaissance. Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters Playing Chess. Anguissola was an important female portraitist whose somewhat stiff style may be due to the fact that as a woman she was unable to study anatomy or draw/paint nude figures.
    Agonola Bronzino. Portrait of a Young Man. Bronzino paints portraits in a typical Mannerist style that includes: reserved formatility, lack of emotion, calculated sense of assurance in the subject.
    Agonola Bronzino. Portrait of a Young Man. Bronzino paints portraits in a typical Mannerist style that includes: reserved formatility, lack of emotion, calculated sense of assurance in the subject.
    Andrea Palladio
    Was a highly influential architect in Venice due to the beauty and mathematical harmony of his designs. His buildings visually communicated their place in the social order of their culture. His work will influence architecture for centuries.
    Andrea Palladio. Villa Rotunda. Late Renaissance. Inspired by the Pantheon with four identical facades with projecting porches resembling a Roman Temple.
    Andrea Palladio. Villa Rotunda. Late Renaissance. Inspired by the Pantheon with four identical facades with projecting porches resembling a Roman Temple.
    Parmagianino. Madonna of the Long Neck. Mannerist artist. The subject is a simile taken from a Medieval hymn in which the virgin's neck is likend to an ivory column. He exaggerates the limbs of his figures echoing the columns. This accenuates the elegance and gracefulness of the figures.
    Parmagianino. Madonna of the Long Neck. Mannerist artist. The subject is a simile taken from a Medieval hymn in which the virgin’s neck is likend to an ivory column. He exaggerates the limbs of his figures echoing the columns. This accenuates the elegance and gracefulness of the figures.
    Tintoretto. Mannerism. Last Supper. Shows the artist's use of a spiritual, visionary interpretation. Converging perspective lines help to create a distubing effect of limitless depth and motion.
    Tintoretto. Mannerism. Last Supper. Shows the artist’s use of a spiritual, visionary interpretation. Converging perspective lines help to create a distubing effect of limitless depth and motion.
    El Greco - show hallmarks of El Grecos Mannerist style. Exaggerated elongated figures. Highly emotional. Pale un-natural skin tones. Icy colors.
    El Greco – show hallmarks of El Grecos Mannerist style. Exaggerated elongated figures. Highly emotional. Pale un-natural skin tones. Icy colors.
    Michelangelo - Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel
    Michelangelo – Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel
    Julius II – humanist pope
    (1503-1513) Pope – very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter’s Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel. He played a very important role in the context of 16th century Renaissance art – be able to discuss.
    Linear perspective
    The appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer. Masaccio uses linear perspective and the influence of the architectural style of Brunelleschi in the painting The Trinity.
    Brunelleschi
    Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446) Credited with inventing 1 point linear perspective.
    Dome of the Florence Cathedral. Brunelleschi, 1430, Florence, Base of dome 138 ft. across, leaving massive space in ceiling. Brunelleschi COMES UP WITH IDEA OF THE DOME. From ground to top of dome= 365 ft.
    Dome of the Florence Cathedral. Brunelleschi, 1430, Florence, Base of dome 138 ft. across, leaving massive space in ceiling. Brunelleschi COMES UP WITH IDEA OF THE DOME. From ground to top of dome= 365 ft.
    Masaccio. Tribute Money. Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424-1427. Narrative – illustrates three different scenes from the New Testament story of Jesus paying taxes.
    Donatello
    (1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
    Medici
    An aristocratic Italian family of powerful clerics, merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century. The family members were wealthy politicians, businessmen, and patrons of the arts who influenced both individuals and the bigger picture, in Florence and all of Europe. Cosimo de Medici ruled Florence for five years after strategically getting himself elected, and used his grandson Lorenzo as a diplomat so that he was aquainted with other leaders of Europe. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, like other members of his family, and helped many artists such as Michelangelo. He also helped spread Florentine art and culture throughout Italy. Lorenzo used personal charisma and diplomatic prowess to end a war against Naples and the Papacy in 1479, but shortly after his death, wars tore apart Italy and lowered it from its status of the center of European civilization.
    Mannerism
    Artistic movement of the late Renaissance that reacted against the Renaissance ideals of symmetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poses, un-natural colors and compression of space.
    Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa. c. 1503, oil on wood panel
    Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa. c. 1503, oil on wood panel
    Michelangelo. Pieta. 1505. Marble
    Michelangelo. Pieta. 1505. Marble
    Statue made for the cardinal’s funeral monument, it portrays Jesus on Mary’s lap after crucifixtion.
    Donatello
    (1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
    Jan van Eyck (Belgian), Arnolfini Wedding. oil on oak panel, 1434, National Gallery (London), Early Renaissance.
    Jan van Eyck (Belgian), Arnolfini Wedding. oil on oak panel, 1434, National Gallery (London), Early Renaissance.
    Lots of symbolism (mirror, dog, broom, fruit, signature), techniques are linear paintings and sfumato and the theme is humanism,
    Giorgione. The Tempest. 1510. Oil on Canvas. Unusual subject matter.
    Giorgione. The Tempest. 1510. Oil on Canvas. Unusual subject matter.
    Sofonisba Anguissola. 1532-1625.
    She was the first woman artist to gain an international reputation. First great woman artist of Renaissance. From newly artistocratic Cremona family. Well-educated. Was court painter to K. Philip II of Spain. Rich, celebrated & long lived. Sponsored other artists. Painted mostly portraits and a few religious paintings. Achieved much but had advantages not available to most.
    Pieter Brueghel. Return of The Hunters. 1565. oil on panel.
    Pieter Brueghel. Return of The Hunters. 1565. oil on panel.
    Benvenuto Cellini. Saltcellar of Francis I. 1539-43. Gold with enamel.
    Benvenuto Cellini. Saltcellar of Francis I. 1539-43. Gold with enamel.

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