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    the study of beauty or good taste; anything related to the study of beauty or good taste
    the way an artist organizes forms (lines, shapes, etc.) in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or by arranging forms in space
    contour line
    a perceived line that describes three-dimensional form
    in art, a technique for defining shape, also used to create a sense of depth
    (pronounced “uhvrr”) — a work of art; the sum of the lifework of an artist, writer, or composer
    generally a wealthy person who pays an artist to create a work of art; throughout much of history artists could not have survived without “patronage”
    giving human characteristics to something that is not human
    a method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface
    the relationship of one part of a person, building, or object to another; for example the size of a statue’s head in relationship to the rest of the body
    an object or word or gesture that represents something else
    We can agree that art is all of the following:
    consciously manufactured
    An art historian does all of the following:
    analyze all the information he can gather
    draw conclusions about a work or time period
    develop theories about a work or time period
    Questions that an art history major would ask:
    When was the work created?
    How did the artist come to create the work?
    What is the subject?
    Was there a patron who commissioned the work?
    Who were the artist’s teachers?
    Who was the audience?
    Who did the artist influence?
    Was the artist’s oeuvre shaped by historical events or artistic movements?
    What effect, if any, did the work have on artistic, political, and social events?
    If you paid an artist to paint a picture of your dog for your living room wall, she might consider you her _____.
    When an art historian looks at the formal elements, he is examining _____.
    the individual design elements of the work
    When we look at objects in a painting for their symbolic values, we are using which approach?
    an iconographic approach
    If an artist were trying to represent the concept of “liberty” through personification, the artist would paint _____.
    a robed woman with a torch
    The style of a particular work may tell us all of the following
    the period the style is from;
    the region;
    the elements of the style that belong to an individual artist; and
    the qualities of the work that do not fit into a particular category.
    All of the following are examples of materials
    pigments, clay, stone, marble, metals, canvas, papyrus
    All of the following are examples of tools
    flint, brushes, chisels, pens, charcoal
    a small object worn to ward off evil, harm, or illness or to bring good fortune; protecting charm
    a tarlike substance
    the horizontal beam or crosspiece over a door or window that carries the weight of the structure above it
    description of a structure made of large, roughly hewn stones
    a large single block or piece of stone
    a trait of people who do not live in one place but rather travel around, hunting and gathering food where they can find it
    a hydrated (containing water) iron oxide compound
    oolitic limestone
    sedimentary rock consisting of tiny spherical concentric grains
    relief sculptures
    pictures carved in such a way that the figures stand out from the background
    a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, and so on
    a three-part construction of two monoliths topped by a lintel
    twisted perspective
    each part of the body is shown so that the image most easily represents the original
    The paintings in the Lascaux cave were discovered by _____.
    four teenage boys
    The Venus of Willendorf and other similar statuettes have the following characteristics
    fertility features
    no specific identity
    exaggerated anatomy
    Paleolithic cave art predominantly features all of the following themes
    animal images, handprints, geometric figures, and dots.
    The work of the Paleolithic artists stands out today because
    the artists had an understanding of depth and movement that was not seen again until many thousands of years later
    The human figure found in Ain Ghazal is
    of indeterminate gender
    In the Neolithic period, art flourished because _____
    people were able to settle into permanent villages
    The caves at Lascaux were closed in 1963 because _____
    the collective breath of the many visitors caused the paintings to corrode
    All of the following are known to be true about Stonehenge
    it is an accurate solar calendar
    it was built in three phases
    some stones weigh as much as fifty tons
    It took approximately how many years for Stonehenge to be built?
    Unit 1
    Paleolithic art was created between 32000 BC and 9000 BC. and can be divided into two categories: portable art and cave art.
    Portable art was usually small and made of limestone.
    Cave art covered great expanses of walls and ceilings in underground chambers.
    Paleolithic artists usually depicted animals or geometric designs. They rarely created likenesses of human beings with the exception of the “Venus” statuettes.
    Neolithic art (9000 to 330 BC) brought artistic expression into everyday life. From the way the villages were constructed to the way shrines were decorated, art was an important part of the Neolithic world.
    Statues and paintings found in excavated villages show an increased and more sophisticated depiction of human figures.
    In addition to these statues and paintings, megalithic structures such as Stonehenge were created by many generations of people, but the purpose of the structures and even the identity of the builders remains a mystery.
    cuneiform script
    writing typified by the use of wedge-shaped characters
    the process of separating metals from their ores and preparing them for use; the technique or science of making and compounding alloys; the technique of working or heating metals to give them certain desired shapes or properties
    a large stone monument; plural is stelae
    The first major city in Sumer was
    Ziggurats were made of
    mud bricks
    Babylonian culture was based on
    Sumerian culture
    Mesopotamia means
    between two rivers
    Assyrian artists primarily depicted
    Hunting and battle
    The purpose of the winged bull that guarded the king’s palaces was
    To ward off evil
    crowning projections
    a ruling family that covers more than one generation
    any sculpted or painted band in a building
    refers to having gable, a triangular section above your door or window
    Which of the following leaders founded the Persian Empire?
    Cyrus the Great
    Sculptures that decorated buildings came in two styles. ones were carvings that had more of a three-dimensional effect while sculptures were very close to the original wall
    Which city did Alexander the Great sack and burn?
    The Second Persian Empire became famous for its prized
    Two major themes of Persian art were:
    Fighting and War
    sun-dried brick
    north-south orientation so that building doors open east to west, corresponding to the daily passage of the sun
    plural of codex — screen-fold books of paper produced from fiber or the bark of various plants or deerskin
    one stone is extended above another to form an archlike shape
    paintings made on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments
    the original inhabitants of an area
    a picture representing a word or idea
    Mesoamerican lives were regulated by all of the following
    life and death
    natural phenomena
    cycles of the sun and moon
    All of the following are chronological divisions of pre-Columbian civilizations
    the pre-Classic, or Formative, period (1500 BC to AD 300)
    the Classic, or Florescent, period (300 to 900)
    the post-Classic period (900 to 1540)
    Early Mesoamerican cultures were based around:
    The oldest known pre-Columbian civilization was the:
    What natural resources are available in the Andes mountains
    The earliest civilization known to exist in the Andes region was the:
    The ____________ were partially known for their massive pyramids, human sacrifices, and ornate body ornaments
    Explain briefly how the Nazca decorated their pots compared to how the Moche did it.
    The Nazca painted images directly onto their clay pots while the Moche created figures from the clay.
    Sometimes referred to as the “Napoleon of the Andes” for his great expansion of the early Inca Empire.
    Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
    The Incas were credited with creating:
    rope suspension bridges
    irrigation canals
    large temples, palaces, fortresses, and public works
    The Incas were known for all of the following
    textiles colored with natural dyes
    painted images on clay pots
    small figurines made of metal
    The ancient Andean civilizations can be divided into three categories: the pre-Classical, the Classical, and the post-Classical.
    The Chavín people created stone temples and beautiful pottery. The Moche built adobe pyramids. Their artwork was designed to appease the gods.
    The Incas were one of the great civilizations of all time. They built cities of precisely cut stone and left artifacts of pottery, metalwork and fabric.
    Much of Inca artwork was motivated by their religion.
    Machu Picchu, a sacred city high in the mountains, contains ruins that help us understand the Inca civilization. Vestiges of their culture survive today in their Peruvian descendents.
    families that maintained political power for more than one generation
    picture words
    spirit or soul
    large, flat pieces made of mud-brick
    a technique for preserving bodies
    an outer coffin made of stone; for royalty it might be made of gold or silver
    small figures representing servants
    What were the three purposes of the temples and tombs of ancient Egypt?
    to ensure the continued success of a great people
    to enable souls to live on into eternity
    to honor the gods
    Steps of mummification
    First, the body was embalmed
    The brains were then extracted through the nostrils piece by piece, and the nostrils were sealed with wax
    The body was filled with natron, a natural salt, which helped it dry.
    After seventy days, the body cavity was filled with various materials
    Then they covered the body in aromatic oils
    ready to be wrapped in strips of linen
    the body was deposited into a coffin that was sometimes “nested” inside one or more other coffins
    Ruins of what kinds of facilities for the pyramid workers have been found?
    bakeries, breweries, granaries, houses, cemeteries, and probably even medical facilities
    The architect, Senemut, built a great mortuary for which Egyptian leader?
    Queen Hatshepsu
    Which of the following individuals was not a leader of ancient Egypt?
    scientists who study the history of ancient Egypt
    facing forward
    polished spherical or solid oval stone with a cylindrical hollow right through for mounting the stone on a stick or shaft palettes: decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
    decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
    using artistic forms and conventions to create effects; not natural or spontaneous
    What are some of the things that engravings of the first people of the Nile Valley depicted?
    Ordinary events, hunting wild game, boats, and herds of cattle
    Kingdoms of Egyptian civilization
    the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom
    The Egyptian civilization rose out of a primitive predynastic civilization around 3000 BC and continued until 31 BC.
    The artwork of the Egyptians retained certain characteristics throughout the period, though there were some modifications.
    The art was generally in service of the gods, the pharaohs or the government and was often dedicated to ensuring a good afterlife for the nobility.
    Artwork came in many forms — from giant statues to small pieces of jewelry and pottery and even writing.
    Human figures were idealized; statues were fit homes for the gods and the wealthy adorned themselves with art in the form of jewelry and clothing.
    vessel made for storing and transporting wine and foodstuffs
    consisting of or bounded by curved lines
    a technique used to create the illusion of an object receding into the background, large in front and smaller in the back
    carved or engraved
    porches or walkways with a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building
    characterized by straight lines
    a liquid used in the making of ceramic
    Greece is known as the birthplace of Western
    The prehistoric Aegeans created figurines representing females. Look at the statuette at the beginning of the lesson. The figure is portrayed using the ….. geometric shape.
    Greek art is characterized by the representation of …. beings
    The Greek geographer Pausanias visited the city of … and described the temple of Demeter and a statue of Poseidon.
    Statues from the Archaic period are characterized by a facial expression known as the … smile.
    The Greeks developed styles of
    columns … the Doric and Ionic.
    plural of axis, which means a straight line meeting certain conditions
    a human pose captured in a painting or a sculpture in which the head and shoulders are turned in a different direction from the legs and hips
    panels on the Doric frieze of a Greek temple.
    a story passed on through oral tradition that eventually is accepted as historical truth
    a thin cylindrical shape that narrows at one end
    terra cotta
    a brownish-orange earthenware clay
    The Late Classical Greek art period saw a new, detailed characterization of … in the visual arts.
    Most of the sculptures from the later Classical Greek art period are … because they were made from molds.
    To counteract the apparent distortions of perspective in the Parthenon, the architects who designed it actually created a(n) … illusion.
    The Greeks designed and built the Parthenon in honor of which goddess?
    The Classical period of Greek art and architecture ended with the war between Alexander the Great and the
    The sculptor … oversaw building and decorating the Parthenon.
    In Greek mythology, the nine … were the patron-goddesses of the arts.
    Classical Greek
    The Classical period began with the defeat of the Persians under the tyrant, Xerxes.
    Greek sculpture evolved from the stiff archaic figures to figures that were twisted and lifelike. Artists finally managed to achieve ideal proportions of the human figure.
    The Parthenon is one of the great architectural achievements of all time.
    The great statue of Athena within the Parthenon has disappeared, and many of the marble statues were taken to England by Lord Elgin where they remain today — to the consternation of many Greeks.
    The Classical period ended with the rise of Alexander the Great, at which point the Hellenistic period began.
    a dull surface that develops on a metal over time
    dark local limestone
    a gift of gratitude to a deity
    Etruscans had a strong belief in _____.
    The Etruscans lived in the area known as _____.
    The Etruscans made sculptures in all of the following materials
    terra cotta
    The Etruscan civilization is considered to be the forerunner of _____.
    Etruscan sculpture often incorporated mythological creatures.
    The Etruscans, however, tended to flatten the lower part of the body and focus on the upper part with expressive faces and arms.
    Etruscan painting was highly developed and used pigments created from stone and minerals.
    The Etruscans, a great civilization that lasted approximately eight hundred years, lived in the area we now call Tuscany in the northwest of Italy.
    Because of abundant mineral resources, they were a wealthy nation and created great art, especially bronze and terra cotta statues. They were dominated by their religion and believed strongly in fate.
    Much of what we know about Etruscan art comes from their tomb art, including painted frescoes and carved reliefs. The human figures in these artworks tend to emphasize expressive faces and arms. The statues are shown with a smile similar to the Greek Archaic smile.
    The Romans eventually conquered the Etruscans and adopted much of their culture.
    inner room or sanctuary of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, in which the statue of the god was situated
    Roman magistrate, comparable with a prime minister or a president
    made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources
    a political order whose head of state is not a king or queen; government is elected by at least some portion of the citizens
    indifferent to pain or pleasure
    The ancestors of the Roman portrait bust can be traced to the stylized heads on _____ funerary jars and urns.
    Maybe: Etruscan
    Early Roman temples followed the floor plans from which civilization
    Mosaics were rare, but murals were fairly common. Four Pompeian styles of mural painting have been identified.
    The First Style (popular between about 120 and 80 BC) — based on Greek interior decoration, sometimes called the Incrustation Style. Painted plaster relief is used to imitate the appearance of the lavish marble-riveted walls of the very wealthy.
    The Second Style (80 to 15 BC) — used perspective to create the illusion of vast spaces beyond the surface of the wall. Colonnades, gardens, theatrical stages, and round temples were popular motifs.
    The Third Style (20-10 BC) — was more ornate and less reliant on illusion.
    The Fourth Style (60-63 BC) — was a synthesis of the second and third styles.
    The Roman republic’s primary ruling body was the:
    The Roman adoption of many Etruscan and Greek styles of art
    The eclectic style of Roman art and the creation of the Roman style
    Roman preservation of Greek art
    Specific examples of the early empire and the Roman Republic recovered within the ruins of Pompeii
    a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
    barrel vault
    an extension of the simple arch that forms a tunnel-like structure; a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
    a public building for assemblies, rectangular in plan and with a columned aisle on each side
    a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, and displays featuring trained animals, jugglers, and acrobats
    The first emperor of the Roman Empire was:
    Julius Caesar
    The Roman civilization is credited with constructing all of the following
    The following was built by the Romans
    Column of Trajan
    Following were Roman architectural innovations
    barrel vaults
    windows that let in light
    After the Roman Empire was divided, there were two capitals. What were they?
    the extraordinary public works of the Roman Empire, including the Colosseum, aqueducts, and temples
    the role Roman ingenuity had in promoting a higher quality of living
    the much fabled arches and monuments that typify the glory of Rome
    the synthesis of beauty and utility found in Roman innovations such as the rounded arch, the barrel vault, the dome, concrete, and glass
    an aisle circling the site of the choir or altar in a cathedral
    a large niche, semicircular or polygonal in shape and usually vaulted, protruding from the end wall of a building in a Christian Church; it contains the altar
    an enclosed area in the front of a house or building that allows the sunlight to permeate the space. Sometimes it can be open and sometimes covered by a skylight.
    building used for baptismal rites and containing the baptismal font; sometimes merely a bay or chapel reserved for baptisms
    underground burial sites
    the central approach to the high altar. (from Latin navis meaning “ship,” suggested by the keel shape of its vaulting)
    an igneous rock distinguished by the a groundmass of minerals embedded with crystals
    shrines dedicated to those killed for their religion
    a large burial chamber, usually above ground
    The Christians in Jerusalem met in the catacombs for their worship services.
    The early Christians all used the sign of the cross from the very beginning.
    What is the most basic reason Christians began to build church buildings, or have them built?
    They needed a public place of worship.
    What are some of the items of metalwork made for the Christian altar?
    wine vessels
    early Christian art as it was first practiced in the catacombs
    Christian funerary art
    the two styles of the Christian basilica
    the Christian tendency to decorate manuscripts and altar pieces
    a concept that is open to many interpretations due to its lack of specific or concrete information
    a line of arches and their supporting columns
    knights who went to the holy land from Europe on what they saw as a quest to free Jerusalem from Islam and to find holy relics
    a recess in a wall meant to house a statue
    a triangular curved surface between two arches and beneath a dome
    Diocletian restored order to Rome and instituted important reforms.
    Byzantium looked to the west for cultural inspiration.
    Constantinople became a religious center and a melting pot of eastern and western cultures.
    Constantinople was located on the site of the ancient city Byzantium.
    Mosaics were well adapted to express the mystic character of Orthodox Christianity.
    Fresco painting was preferred in Byzantine art
    Church architecture dominant in Byzantine period
    The conglomeration of the buildings of the Hagia Sophia seem to rise in this shape
    In 1453, the Hagia Sophia was turned into
    a mosque
    Muslims added these to the exterior of the Hagia Sophia
    A sacred image representation is called
    an icon
    Exterior walls of Hagia Sophia are this
    Pendentives in the Hagia Sophia are this shape
    Mosaics were created with small cubes of this
    painted glass
    Artist uses this in the mosaic of Empress Theodora to create the effect of drapery
    light and dark
    Fresco painting eventually replaced this type of art, due to its cost
    In “Raising of Lazarus,” the gap between Lazarus’s corpse and the living Savior represents this
    He overthrew Constantinople in 1453
    Mehmed II
    Byzantine Orthodox Christian art and its religious purposes
    the fusion of Greco-Roman and Oriental styles to create the unique Byzantine style
    the high level of organization and decoration used for Byzantine churches
    the far reach of the Byzantine artistic legacy
    an Islamic supreme leader, considered a successor to Muhammad
    the use of line in a flowing, flamboyant manner
    engaged in the worship of images or idols
    the direction in which Muslims pray (facing toward the Kaaba, a holy place in Mecca)
    an enclosed courtyard
    a rough portico
    Minarets and domes are common features of mosques.
    The architectural feature of the Islamic artists that came from the Romans was _____.
    the horseshoe arch…?
    The Shrine of the Dome of the Rock is located in _____.
    the atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque
    The atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque is _____.
    an oasis of peace and tranquility with trees, lawns, and fountains
    Pottery was an important and innovative art form in Islamic art.
    The favored metal of Islamic artists is _____.
    the influence of earlier civilizations on Islamic art — notably Greece, Persia, and Byzantine
    the adoption of Christian basilicas into mosques
    the work of the great Islamic architect Sinan
    the depiction of elaborate geometric and floral designs
    Islamic pottery, glass, manuscript illumination, bronze and rugs
    a large cup used to hold the wine believed to become the blood of Christ in the ritual of the Catholic Mass
    covered walk within a monastery or nunnery often looking onto a courtyard
    delicate gold or silver ornaments commonly made of twisted wire
    containers or shrines for relics; these may be the physical remains of saints
    Name the three elements that blend to make early Medieval art.
    Greek/Roman remnants
    Celtic-Germanic culture
    Name two items found in the Anglo-Saxon burial mounds at Sutton Hoo.
    A viking ship with treasure
    cloisonné shoulder clasps
    When Patrick returned to Ireland in 433 AD, he set about to evangelize the _____.
    a plant from the Mediterranean that is used the decorate paintings within manuscripts
    the area of a church where the singers stand
    a row of windows on top of the wall
    a sequence of decorative figures that are in the shape of an egg
    the art of building something with stones and/or bricks
    a support used in masonry that is larger than a column
    an upper story over an aisle, opening on to the nave; also called a gallery
    passage with arcade
    a triangle-shaped decorative region that is located between an arch and the bar of a window
    People living during the Middle Ages were:
    active in pilgrimages
    very superstitious
    Paintings and sculpture were often used in houses of worship for what purposes?
    Beautify and instruct
    The following are characteristics of Romanesque churches
    massive structure
    clerestory windows
    round arches capping doors and windows
    pointed arches
    decorations of moldings, carvings and sculptures
    The leaning tower of Pisa was begun in _____.
    The design plan known as a chevet included a long choir with _____ side aisles.
    The prevalence of Romanesque architecture during the Medieval period is also evident in England.
    The Basilica … of presents the evils of Lust and Despair.
    Saint Mary Magladene
    Romanesque art is often characterized by:
    long, angular, flat figures
    the influence of the classical Roman period on Romanesque art and architecture
    the incorporation of relief carvings, vaults, arches and domes in the churches and monasteries of Medieval Europe
    the introduction of Romanesque architecture in England by the Normans
    the resurgence of stone sculpture
    abbot-the superior of an abbey of monks
    laity-in Christianity, members of a religious community who do not have the priestly responsibilities of ordained clergy
    medallion-circular panel of several pieces of glass leaded together
    monochromatic-consisting of one color
    opaque-does not reflect light
    rood screen-a screen that separates the nave and the choir in a churchl
    tracery-the bars of a Gothic window; these bars create a matrix or decorative pattern
    transept-the north and south projections or “arms” of the cross
    transverse-lying across; imagine lying a stick lying across the tracks
    vellum-animal skin used for art and writing
    Vocab for
    Which of the following cities was the intellectual center of Europe at the end of the eleventh century?
    Following are characteristics of Gothic architecture
    pointed arches
    flying buttresses (see description below)
    the altar at the far east end (cut off from the laity)
    rood screen and long choir
    pointed transverse arches
    thin intersecting arches
    light masonry cells
    Gothic stained glass windows
    rose windows — large medallion, located high in the west end and the transept.
    storytelling windows — subject matter includes Biblical stories as well as stories from the lives of Christ and the saints.
    monochromatic panes of white glass — admitted more light and were less expensive.
    illustrations of guild craftsmen at their work. The stained glass “light painting” in the cathedral at Chartres, above, is believed to be the masterpiece of the 13th century. With 176 windows shooting beams of colored light into the interior, the cathedral attains a jewel-like quality.
    The Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture was known for its:
    radiating patterns of rose windows
    All of the following are characteristics of the Strasbourg style
    emphasis on emotion
    draping effect of stone clothing
    emphasis on dramatic gestures
    the towering cathedrals of the Gothic age
    the use of innovations like flying buttresses, pointed arches, and ribbed vaults in cathedrals
    the elaborate stone work used to adorn cathedral façade
    the careful use of stained glass in strategic locations around cathedrals
    the naturalistic sculptures that decorated the interior and exteriors of cathedrals
    French Gothic
    animated- full of life
    expressionistic -from Expressionism, a style that often has an emotional dimension
    lancet-long, narrow window with pointed head
    lyricism-characterized by emotion, subjectivity, and imagination.
    Vocab Gothic Dissemination
    A main difference between English Gothic and French Gothic is _____.
    the English were not as concerned with height
    The Perpendicular style is characterized by all
    vertical lines in the tracery and paneling
    elaborate traceried fan vaulting
    roofs of complex open-timber
    Spanish architects borrowed heavily from the French “flamboyant” style, a term derived from _____.
    s-curved flamelike tracery
    German and French Gothic cathedrals are similar in all what ways
    soaring heights
    lack of breadth and openness
    not possessing a strongly projecting transept
    Nicola Pisano’s carvings at Pisa emphasize the individuality of the human figure.
    The Italians rejected Gothic architecture
    Giotto is considered the “Father of Western art.”
    the adoption of French Gothic architecture by several other European countries
    the evolution of French Gothic architecture when absorbed by other cultures, e.g., the Perpendicular style in England
    the synthesis of the French Gothic and classical Roman styles demonstrated in Italy
    the role of Italian painter Giotto in setting the stage for Renaissance art
    Gothic Dissemnation
    altarpiece- a decorative piece such as a painting or sculpture that is used to ornament the church altar. It is the table where Mass is performed.
    genre- a style of painting that depicts scenes from everyday life
    glazes- thin, semi-transparent layers put over color
    polyptych- characterized by four or more sections or panels
    print – a picture or design printed from an engraving
    surreal- dreamlike; resembling a dream
    virtuoso- performer of exceptional technical skill
    What are three themes that became important during the Renaissance?
    The most important thing that happened in the Renaissance era was the sudden concern with _____.
    Explain briefly in what way Jan van Eyck’s artwork is well-known.
    Jan van Eyck’s artwork is most well-known for realism and the use of light, as well as his unidealized realism portraits, which is much different than classical antiquity or Greco-Roman art.
    Brueghel the Elder adapted the early style of _____
    the innovations in painting and print-making during the Renaissance in Northern Europe
    Jan van Eyck’s role in the introduction of oil painting
    early examples of symbolism in painting
    the emotional qualities of Hugo van der Goes’ work
    the first Protestant painter, Albrecht Dürer
    the attention paid to perspective and proportion by painters.
    Northern European
    patronage- a system whereby wealthy persons funded artists by commissioning artworks
    trompe l’oeil- a painting that fools the eye
    Italian Renaissance
    Cosimo Medici hired Brunelleschi to build a _____ for a cathedral in Florence.
    Masaccio is responsible for ushering in a new approach to painting that was naturalistic. This approach was less about details and decoration and more focused on simplicity and unity. It was concerned more with illusion of three-dimensionality.
    While Renaissance artists preferred to glorify the body; in the Middle ages, the body was seen as _____.
    an obstacle
    In the painting The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, the human figures are _____.
    The Early Renaissance period in Italy and how it related to architecture, sculpture, and painting
    Ghiberti and Donatello’s roles in introducing Renaissance ideals of realistic human figures in sculpture
    The refinement of earlier techniques by Botticelli and Mantegna
    Italian Ren
    atmospheric perspective- sequentially using lighter colors for each region of the painting. This technique creates a sense of distance for objects that are distant in the painting
    chiaroscuro- using light and shadow to define forms
    codex- book composed of folded sheets sewn along one edge
    optics- the branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light
    sfumato- (from the Italian for smoke) an imperceptible, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line
    Vocab for Leonardo da Vinci
    While in Milan, da Vinci created _____ for the Milan Cathedral dome. Select all that apply.
    theatre designs
    pieta- picture or sculpture of Mary mourning with her dead son Jesus Christ across her lap
    Michelangelo’s name
    Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
    Why did Michelangelo sculpt the mother figure in his Pieta as a young woman?
    Mary, the mother in the painting, was depicted as a young woman to symbolize the purity of the soul
    Which of the following is NOT one of the stories depicted in the Sistine Chapel?
    God Separating Light from Darkness
    Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve
    Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve
    The Flood
    The Last Judgement (along the back wall)
    Michelangelo restored and enhanced the design of ______, while he was the chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.
    Where is the original wooden model of the dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica (created by Michelangelo) located?
    The Vatican
    Michelangelo’s preferred art form was _____.
    For the dome’s exterior, Michelangelo used a ribbed design from what city?
    Michelangelo’s life and famous works, such as:

    Sistine Chapel
    Saint Peter’s Basilica

    devotional imagery- artwork produced for the purposes of worship, prayer or religious instruction or inspiration
    lyrical- expressing deep emotion
    stanze- rooms
    symmetrical- a mirror-image (though not exact) balance
    tone- the feeling created by the picture
    Great Ren Painters
    Raphael was an assistant and student under the painter
    Which of the following is not one of Raphael’s paintings?
    Venus of Urbino
    How did the Catholic Church pay for the many religious works of art?
    Which of the following artists is responsible for painting on canvas and helping to make this a common practice?
    Titian’s paintings can be characterized by which of the following?
    vibrant color
    free brushwork
    atmospheric tone
    monumental figures
    idealized landscapes
    Raphael’s three-dimensionality in his paintings
    Raphael’s use of chiaroscuro
    harmony within Raphael’s work
    the poetic qualities of Titian’s work
    the symbols used by Titian in his work, often portrayed by vibrant colors and free brushstrokes, which are considered poetic
    ambiguity- open to two or more interpretations
    artifice- made by intention and not nature, skillful and clever, sometimes tricky
    calligraphic- using flowing, decorative lines
    mysticism- immediate consciousness of the transcendent or ultimate reality or God
    The following are characteristics of Mannerist painting?
    imbalanced composition (often circular rather than pyramid)
    visual complexity and ambiguity
    unusual depictions of traditional themes
    themes of courtly behavior and sophistication
    All of the following were Mannerist artists
    El Greco’s work
    Saint Dominic in Prayer
    The Holy Family
    The Burial of the Count of Orgaz
    … was the most influential architect of the Mannerist period.
    the hallmarks of the Renaissance — centralization and harmony
    mannerism as a reaction against harmony
    the distorted proportions of the human figure in Mannerism
    Pontormo as the first significant Mannerist painter
    Mannerism ideas
    baldachin a- pillared canopy
    luminosity- having the quality of light
    verisimilitude- possessing the quality of truth
    Italian Baroque art
    If a painting has verisimilitude, it is _____.
    A person in the Baroque period would most likely _____.
    be more open-minded about religion and science than previous people
    Qualities of the Baroque era include all of the following
    sense of movement
    feeling of infinite space In painting and sculpture, light and shadow contrast to create a dramatic effect
    Italian Baroque architecture is typified by all of the following except _____.
    simple, unadorned facades
    Caravaggio’s work was shocking because of _____.
    The intended effect of Bernini’s colonnade at Saint Peter’s Church is _____.
    to embrace people in the “arms” of the Catholic Church
    Who was the patron of Velázquez?
    Phillip IV
    the contradiction and conflict of the Baroque period
    the beginnings of the scientific revolution, as defined by the prominence of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton
    the flourishing of religious art despite enhanced secularization
    motion, energy, and drama in Baroque art
    Caravaggio’s extreme realism
    carravesque- in the style of Caravaggio
    sensuous- appealing to the senses; taking delight in beauty
    still lifes- arrangements of non-human objects in an artful manner
    voluptuous- having a large bosom and pleasing curves; having strong sexual appeal
    Northern European Baroque Art
    When the Dutch Protestants rebelled against the Roman Catholic church, the Spanish king quelled the uprising.
    Dutch merchants were interested in what kind of artwork?
    still lifes
    genre painting
    Peter Paul Rubens’s artistic style can be characterized by all of the following
    animated, exuberant, and sensuous.
    The famous Dutch painter whose qualities included glowing light against dark backgrounds and truthful rendering of his subjects was:
    Some called Rembrandt’s technique
    One contemporary painter called Rembrandt’s paintings a mess of this:
    He had tremendous control over this:
    The result seems like this
    Every coincidence adds to the effect of the perfect
    wizardly, smudges, medium, coincidence, illusion
    Dutch painter Jan Vermeer was famous for his _____.
    Composition and use of space
    the characteristics of Italian Baroque art were whole-heartedly adopted and transformed by artists in Northern Europe.
    Flanders and the Dutch Republic produced three of the greatest artists of all time: Peter Paul Rubens, who painted sensuous pictures featuring voluptuous women (female figures who inspired the term “Rubenesque”); Rembrandt, whose dazzling virtuosity in chiaroscuro and in “coarse” realism set a new standard; and Vermeer, who used light in a dramatic way.
    in France, the Palace of Versailles provided an example of quintessential Baroque architecture.
    arabesque- an ornament that interlaces simulated foliage in an intricate design
    grotto- a small cave; an artificial cavern-like retreat
    iridescent having- a play of lustrous rainbow colors
    opulence- rich showiness; overabundance
    satirize- to ridicule or mock
    The Swing by Jean Honoré Fragonard embodies the spirit of the French Revolution.
    Hogarth’s Marriage A-la-Mode paintings correspond to, and sometimes deliberately evoke, French art and Rococo design.
    The eighteenth-century in France and England was a time of great changes
    The middle class grew richer and stronger
    The printing press meant that many more people were literate
    While the aristocracy promoted an opulent art style in France, the English were exploring the idea of liberty in art, landscape and society
    Painters such as Watteau and Fragonard in France emphasized love and sex. In England, painters such as Gainsborough and Hogarth painted portraits that both romanticized and satirized the aristocracy.
    diffused- a light that spreads soft shadows, may be filtered through translucent material
    empiricism- the doctrine that says sense experience is the only source of knowledge
    intelligentsia- the intellectuals of a particular time and place
    salon- a gathering of people for the purposes of discussion
    treatise- a written work on a particular subject
    tyranny- dictatorship: a government that is ruled by one dictator, who is usually brutal
    The Enlightenment and Neuroclassicism
    Denis Didero once stated that all of the following were means to acquiring knowledge
    observation of nature, reflection, and experimentation
    Which of the following men was an outspoken critic in regards to the perceived tyranny of church and state?
    The following correctly describe the ideals of Enlightenment thinkers?
    noble simplicity
    Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia is call Monticello, which in Italian means _____.
    little mountain
    All of the following describe Jacques-Louis David’s painting, Oath of the Horatii, except for:
    simple palette
    The eighteenth century was a time of major political upheaval, when the middle class grew larger, becoming richer and better educated, and demanded freedom from oppressive policies of the church and state
    In the United States of America, the Constitution also demanded a separation of church and state
    The ideals of the Enlightenment took root in Neoclassical art; artists working in the Neoclassical style looked to ancient Greece and Rome for their inspiration
    They abandoned the ornate opulence of the Baroque and Rococo periods and instead focused on creating clean, balanced compositions
    The figures in these artworks tended to be heroic, and the work typically carried a moral meaning.
    Enlight Neo
    lucid- transparently clear; easily understandable
    sublime- the quality of greatness or vast magnitude, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, or artistic
    value- relative darkness or lightness of a color
    Select all the qualities that are typical of Romantic art.
    The sensibility of Romanticism is feeling.
    We consider Goya’s painting The Third of May to be “Romantic” because _____.
    it conveys strong emotions
    Death of Saranapalus by Delacroix demonstates all of the following except _____.
    a balanced and harmonious composition
    Modern artists have rejected Romanticism and are more influenced by Classical works.
    Romanticism was set into motion by the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher and writer
    Romantics were inspired by emotions rather than reason and they had a desire for freedom and individuality
    Such painters as Fuseli, Goya, Gericault, Delacroix and Friedrich employed dramatic subjects, severe light and dark contrasts, and violent compositions to create an emotional charge in their work
    English and American painters such as Turner and Cole took these same qualities and applied them to landscapes

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