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    Unit 7 – Populism and Progressivism

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    Political boss
    rich & fraudulent person who controlled a city; Boss Tweed; got rich through corruption; assisted the poor/immigrants in return for support through voting
    Civil service reform
    getting rid of the spoils system; big goal of Populists & Progressives, but difficult to do because the parties relied on it to get support
    subtreasury plan
    the Populists included it in the Omaha Platform; farmers would put some crops in subtreasuries in return for loans – like pawning
    free silver
    movement for the free coinage of silver; the Coinage Act of 1873 had restored the country to the gold standard; silver Democrats were NOT happy about this – called it the “crime of ’73”; William Jennings Bryan & his “cross of gold” speech
    Tammany Hall
    not an actual place; name of the scheme of Boss Tweed & his associates in NYC to get votes out of immigrants
    Pendleton Act
    said that 10% of government jobs would require some kind of test – Presidents couldn’t just appoint their friends or supporters; one of the first steps in civil service reform
    Farmer’s Alliance
    organized movement of farmers who wanted a society of yeomen farmers like Jefferson had; later turned into the Populist party
    Boss Tweed
    NYC political boss who was very corrupt; Tammany Hall; arrested, escaped to Spain but was recognized from one of Thomas Nast’s cartoons
    Charles Guiteau
    around Garfield’s time as Pres., the Repub. party was divided into Stalwarts & Half-Breeds; when Garfield was elected he appointed a Half-Breed to a position – Guiteau, a Stalwart, thought that position should’ve been his & assassinated Garfield
    James Blaine
    ran against Cleveland; lost mainly because of his association with the Mulligan letters – corruption w/ railroads
    James B. Weaver
    1892 Presidential candidate for the Populists; didn’t win
    Mary Ellen Lease
    suffragist, involved in temperance movement, speaker for the Populists – “raise less corn and more hell”
    William Jennings Bryan
    silver Democrat – delivered “Cross of Gold” speech; nominated for Pres. in 1896; he lost to McKinley (lost to him again in 1900); Populists also elected him
    Marcus Alonzo Hanna
    Ohio businessman who supported McKinley’s “front-porch campaign”; marked a new era of campaigning b/c campaigns had never been mixed with business before
    William McKinley
    Republican President, won in 1896 and in 1800; assassinated shortly after 2nd election; front-porch campaign – delivered his speeches to crowds on the front porch of his house – support from Hanna helped him win even though Bryan had the support of 2 parties
    journalists that dug up dirt on issues of the time; The Jungle by Sinclair, Henry Demarest Lloyd & Ida Tarbell exposed Standard Oil, Lincoln Steffens “The Shame of the Cities: attacked political machines
    Ashcan artists
    artists that tried to make a new “American Renaissance”; thought they were rebels; Sloan, Henri’s “Gypsy Girl”, Luks
    City manager
    socialist-like system where the head of a city is an elected official who listens to what the people say (less power than a mayor); Dayton, OH adopted this system
    nickname of Teddy Roosevelt b/c he broke up the Standard Oil Trust, Northern Securities Trust (in reality his goal wasn’t to end trusts, it was to make them follow the rules)
    Wisconsin Idea
    system developed by Wisconsin governor Bob LaFollette; direct election of Senators, direct primaries, people have more of a say in government
    Muller v. Oregon
    law passed limiting laundry workers’ hours – SCOTUS says this is unconstitutional b/c women should be allowed to work as long as they want; Louis D. Brandeis uses non-political evidence to prove to the court that it is unhealthy for women to work long hours
    Lochner v. NY
    gov. says 10hr limit for bakers is unconstitutional; Oliver Wendall Holmes dissented, saying the 14th Amendment shouldn’t be used this way
    Triangle Shirtwaist fire
    ~150 women died in a fire @ Triangle Shirtwaist Company; top floors of a building, inadequate fire escapes, owners locked doors to keep union workers out, fire hazards – opened the public’s/government’s eyes, showed them something had to be done
    The Jungle
    novel by Upton Sinclair; meant to promote socialism but instead revealed how terrible the conditions in the meat packing industry were; muckraking novel
    Payne-Aldrich Tariff
    TR & his progressives wanted low tariffs to stimulate trade, but the Senate pressured Taft into signing this; this made the tariffs very high – one of the ways that Taft split from TR
    New Nationalism
    TR’s political campaign idea in 1912 election vs. Wilson; said laissez-faire is dead; best for government to expand & make sure that everyone plays fairly
    Federal Reserve Act
    Wilson created this; 1st national bank since the Bank of the US; bank for bankers (6% invested); US split into 12 banking districts
    Clayton Antitrust Act
    more powerful version of the Sherman Antitrust Act passed under Wilson; stricter, harder to circumvent
    Lincoln Steffens
    NY reporter/muckraker; wrote “The Shame of the Cities”
    Robert M. “Bob” LaFollette
    Wisconsin governor; proposed the Wisconsin Idea
    Susan B. Anthony
    leader in the women’s suffrage movement; headed the NWSA & later the NAWSA after it joined with AWSA
    Margaret Sanger
    feminist; advocate of birth control; rejected the Victorian ideals of purity; advocated sex ed; founder of organizations that developed into Planned Parenthood
    Gifford Pinchot
    TR had appointed him b/c he was a conservationist; fired by Taft after arguing w/ Ballinger about coal mining in Alaska; didn’t want to open Alaska to mining
    Carl Sandburg
    writer, wrote in free verse, wrote about Abraham Lincoln

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    Unit 7 – Populism and Progressivism. (2017, Aug 31). Retrieved from

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