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    Midterm Exam Notes

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    Musicians date the Baroque period from about ___ to ___.
    1600, 1750
    The first book printed in America (in 1640) was a psalter, the
    Bay Psalm Book
    The great artist Michelangelo died in 1564 on the same day that the scientific man of reason, ____________, was born.
    Galileo
    Seventeenth-century painters shared with contemporary scientists a fascination with the properties and effects of
    light
    During the Baroque period, composers developed the _____ system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note.
    tonal
    Opera
    dramatic vocal work blending visual, literary, and musical arts
    Passion
    works based on the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ
    oratorio
    dramatic vocal work based on a religious subject
    cantata
    multimovement dramatic vocal work on a religious or secular subject
    aria
    songlike vocal piece with orchestral accompanime6unt
    Monteverdi composed
    L’Orfeo
    Bach composed
    Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major
    Handel composed
    Messiah
    Purcell composed
    Dido and Aeneas
    The composer who suggested that the old and new styles represented the “first” and “second” practices of music was
    Claudio Monteverdi
    The text of an opera is called a(n)
    libretto
    All of the following are characteristics of a recitative except
    the melody of a recitative reflects unnatural vocal inflections.
    _________ was the first composer to realize the successful music drama requires a skillful blending of the literary, visual, and the lively arts.
    George Frederic Handel
    The term ___________ is Italian for “beautiful singing”.
    bel canto
    Another name for a virtuoso female singer is a
    prima donna
    The Baroque composer, ____, was born in Germany, spent considerable time in Italy, and eventually became a British citizen.
    Handel
    Although the oratorio shares many characteristics with the opera, its most important difference is its
    religious subject matter
    The world’s best-known and best-loved oratorio is Handel’s
    Messiah
    Johann Sebastian Bach wrote several large choral works based upon the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ called
    Passions
    Bach wrote nearly 200 dramatic religious vocal works called ____, which are short oratorios.
    toccatas
    Most of J. S. Bach’s cantatas (ex. “Wachet Auf”) are based on a familiar ____ tune.
    chorale
    Henry Purcell wrote pieces which revealed his mastery of ground bass. What is ground bass?
    the art of composing a piece over a bass ostinato
    suite
    collection of stylized dances
    toccata
    rhapsodic, virsuosic keyboard form
    fugue
    imitative polyphonic composition
    sonata
    multimovement Baroque composition for one or more solo instruments accompanied by continuo
    prelude
    short independent or introductory piece for keyboard
    terraced dynamics
    abrupt changes in dynamic level
    ritomello
    thematic section played by an orchestra that begins a concerto movement and divides its solo sections
    bass continuo
    supporting bass line of a Baroque composition
    figured bass
    system of musical shorthand by which composers indicated intervals above the bass line
    One of Bach’s greatest legacies was a set of 2 volumes of 24 preludes and fugues called the _______, which included one prelude and fugue in each major and minor key.
    Well-Tempered Clavier
    The short sets of stylized dance pieces for lute or keyboard popular during the Renaissance were expanded in the Baroque to multimovement works called
    suites
    What types of instruments were made by the Stradivari and Guarneri families?
    violins
    The most prolific composer of Baroque concertos, including solo concertos as well as concerto grossi, was
    Vivaldi
    In the early fifteenth century, _____ became the center of business and cultural activity in Europe.
    Florence, Italy
    The Protestant Reformation erupted in Germany in 1517 when ______ brought to public attention ninety-five articles of complaint against the church.
    Martin Luther
    The Renaissance period is known as the Golden Age of
    polyphony
    chorale
    characteristic religious song introduced by Martin Luther
    hymn
    strophic religious song for congregational singing
    psalm tune
    tuneful setting of a psalm suitable for congregational singing
    motet
    religious vocal composition that is through-composed and polyphonic
    strophic form
    two or more stanzas set to the same music
    imitative polyphony
    technique in which each phrase of a composition is addressed by all the voices, which enter successively in imitation of each other.
    The form of a Renaissance motet is
    through-composed
    The use of musical devices to dramatize descriptive words or phrases is called word
    painting
    The Netherlands composer, ____, was considered by his contemporaries to be the greatest composer who ever lived.
    Josquin des Prez
    _____, known as the “Prince of Music”, was a late Renaissance composer whose conservative church music reflectd the values of the Council of Trent.
    Palestrina
    Chorales were _______ in form.
    strophic
    The Calvinists created the _____ for their worship music.
    psalmn tune
    Many of the Masses composed by Josquin des Prez and his contemporaries were based upon secular tunes.
    true
    recorder
    end-blown wind instrument
    consort
    ensemble of several members of the same instrument family
    clavichord
    keyboard instrument capable of producing subtle changes in volume
    viol
    popular bowed instrument
    lute
    plucked string instrument
    The madrigal was like the motet in all the following ways except
    both had religious texts
    The following are all significant differences between the motet and the madrigal except
    the madrigal was written in Latin
    The madrigal originated in Italy but soon became very popular in
    England
    Until the middle of the 16th century, the high-pitched madrigal lines were sung by
    male sopranos
    The madrigal, like the motet, was mostly polyphonic in texture and through-composed in form.
    true
    Renaissance composers were concerned only with setting religious texts to music for worship services and did not appreciate instrumental music.
    false
    tone
    a specific pitch
    pitch
    highness or lowness of sound
    frequency
    the rate of vibration
    dynamic level
    loudness or softness of a sound
    interval
    distance between two tones
    Many Western musicians define music as
    organized sound
    Which of the following are the basic elements of music?
    rhythm, melody, harmony, and timbre
    A faster rate of vibration causes a higher pitch, and a slower rate of vibration causes a lower pitch.
    true
    The term piano means a soft level of volume.
    true
    beat
    the pulse of a piece
    rhythm
    the arrangement of long and short sounds
    tempo
    the speed at which a piece is performed
    rest
    a symbol indicating the cessation of sound
    bar (measure)
    a unit containing a certain number of beats
    The ____________ is an instrument that helps composers indicate the tempo of a composition.
    metronome
    Meter refers to the organization of rhythm into
    metrical patterns of strong and weak beats
    Duple meter has _____ beats per measure.
    two
    Triple meter has ____ beats per measure.
    three
    In metered music, tones may occur on, before, or after the beats.
    true
    A melody consists of one or more parts that are called:
    phrases
    The stopping points that “punctuate” melodic phrases are called
    cadences
    A melody is sometimes referred to as a
    tune
    A short melodic idea that sounds fragmentary is a
    motive
    A melody with a songlike character is
    lyrical
    A melody is a succession of tones logically conceived so as to make musical sense.
    true
    The most commonly used scales in Western music are major and minor.
    true
    texture
    manner in which melodic lines are used in music
    monophony
    one unaccompanied melodic line
    polyphony
    combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines
    homophony
    melodic line accompanied by chordal harmony
    When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of tension and drive, they are said to be:
    dissonant
    Three or more pitches sounding simultaneously to form a whole comprise a
    chord
    When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of stability or rest, they are said to be
    consonant
    A round is an example of _____ texture.
    polyphonic
    A hymn sung with accompaniment is an example of ______ texture.
    homophonic
    low female voice
    contralto or alto
    high female voice
    soprano
    medium female voice
    mezzosoprano
    low male voice
    bass
    medium male voice
    baritone
    high male voice
    tenor
    The quality of sound that is characteristic of a particular voice, instrument, or ensemble is called its
    timbre
    The four families of instruments within an orchestra are the
    strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion
    The instruments in the string family may be played in any of the following ways except
    by blowing into the soundhole
    The woodwind family includes the piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, ____, and bassoon.
    clarinet
    Included in the brass family are the trumpet, ____, trombone, and tuba.
    french horn
    Compared to the harpsichord, the piano allows the performer to play
    with a wider range of dynamic levels
    Percussion instruments that produce definite pitches include the timpani, the chimes, and mallet instruments such as the
    xylophone
    The “king of instruments” is the
    pipe organ
    An electronic instrument that can produce an unlimited variety of sounds as well as modify sounds produced by other sources is the
    synthesizer
    As Western art music has evolved, all of the following has been true except
    the process of change and development has been illogical and random.
    The Medieval Era is referred to as the Dark Ages because
    it was a chaotic period of social and political unrest
    The Medieval period was devoid of art and music.
    false
    Twelfth-century churches in the ______ architectural style raised incredibly delicate walls and towering spires toward heaven.
    gothic
    The most common subject matter for Medieval art is
    religious subjects
    After the fall of Rome in the fifth century A.D., the ________ became the only effective unifying force in the Western world.
    christian church
    unison
    several voices singing the same pitch
    drone
    a sustained or repeated note
    canon
    polyphonic composition in which the voices perform the same melody, starting at different times
    a cappella
    unaccompanied group singing
    Gregorian chant was usually sung in ____ , so that all of the voices sang the same melody at the same time unaccompanied by instruments.
    unison
    In the sixth century A.D., _______ collected, organized, and codified the chants for use by the Christian churches in the Western world.
    Pope Gregory
    The rhythm in Gregorian chant is usually
    free and flexible
    Although Gregorian chant forms the starting point for the Western tradition of art music, it was originally intended to enhance worship rather than to entertain listeners.
    true
    syllabic
    one syllable of text for each note of music
    melismatic
    one syllable of text for several notes of music
    mass
    main Catholic worship service
    proper
    appropriate only at certain times
    ordinary
    appropriate any time
    liturgy
    words spoken during worship service
    The “English sound” refers to music
    that often sounds more modern due to the use of modes that sound major and minor.
    Abbess Hildegard of Bingen was
    a 12th century composer of sacred song and chant
    During the Middle Ages, instruments were used to
    all of the above
    During the 14th century all of the following took place except
    Hildegard of Bingen began creating original compositions for performance in her covenant.
    The first complete setting of the entire Ordinary of the Mass by one composer is thought to be the Missa Notre Dame, by ______, a 14th century poet and musician.
    Guillaume de Machaut

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    Midterm Exam Notes. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/midterm-exam-notes-8168/

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