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    Music Appreciation

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    Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra
    Bretten, 1946;
    Classical;
    Triple meter opening, then duple and compound;
    Homophonic except for the polyphonic ending;
    Togetherness of whole symphony, then highlights separate pieces of the symphony (woodwinds, brass, percussion), and then the whole symphony together again.
    Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
    Hildegard of Bingen, Middle Ages;
    Chant; Sacred;
    Monophonic;
    Mass;
    Gaude Maria virgo
    (Rejoice Mary, virgin)
    Notre Dame School
    Middle Ages
    Genre: Organum
    Monophonic;
    Sustained voice in the background, higher voices have melody/chant.
    Sumer is icumen in
    No composer;
    Middle Ages;
    Genre: Perpetual Round
    “Sing cucu”
    Rounds used
    Secular
    Puis qu’en oubli
    (Since I am forgotten)
    Machaut;
    Renaissance;
    Genre: Chanson;
    Secular;
    Conjunct melody with a low range; slow triple meter; open cadences at phrase endings.
    Ave Maria… virgo serena
    (Hail Mary…gentle virgin)
    Josquin;
    Renaissance;
    genre: Motet;
    sacred;
    duple to triple to duple;
    polyphonic rounds are used.
    Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
    Palestrina;
    Renaissance;
    Mass,ordinary;
    duple;
    starts monophonic, then polyphonic;
    Focus on clarity of words; full, consonant harmony; shifts between high and low range;
    think SHS Concert Choir 2010
    Il bianco e dolce cigno
    (The white and sweet swan)
    Arcadelt
    Renaissance
    Italian madrigal
    Duple, consonant harmony, mostly homophonic;
    word-painting; repetition.
    Fair Phyllis
    Farmer
    Renaissance
    English Madrigal
    Duple to triple to duple.
    Monophonic;
    Light-hearted, dance-like.
    “up and down up and down up and down”
    Three Dances
    Susato
    Renaissance
    Genre: Round dance
    (instrumental)
    duple
    mostly homophonic
    four-piece ensemble (loud wind band– has really obnoxious bagpipes sounding thing)
    Messiah, Aria and Hallelujah chorus
    Handel
    Genre: Oratorio
    (Baroque period)
    I: Christmas section: Rejoice, rejoice (annoying opera girl)
    II: Easter: (Hallelujah Chorus)
    III: Redemption (Not played)
    Dido and Aeneas, Act III
    Purcell
    English Opera
    Baroque;
    Playful tune; sprightly tempo; triple meter; “come away fellow sailors”
    string orchestra, solo male voice and men’s chorus;
    response = female, slow, sad.
    Amor dormiglione
    (Sleepyhead, Cupid!)
    Barbara Strozzi (Barbara Streisand)
    Baroque
    Genre: Da capro aria
    Solo soprano with harpsichord or base lute.
    Consonant Harmony,
    homophonic,
    triple meter, for the most part.
    Italian
    Cantata No. 140 Wachet auf I and IV
    Bach
    Cantata
    Baroque
    I:choir with sopranos and tenors; upbeat.
    IV: slower, tenors, set against counter-melody in strings.
    Water Music
    D major, Alla hornpipe
    Handel
    Baroque
    Genre: Dance suite
    Instrument groups exchange motivic ideas; triple meter; sprightly tempo; polyphonic
    Rondeau, from Suite de symphones
    Mouret
    Baroque
    Genre: Rondeau, from dance suite
    Fanfare-like opening in regular phases;
    duple meter;
    varied dynamics and instrumentation;
    trumpets sticking out.
    Baroque Period
    1600-1750
    Ends with death of Bach.
    Lavish aristocratic courts.
    Instrumental music on equal footing with vocal music.
    Common for (middle-class and up) women to be taught music.
    Renaissance
    1450-1600
    Ends with death of Elizabeth I.
    Middle Ages
    476-1450
    Starts with sacking of Rome.
    Spring, from The Four Seasons
    Vivaldi
    Op.8 No.1
    Baroque
    Programmatic concerto
    Solo violin, string orchestra and basso continuo (keyboard)
    Very common musical piece.
    word-painting of images from Italian sonnet that the piece is based on.
    Contrapunctus 1, from The Art of Fugue
    Bach
    Baroque
    Fugue
    solo Organ playing
    Minor key
    Baroque keyboard instruments
    Organ and harpsichord
    Baroque brass instruments
    baroque trumpet, baroque horn, sackbut
    Baroque woodwind instruments
    transverse flute, oboe, recorder, bassoon
    Basso continuo
    Used to supply accompaniment with solo singers or to provide harmony for orchestra. Comprised of harpsichord and cello.
    Figured bass
    Shorthand notation usually supplied for the basso continuo to understand the harmony that goes along with the more specific composition written for the orchestra.
    Two types of concertos
    solo and grosso.
    Solo concerto
    one instrument with orchestral accompaniment; most common today.
    Concerto grosso
    group of solo instruments with orchestral accompaniment;
    unique to baroque period.
    Parts of concerto grossos
    concertino and ripieno
    concertino
    small group of featured soloists.
    Ripieno
    large group of orchestral accompaniment in a concerto grosso.
    Baroque Suite
    Baroque musical genre, usually reserved for popular dances during the time period.
    Types of Baroque overtures
    Italian and French.
    Lay the groundwork for the development of full-fledged symphonies.
    Italian overture
    fast-slow-fast pattern.
    French overture
    slow section followed by fast section.
    Handel
    Baroque composer;
    appeals to wide audience;
    generally secular music;
    preferred by aristocracy;
    Italian opera;
    Raised in non-musical family.
    Bach
    Church musician,organist;
    Raised in musical dynastic family in Germany;
    Devout Lutheran;
    Wrote so much music for Lutheran liturgy that the Lutheran church rivaled the Catholic church in music;
    Wrote highly intellectual music;
    Martin Luther’s legacy;
    Wrote pieces that were harmonization of already composed Lutheran choral tunes.
    Martin Luther & the chorale
    Modified Gregorian chant to create Lutheran hymns;
    First sung in unison, then broken into four-part harmony (thick, complex, highly polyphonic, very different than Catholic music, very beautiful).
    Cantata
    Musical genre with vocal solos with primarily religious-based lyrics.
    Types of Cantatas
    recitatives and arias
    Aria
    More beautiful, structured form of singing, with not much offered for the plot, within a cantata or opera.
    Solo voice with orchestral accompaniment; much more melodic than a recitative.
    Recitatives
    Speech-like form of singing found in cantatas and opera.
    Offers information to the plot.
    Movement of larger work.
    Imitates rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech;
    Often preceeds an aria.
    Vivaldi
    Baroque composer;
    Italian violinist;
    wrote Four Seasons solo concerto.
    Types of Sonatas
    church, chamber, and trio.
    Church sonata
    serious in nature
    Chamber sonata
    to be played in parlor/chamber for parties
    Sonata
    Musical genre with several movements and soloist accompaniment.
    Trio sonata
    Four instruments: two violins and continuo (harpsichord and cello).
    Instruments in Baroque Orchestra
    harpsichord, violas, cellos, violins, oboes (or any high pitched wind instrument available), bassoon, timpani, natural trumpets, double bass.
    Church
    Biggest supporter of music in the Middle Ages.
    Chant
    earliest form of music;
    purpose = praying/glorifying God;
    This music promoted structure, focusing church-goers on the prayer/Biblical story.
    Liturgy
    set order of services in church;
    performed in latin.
    Mass
    central service for catholics
    Types of mass
    ordinary and proper
    Ordinary mass
    music that could be played regardless of the time of year;
    bulk of written music in the Middle Ages
    Proper mass
    music written for specific point in liturgy.
    Schola Cantorum
    Singing school established by Pope Sylvester in the Middle ages.
    Creation of Gregorian Chant
    600 AD, Pope Gregory reorganizes Schola Cantorum because music was too flowery and didn’t allow full focus on scripture.
    Standardized liturgical repertory.
    Gregorian Chant
    Focused more on words/easy to memorize, with small, easily reached range.
    monophonic;
    non-metric;
    conjunct melodies;
    no dynamic changes (it was deemed distracting)
    oral transmission;
    latin text.
    Neumes
    First directional signs that were added above words of text to indicate general shape of the melody;
    didn’t specify pitch or rhythm.
    Four-lined staff that utilized square notes grew from Neumes.
    Two types of Chant
    neumatic and melismatic
    neumatic chant
    2-4 notes per syllable of text
    melismatic chant
    long passages of notes to a single syllable of text;
    happens in Opera often;
    very flowery for chant.
    Polyphony
    2 or more musical voices with equal importance throughout a piece of music;
    Sprung up around 800-1250.
    Parallel organum
    First form of polyphony;
    second voice of gregorian chant;
    not fully independent;
    another interval above the melody, but it follows the rise and fall of the melodic notes exactly.
    Notre Dame School
    Responsible for the rise of polyphony in the Romanesque Period (850-1150);
    Located in Paris, the center for new style of music;
    Organum becomes more flowery
    Romanesque Period
    850-1150
    Beginning of rise of polyphony and notated rhythm and pitch.
    Motet
    Combination of Latin sacred material and French secular text;Text assigned to added lines of melismatic organum (two or more voices together); used as secular music.
    Machaut
    Popular French composer from the Middle Ages;
    wrote both secular and sacred music;
    Took sacred music and made it artistically beautiful for secular means.
    Ars nova
    new art
    Ars antiqua
    old art
    Music in the middle ages
    majority was sacred, until the ending of the era;
    majority was vocal, with very little instruments played;
    instrumental and secular music was only heard on street corners;
    Organ played in church.
    Secular music in the middle ages
    Minstrels,
    jongleurs, goliards (male),
    jonleuresses, trobairitz (female)
    Peasant class;
    Traveling entertainers sang and played instruments; jugglers and acrobats; told stories and carried gossip.
    Medievalism
    symbolism, sacred society, worried about here-thereafter, no nudies in paintings.
    Renaissance(-ism)
    realism
    secular and sacred societies
    worried more about here and now
    naked people everywhere (nudity = bootyful)
    Renaissance motets
    Primarily reserved for sacred music, though still a motet.
    Renaissance musicians
    Found in churches, cities, courts;
    trades of instrument building, printing, music publishing rose;
    merchant class music patrons (amateur musicians);
    Church relents a bit on stranglehold on music composition;
    Became typical for young women to have musical training.
    General musical styling of renaissance music
    a capella singing;
    polyphony based on continuous imitation;
    word-painting;
    duple meter in secular society;
    triple meter in sacred society;
    Cantis Firmus
    Professional singers in church setting.
    Cantis Firmus
    using previously composed music and adapting or reforming it.
    Josquin
    Greatest composer during the Renaissance;
    composed 20 masses;
    noted for 100+ motets;
    humanism quality;
    highly accessible to wide group of people;
    began trend to put name on written compositions.
    Martin Luther
    thought music second only to theology;
    worked with composers to create Lutheran liturgy;
    Father of Protestant Reformation;
    Council of Trent.
    Council of Trent
    Involved in Counter Reformation;
    condemned corruption of chant by embellishment and use of instruments and incorporation of popular secular music in mass;
    recommended pure vocal style that respected integrity of sacred texts.
    Palestrina
    Renaissance composer;
    Wrote primarily sacred music for the mass;
    composed over 100 masses.
    Wrote Pope Marcellus Mass:
    possibly wrote this to satisfy new strict demands of Council of Trent; text is clear and audible; changes texture from monophonic to polyphonic.
    Monteverdi
    Late Renaissance composer that shifted between genres.
    Madrigal
    partsong;
    secular;
    women sang;
    Two types of madrigals
    English and Italian.
    Italian Madrigal
    over-the-top songs;
    word-painting;
    mushy and unnecessary;
    in Italian.
    English Madrigal
    Simpler and lighter in style than Italian;
    In English;
    Refrain syllables (fa la la);
    Silly and trite.
    Chanson
    lyric-driven French song;
    usually secular and polyphonic
    Mass (compositions)
    Genre in which pieces of Gregorian chant were recycled;
    Gloria Movement
    patronage
    rich people supporting musicians and composers;
    in a sense, this allows them a sort of control over what composers compose/what musicians play.
    characteristics of baroque music
    unity of mood (constant throughout piece or movement);
    rhythm: beat emphasized; rhythmic patterns repeat; feeling of forward motion within the piece;sense of energy and drive;
    complex; ornate; gaudy.
    Melody: longer and complex; tend to repeat in whole or part; lend continuity.
    Harmony: major-minor tonality; tonic-dominant relationship; modulation (moves to another key within the piece); chromaticism; dissonance (always has resolution).
    Dynamics: constant dynamics for long periods with sudden changes (no crescendos or decrescendos).
    Texture: homophonic; monody; polyphonic;contrapuntal.
    counterpoint: contrary motion between the lines.
    Words: word-painting; lyrics linked to music; chromaticism.
    Monody
    One singer with accompaniment;
    homophonic;
    recitatives and arias.
    Opera
    Genre that began in Italy in the late Renaissance/early baroque period; Italian opera didn’t spread far from Italy, though it was adapted and became popular in England.
    Established major/minor tonality.
    Drama that is sung;
    music, acting, poetry, dance, scenery, costumes; very gaudy.
    Baroque Opera
    Opera primarily reserved for the aristocracy.
    Private court theatres;
    No access for public.
    Public Opera Houses
    1st in Venice, Italy in 1637.
    17 in Venice by 1700.
    Open to anyone who had the price of admission;
    Spread more slowly outside of Italy.
    Libretto
    text written for an Opera (to be sung to the tune of music written by composer)
    Librettist
    writer of text written for an Opera; works with composer to make text into lyrics.
    Supers
    Pretty extras in operas that aren’t allowed to sing.
    Castrato
    Artificial male soprano; virtuosic; heroic male roles & female roles; power and brilliance;
    Castrates male prior to puberty to preserve voice.
    Oratorios
    similar in structure to Opera, but altered to entertain British;
    didn’t require sets, costumes, choreography;
    based on material familiar to British public, like the Old Testament.
    Genre started by Handel (the Messiah is an Oratorio)

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    Music Appreciation. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/music-appreciation-8-9676/

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