Triple meter opening, then duple and compound;
Homophonic except for the polyphonic ending;
Togetherness of whole symphony, then highlights separate pieces of the symphony (woodwinds, brass, percussion), and then the whole symphony together again.
(Rejoice Mary, virgin)
Sustained voice in the background, higher voices have melody/chant.
Genre: Perpetual Round
(Since I am forgotten)
Conjunct melody with a low range; slow triple meter; open cadences at phrase endings.
(Hail Mary…gentle virgin)
duple to triple to duple;
polyphonic rounds are used.
starts monophonic, then polyphonic;
Focus on clarity of words; full, consonant harmony; shifts between high and low range;
think SHS Concert Choir 2010
(The white and sweet swan)
Duple, consonant harmony, mostly homophonic;
Duple to triple to duple.
“up and down up and down up and down”
Genre: Round dance
four-piece ensemble (loud wind band– has really obnoxious bagpipes sounding thing)
I: Christmas section: Rejoice, rejoice (annoying opera girl)
II: Easter: (Hallelujah Chorus)
III: Redemption (Not played)
Playful tune; sprightly tempo; triple meter; “come away fellow sailors”
string orchestra, solo male voice and men’s chorus;
response = female, slow, sad.
Genre: Da capro aria
Solo soprano with harpsichord or base lute.
triple meter, for the most part.
I:choir with sopranos and tenors; upbeat.
IV: slower, tenors, set against counter-melody in strings.
Genre: Dance suite
Instrument groups exchange motivic ideas; triple meter; sprightly tempo; polyphonic
Genre: Rondeau, from dance suite
Fanfare-like opening in regular phases;
varied dynamics and instrumentation;
trumpets sticking out.
Ends with death of Bach.
Lavish aristocratic courts.
Instrumental music on equal footing with vocal music.
Common for (middle-class and up) women to be taught music.
Ends with death of Elizabeth I.
Starts with sacking of Rome.
Solo violin, string orchestra and basso continuo (keyboard)
Very common musical piece.
word-painting of images from Italian sonnet that the piece is based on.
solo Organ playing
unique to baroque period.
Lay the groundwork for the development of full-fledged symphonies.
appeals to wide audience;
generally secular music;
preferred by aristocracy;
Raised in non-musical family.
Raised in musical dynastic family in Germany;
Wrote so much music for Lutheran liturgy that the Lutheran church rivaled the Catholic church in music;
Wrote highly intellectual music;
Martin Luther’s legacy;
Wrote pieces that were harmonization of already composed Lutheran choral tunes.
First sung in unison, then broken into four-part harmony (thick, complex, highly polyphonic, very different than Catholic music, very beautiful).
Solo voice with orchestral accompaniment; much more melodic than a recitative.
Offers information to the plot.
Movement of larger work.
Imitates rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech;
Often preceeds an aria.
wrote Four Seasons solo concerto.
purpose = praying/glorifying God;
This music promoted structure, focusing church-goers on the prayer/Biblical story.
performed in latin.
bulk of written music in the Middle Ages
Standardized liturgical repertory.
no dynamic changes (it was deemed distracting)
didn’t specify pitch or rhythm.
Four-lined staff that utilized square notes grew from Neumes.
happens in Opera often;
very flowery for chant.
Sprung up around 800-1250.
second voice of gregorian chant;
not fully independent;
another interval above the melody, but it follows the rise and fall of the melodic notes exactly.
Located in Paris, the center for new style of music;
Organum becomes more flowery
Beginning of rise of polyphony and notated rhythm and pitch.
wrote both secular and sacred music;
Took sacred music and made it artistically beautiful for secular means.
majority was vocal, with very little instruments played;
instrumental and secular music was only heard on street corners;
Organ played in church.
jongleurs, goliards (male),
jonleuresses, trobairitz (female)
Traveling entertainers sang and played instruments; jugglers and acrobats; told stories and carried gossip.
secular and sacred societies
worried more about here and now
naked people everywhere (nudity = bootyful)
trades of instrument building, printing, music publishing rose;
merchant class music patrons (amateur musicians);
Church relents a bit on stranglehold on music composition;
Became typical for young women to have musical training.
polyphony based on continuous imitation;
duple meter in secular society;
triple meter in sacred society;
Professional singers in church setting.
composed 20 masses;
noted for 100+ motets;
highly accessible to wide group of people;
began trend to put name on written compositions.
worked with composers to create Lutheran liturgy;
Father of Protestant Reformation;
Council of Trent.
condemned corruption of chant by embellishment and use of instruments and incorporation of popular secular music in mass;
recommended pure vocal style that respected integrity of sacred texts.
Wrote primarily sacred music for the mass;
composed over 100 masses.
Wrote Pope Marcellus Mass:
possibly wrote this to satisfy new strict demands of Council of Trent; text is clear and audible; changes texture from monophonic to polyphonic.
mushy and unnecessary;
Refrain syllables (fa la la);
Silly and trite.
usually secular and polyphonic
in a sense, this allows them a sort of control over what composers compose/what musicians play.
rhythm: beat emphasized; rhythmic patterns repeat; feeling of forward motion within the piece;sense of energy and drive;
complex; ornate; gaudy.
Melody: longer and complex; tend to repeat in whole or part; lend continuity.
Harmony: major-minor tonality; tonic-dominant relationship; modulation (moves to another key within the piece); chromaticism; dissonance (always has resolution).
Dynamics: constant dynamics for long periods with sudden changes (no crescendos or decrescendos).
Texture: homophonic; monody; polyphonic;contrapuntal.
counterpoint: contrary motion between the lines.
Words: word-painting; lyrics linked to music; chromaticism.
recitatives and arias.
Established major/minor tonality.
Drama that is sung;
music, acting, poetry, dance, scenery, costumes; very gaudy.
Private court theatres;
No access for public.
17 in Venice by 1700.
Open to anyone who had the price of admission;
Spread more slowly outside of Italy.
Castrates male prior to puberty to preserve voice.
didn’t require sets, costumes, choreography;
based on material familiar to British public, like the Old Testament.
Genre started by Handel (the Messiah is an Oratorio)