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AP European History- The Italian Renaissance

Georgio Vasari
16th century painter, architect, writer who called era in which he lived “rinacita”, rebirth, or rather the Renaissance
Mood of the Renaissance
significant contributions were made to Western civilization, with particular gains in literature, art, philosophy and political and historical thought, sought personal credit for achievements rather than glory to God
city-states
center of Europe’s economic, political, and cultural life. Under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, but were free to rule themselves. Economically vibrant with merchants carrying Italian wool and silk and bankers providing loans to money-hungry monarchs.

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social hierarchy of Italian city-states
old rich (popolo grandi), new rich merchants (popolo grosso), middle class, the lower class (popolo minuto), and the paupers
Ciompi Revolt 1378
popolo minuto expressed dissatisfaction with political and economic order by staging a violent struggle against the government, established tenuous control over government, peace does not return until Medici
signor
tyrant that rose to power in Milan, the Sforzas are a family of mercenary (condottiero) and came to dominate thereafter
papal states
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
patron
The Church leaders, wealthy families, and merchants who spent a huge amount of money on art.
classics
The writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans, key part of humanist study
humanism
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his “lady love” who spoke no Latin. Wrote letters to deceased Greco-Roman thinkers admiring them, especially Cicero.
Dark Ages
the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance
Cicero
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
Civic humanism
a variant of humanism indicating active, participatory, patriotic citizenship as well as the ethos and educational ideal that goes with it
Plato
ancient Greek philosopher who believed that ideals such as beauty or truth exist beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them, and that we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reason and thus get beyond the limits imposed by our senses. Also believed in positive view of HUMAN POTENTIAL.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence on the idea of the “Renaissance Man”. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism. In another work, he found errors in the Vulgate Bible.
Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated
Leonardo Bruni
wrote “New Cicero” which has the idea that humanists believe that their studies of humanism should be put to the service of the state. Also created an educational program for Renaissance women, but left out curriculum of rhetoric and public speech.
Christine de Pisan
“The City of Ladies;” Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society- they could make moral choices and women were equal to men. Europe’s first feminist, and well educated in France
Renaissance Art
3D, responded to light/shading, religious and everyday situations, active and looked real
fresco
method of Middle Ages; a durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster; oil painting was later developed during Renaissance
chiaroscuro
the use of shading to enhance naturalness and depth in Renaissance painting
single-point perspective
a style in which all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance, allowing Renaissance artists to create more realistic settings for their works
Filippo Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446); built first dome over Cathedral of Florence
High Renaissance
artistic period; Rome replaced Florence as the great center of artistic patronage. Florence had experienced a backlash against the new style of art, while in Rome, a series of popes were very interested in the arts and sought to beautify their city and palaces
Mannerism
(also known as the Late Renaissance) an art that showed distorted figures and confusing themes and may have reflected the growing sense of crisis in the Italian world due to both religious and political problems. Michelangelo pioneered this movement.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time, such as flight mechanisms. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Raphael
Utilized single-point perspective; Devoted to the Madonna and painted the School of Athens, where he brought together classic and Renaissance scholars, making him a truly christian humanist
Michelangelo
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter’s Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time. Commissioned most notably by Pope Julius II, who covered his revealing statues with fig leaves. Style of Late Renaissance was exemplified in his disturbing, yet brilliant Final Judgment.
Individualism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence, born during the Renaissance
Cosmo de Medici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
Giovanni Boccacio
Italian writer, wrote a book: Decameron, which took place during the Black Plague- collection of bawdy tales told by men and women seeking sanctuary from Plague

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AP European History- The Italian Renaissance
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Georgio Vasari 16th century painter, architect, writer who called era in which he lived "rinacita", rebirth, or rather the Renaissance Mood of the Renaissance significan
2017-11-16 09:26:52
AP European History- The Italian Renaissance
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