“If today’s arts love the machine, technology and organization, if they aspire to precision and reject anything vague and dreamy, this implies an instinctive repudiation of chaos and a longing to find the form appropriate to our times. “
— Oskar SchlemmerThrough the history of art, Two important art movement influences almost everything in our daily life. The building we lived in, the glasses we used, and the technic equipment we made, are all influenced by both art movement: Bauhaus in Germany, and the Arts and Crafts Movement in UK.
In this Essay, Both movements will be talked over, and compared and contrasted. The both key designer Walter Gropius and William Morris, and their art works from each movement will be researched. There are many interesting happened and context from Arts and Craft movement. The Arts and Crafts Movement began in the middle of the 19th century. This Movement was acted as an English ornamental arts movement . It was a insurgency to against the Victorian’s fashion for creative assumed and completed design after the industry revolution.
The Arts and Crafts Movement was made a coordinated offer to break down established barriers between artists, designers, and craft people. As well as a new developing style, The Arts and Crafts Movement was a revolution of ideas about work, art, and society, developed by eminent writers, architects, and artists from Thomas Carlyle. The Arts and Crafts Movement was mainly on simple forms, an almost sensitive taste in materials, and the pattern in the use of nature source. Their work could be highly illuminative. In the same time, the design of The arts and Crafts Movement are often highly expressly , taking inspiration from local traditions.
The roughness and simplicity of some work could be rough but the richness of any inner programmes and personal designs was visually stunning. The Arts and Crafts Movement influence in Britain, UK and continental Europe, then in get a great successful in Norway, Finland and Hungary. As the development of the art and craft movement, the most important designer is William Morris. William Morris has long been recognised as an sigh British.
Morris is one of the most celebrated and great designers of late 19 century. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist associated with the Pre- Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement. He founded a design firm in partnership with the artist Edward Burne-Jones, and the poet and artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti which profoundly influenced the decoration of churches and houses into the early 20th century. He was also a major contributor to reviving traditional textile arts and methods of production, and one of the founders of the SPAB, now a statutory element in the preservation of historic buildings in the UK.
He is also a great artist and designer in the art and craft movement. The wallpaper was designed in 1885, It was printed onto cotton, and it is printed through a combination of set stages. This Wallpaper was available for curtains. The background tones of this wallpaper are designed in deep blue, and the blank area are covered, the rest of the detiles and flowers are painted in front of the blue. tendrils and flowers was then repeatedly block for each color are dominated by the pattern of undulating lines of . The overall effect was one that morris favoured, small flower design against the indigo discharge, with a repeating bold diagonal structured flower design.
This wallpaper was designed in The wallpaper was designed in 1885, It was printed onto cotton. Behind the graceful images of flowers, fruit, animals and maidens . . .
there in the darkness, hidden almost from sight were faint patterns that completely and elegantly filled the spaces. On a very dark background, he might have painted green leaves or fern-shaped tangles that softened the contrast to create a more pleasing image. The watchers can see examples of this master’s work all over the web. Here’s an example from a placemat we have.WILLIAM MORRIS (1834-1896)’African Marigold’, 1876(pencil and watercolor sketch for textile design)William Morris designed this textile around 1834 to 1896. This design is a sketch for textile design, by pencil and water color. The Main tone of this design is light, with pure gray and light blue.
The main textile is two wild opened “African marigold” flowers. With the decorate of this design, Some blue leaves and fern shaped tangles are painted in to softened forms. Many small pieces of golden flower are painted around the Main African Marigold, that will full the blank of paint. This painting mainly shows the taste of William Morris: Natural, construct and beautiful. There are many interesting happens and context from Bauhaus.
The Bauhaus, a German word meaning “house of building”. The Bauhaus is a design school which built in 1919 in Weimar, Germany. The builder is a architect called Walter Gropius . The Bauhaus was one of the most important and momentous cultural manifestations of the twentieth century.
There is no doubt about it. It is more than ever a phenomenon of global dimensions. Today, the Bauhaus is embedded in the general notion. The art works of the artists in Bauhaus are fully admiration and interest in the great museums of the world. The creative theories of Bauhaus is often used out of it own context, going to educated other facilities and highly design class, then, received and continue to receive attention in other architectural and design. In the Europe and the universe The revolutionary of the artistic and pedagogical achievement of the Bauhaus is impressive.
During the turbulent and often dangerous years of World War II, many of the key figures of the Bauhaus emigrated to the United States, where their work and their teaching philosophies influenced generations of young architects and designers. Marcel Breuer and Joseph Albers taught at Yale, Walter Gropius went to Harvard, and Moholy-Nagy established the New Bauhaus in Chicago in 1937.
Walter Gropius is one of the most greatest architecter in the modern social
He was born in Berlin in 1883, also a son of an architect, he studied at the Technical Universities in Munich and Berlin. For his early commissions he borrowed from the Industrial Classicism introduced by Behrens. After serving in the first world war, Gropius became involved with several groups of radical artists that sprang up in Berlin in the winter of 1918. In March 1919 he was elected chairman of the Working Council for Art and a month later was appointed Director of the Bauhaus.
Gropius created innovative designs that borrowed materials and methods of construction from modern technology. This advocacy of industrialized building carried with it a belief in team work and an acceptance of standardization and prefabrication. Using technology as a basis, he transformed building into a science of precise mathematical calculations After the closure of the Bauhaus in Weimar, the city of Dessau offered to construct a new building for the Bauhaus school. The building was inaugurated in 1926. The three functional areas of workshop, administration and school are clearly divided into individual structural bodies. Each part of the building is underpinned by a skeleton of reinforced steel.
With this building, Gropius created a landmark of New Architecture. This building shows the main function of Bauhaus design: simple:, functional, and beautiful. The outfit and the detiles are not complected. The shapes is contracted with modern art taste: Large amount of glass using and the simple structure.
Chicago Tribune Tower
Within the scope of an international competition hosted by the newspaper Chicago Tribune in 1922, which invited designs for new office buildings, Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer submitted their much admired yet unrealism design for an exceptionally modern glass and metal high-rise, which transcended all historic forms of architecture The award was very much criticized at the time as the Gothic design went against the modernizing trend set by the Chicago School and against the ideas of the more functional European architecture, later known as the International Style, which reduced decorations to the bare minimum. It would in fact be the second place design from Eliel Saarinen and another major contender from Walter Gropius which would greatly influence later skyscraper designs. Fagus-Werk FactoryFagus-Werk, Alfeld an der Leine, ab 1911With the commission to design the façade of Carl Benscheidt’s factory building, , Walter Gropius was able to show himself as an independent architect, and he designed the Fagus-Werk. Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer are both employed in Peter Behrens’s office. It turned the shoe last factory in Alfeld into an early modern architectural history. The two architects continued to supervise the expansion of the Fagus-Werk until 1925.
Its fascination owes a great deal to the light and airy quality of the main building. This building show the quality of Bauhaus spirit. The Large using of Glass and modern material, and the simple sharps show makes the visual enjoyment. It is useful by the definit area of functions also. The main thing they had in common was “form follows function”, in other words, that you use a simple, clean, not overly ornate design that is functional but also beautiful. One thing they did not have in common, however, was that Arts and Crafts was all about individual artisans and craftwork, whereas the Bauhaus was oriented toward making functional mass-produced designsIn conclusion, Those two very important art movements are influencing many things in our daily life.
No matter which Morden building that we lived in, or the equipment we made and used, are all influenced by both art movement: Bauhaus and the Arts and Crafts Movement.