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    Bauhaus; architecture and functionalism

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    From the look “ Bauhaus ” we still experience something fresh. In every twenty-four hours speech it is associated with the beginning of the modernism and it is raising in us association with basic signifiers ( square, trigon and circle ) , basic colors ( ruddy, xanthous and bluish ) , furniture from the metal, white architecture and functionalism. History of the little school that Bauhaus was, is a mixture of facts and reading from different beginnings. But Bauhaus was the Phoenix that every coevals understands otherwise.

    For us, Bauhaus is a symbol of rationalisation and modernness of life style, where we can non happen any unneeded comfort. At the same clip, it is an enemy for the conservative civilization.

    We can state that Bauhaus has been connected with left flying all the clip. For Nazi Germany Bauhaus was “ culturally Bolshevik ” , “ international ” and “ Judaic ” . But Nazis used the modern devices of the Bauhaus really frequently. Almost all members of the Bauhaus emigrated and batch of Judaic relations were killed. In German Democratic democracy, where the chief school ( Weimar and Dessau ) was established, Bauhaus was denied boulder clay 1960ss. After that, they started to incorporate it to their cultural heritage. On other manus, for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bauhaus was the chief portion of modernism.

    A Graphic design of Bauhaus acknowledges this historical construct and invites readers to take a fresh expression at the facts about typography and advertisement and printing workshop at the Bauhaus school. It is for the first clip in 90 old ages after constitution of the most successful art academy of 20th century, the Graphic design of Bauhaus, which brings together plants of in writing design from three different schools of Bauhaus located in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin. The squad has brought the legion hoarded wealths of the aggregations of the Masterss such as Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Joost Schmidt and Herbert Bayer.

    We wish that the readers will bask A Graphic design of Bauhaus and they will concentrate and concentrate on the creativeness of the Bauhaus.

    Historical development

    When the Germany was established in 1871 it experienced alteration from the agricultural province into industrial. The reform artists of sezession from Darmstadt, Munich and Dresden brought to Germany motion of Humanistic disciplines and Crafts from England, which was really an resistance to industrialisation. The new school that was set up in that period was characterised by different workshops, the most celebrated schools were Art school in Munich and Art and trade school in Weimar set up by Henry van de Velde in 1908. In 1907 Deutcher Werkbund ( Union of German art ) , which conciliated between capitalist economy and civilization was set up in Munich.

    In 1910, Walter Gropius became a member of Deutcher Werkbund, where he organized an exhibition of industrial plants and during that clip he gained a batch of experience for taking Bauhaus school.

    During the war, Gropius was really good leader and during that four-year period he was really rapidly promoted to embarkation officer. After the war, in 1919, he continued his treatment with Velde about his sequence. When he returned to Saxony, the School of art was closed and the lone school that existed there was School of humanistic disciplines and trades. He wanted to unify both schools and both schools accepted it. This was his first measure for the Bauhaus school.

    “ Architects, painters, sculpturers, we must all return to crafts! For there is no such thing as “ professional art ” . There is no indispensable difference between the creative person and the craftsman. The creative person is an elevated craftsman. By the grace of Heaven and in rare minutes of inspiration which transcend the will, art may unconsciously bloom from the labor of his manus, but a base in handcraft is indispensable to every creative person. It is at that place that the original beginning of creativeness prevarications.

    Let us therefore create anew club of craftsmenwithout the class-distinctions that raise an chesty barrier between craftsmen and creative persons! Let us want, conceive, and make the new edifice of the hereafter together. It will unite architecture, sculpture, and painting in a individual signifier, and will one twenty-four hours lift towards the celestial spheres from the custodies of a million workers as the crystalline symbol of a new and approaching religion. ” – Walter Gropius

    Weimar ( 1919 – 1925 )

    Walter Gropius wanted to make an architecture school that will reflect the clip after the World War I. In 1919 he published pronunciamento of Bauhaus, which was focused against academic reform for art school. Main thought of the manifest was co-operation between craftsmen and creative persons.

    Harmonizing to the other universities, Gropius reached back to the old theoretical account of craftsman ‘s clubs.

    At the early age of Bauhaus was founded organisation so study that was base of Bauhaus:the successful admittances scrutiny, all pupils had to go to one twelvemonth of readying class called Vorkurs ( primary class ) – a kind of test semester, where they learned the sense for colors, stuffs, constructions and they developed certain accomplishments. After this readying they were divided into workshops to gain a certification of apprenticeship and at the same time underwent artistic preparation. Between old ages 1919 and 1923 Bauhaus was strongly influenced by expressionism. After that, when Gropius talked about the school, he did non desire to accept similarity of the De Stijl, the school he was really much against. In 1923, Bauhaus changed the way and thoughts. At that clip, they were influenced by functionalism ( they co-operated with Neue Sachlichkeit motion ) . In February 1924, social-democratic authorities, which has been supportive of Bauhaus, lost the chief control in parliament to Nationalists. As the school was dependent on the authorities grants, and in 1925 Gropius signed less funding than was necessary for the school ‘s budget, at the terminal of same twelvemonth Bauhaus had to be closed in Weimar.

    Dessau ( 1925 – 1932 )

    When the Bauhaus had to travel out, under the force per unit area of conservativists and right-wingers, several metropoliss offered to take it over. But the Bauhaus decided to travel to Dessau, because they offered them to construct a new school. At that clip, school was come ining a new epoch. The lessons officially started on April 1st 1925. The Bauhaus plan was changed ; what was of import at that clip, was connexion between creativeness and industry. In 1927 Walter Gropius called for Hannes Meyer, who became a leader of architecture section. In 1928 when Gropius resigned, Meyer became a manager of the Bauhaus. This alteration was really of import for Bauhaus because Meyer introduced the extension of the scientific footing of learning methods and graphicss became more scientific. For learning the talks at the school taking experts across the full field of doctrine, psychological science, and natural philosophies were invited.

    Now in the workshops, pupils began to bring forth standard merchandises that became available for bulk of population.

    Meyer raised the figure of pupils to 200, what was non really good for school, because it has lost the elect character. Bauhaus had to be accessible to the labor.

    In 1930 Meyer was replaced by new manager Mies van der Rohe, who kept the distance from any political stance. He wanted pupils to be chiefly educated technically, artistically and in the trades, so the instruction looked back to the Weimar footing. As manager of Bauhaus, he had to confront to batch of jobs, school did non have public building contracts, and the metropolis had reduced the its support. He besides had to confront to the turning ill will towards Bauhaus in Dessau.

    Berlin ( 1932 – 1933 )

    When the Nazi Party was going to the power, many of the members labelled the Bauhaus “ un-German ” and they accused the school from the “ Bolshevik insurgent activities ” .

    Bauhaus was forced to travel to Berlin in 1932, since when it was a private school merely, but fortunes forced the manager to shut the school in April 1933.

    Political tenseness

    As the manager of Bauhaus, Mies van der Rohe, had to confront a batch of troubles, which chiefly occurred during fiscal crisis in 1929 and besides the enemies to Bauhaus in Dessau. City reduced fiscal support dedicated to Bauhaus. Budgets in old ages 1931 and 1932 were lower than disbursement appraised by Meyer. The similar public contracts, that Gropius and Meyer received ; did non come. The infinite in Bauhaus edifice had to cleared for proficient school that had more than 1400 pupils ( meanwhile Bauhaus had merely about 170 pupils ) , so the Bauhaus could utilize merely one floor with seven artist’s workrooms.

    Strong pupil communistic party besides existed at Bauhas. The last issue of their magazine was printed in Berlin in 1932, which was strongly supported by many pupils. Groups of pupils orientated to the right besides existed at that place. In 1933, after school was closed, they made a request for re-opening it.

    Mies van der Rohe aided besides the religious sight of Bauhaus with batch of seminars. He invited philosophers such as Helmuth Plessner and Hans Freyer, who taught by anthropologies regularity.

    Preliminary class

    One of the most of import inventions in learning at Bauhaus was preliminary class. At the beginning, this class was merely one semester long. but later it changed into two semesters and what was of import about this class was the fact, that every pupil had to go through it. After that it had to be decided, if the pupil is able to analyze further or non. From 1919, the class was lead by Johannes Itten, who made some specific regulations that were irrational, but from the winter semester 1920/21 they were obligatory.

    As Itten became the large opposition for Gropius ‘s new orientation for industry and productiveness, in 1923 he decided to go forth school. After that Gropius made a large alteration of preliminary class. From 1924 the class ‘s first semester was lead by Josef Albers and more practical than the 2nd one lead by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy that had more theoretical facets. Josef Albers lead the class as “ instruction of trades ” and it was understood as “ Godheads instruction ” . Moholy-Nagy preliminary class was good known by its three major countries that it was focused on. The first one consisted on larning how to unite elements. The 2nd 1 was focused on exercisings to separate composing from building. And the last one, likely the most celebrated, was focused on three dimensional survey designs. The class was chiefly about how to make objects from simple elements and stuffs.

    Hannes Meyer, the manager of Bauhaus from the twelvemonth 1928, the necessity of the preliminary class confirmed. From 1930 the class was changed into classs of Gestapsychology ( psychological science of signifier ) , sociology and societal economic system. In the same twelvemonth the communistic pupils asked for ( entire ) discontinuance of the preliminary class.

    In 1930, manager Mies van der Rohe declared the preliminary class as voluntary. He introduced the test at the terminal of all semesters, that declared who is able to go on analyze further or non. Harmonizing to these tests, the preliminary class lost the significance of taking gifted pupils, homogenisation of pupils and instruction to creativeness. But the Mies new wave der Rohe enlarged the preliminary class for the designers of free drawings without instruments, because he wanted to develop their ocular abilities. Albers led this class every bit good. In 1938, the preliminary class was changed into ocular preparation class that had to fix pupils to “ vision in context ” . From today ‘s point of position, the preliminary class was losing historical, nature and economic context.


    For Walter Gropius, the workshops were the most of import portion of instruction in Bauhaus. The first construct was, that after the passing preliminary class, the pupil should get down analyzing to be an designer. This thought has ne’er changed into world, because at the clip when Gropius was manager on Bauhaus, the designer section existed merely for one twelvemonth – from 1927 to 1928. So we can state, that during his clip, Bauhaus had to reform instruction system of art and trades.

    In Weimar Bauhaus these workshops existed: the ceramics, the weaving, the metal, joinery, the wall picture, the woodcarving and rock sculpture. Besides the workshops, theatre group, in writing editions and printing workshop besides existed at that place. In Dessau, some of the workshops were put together into one workshop, or the name had been changed, or it was discontinued. Finally, merely seven workshops existed: the metal, joinery, woodcarving, wall picture, the printing and advertisement, sculpture and the theater.

    The instruction of architecture on Bauhaus existed from the twelvemonth 1927, when three other workshops were formed. After that, it was easier to acquire the architecture instruction: the pupils needed merely one twelvemonth of experience in of the workshops. Lot of pupils abandoned Bauhaus with journeyman certification or sheepskin and they ne’er studied architecture. It largely happened during the clip when Hannes Mayer was the manager of the Bauhaus.

    Hannes Mayer, as a new manager, started with some of the alterations. He grouped some of the workshops ; he wholly discontinued the woodcarving workshops, because the chief instructor, Oskar Schlemmer, left the school in 1929. He set up a new workshop for picture taking, but he wanted to group this workshop with the printing and advertisement workshop. So we can state, that during the period when he was in charge, Bauhaus was chiefly education establishment for interior decorators and architectures.

    Everything changed when Mies van den Rohe became the manager. After that it was possible to analyze architecture besides without go throughing the preliminary class. At that clip, Bauhaus was chiefly orientated to the architecture. The biggest job of workshops at that clip was, that on one manus the workshop represented pedagogic rule but on other manus pupils had to derive some money by their plants.

    From expressionism to constructivism

    The first old ages of Bauhaus, 1919 – 1921, were really expressionistic but Walter Gropius was strongly against De Stijl that was really similar to Bauhaus. In twelvemonth 1923 Bauhaus was ruled by slogan “ art and technique – new integrity ” that was characteristic boulder clay 1928. But the large alteration came in 1922, with the first mark being the alteration of the logo ; expressionistic seal of Bauhaus with “ star adult male ” from Karl Peter Rohl changed into constructivism caput of adult male designed by Oskar Schlemmer.

    Expressionism, that was politicized after 1918 such as “ cathedral of socialism ” was now out and De Stijl motion became really popular, chiefly because of painter and theoretic Theo new wave Doesburg.

    From April 1921, Doesburg lived in Weimar and intensively cooperated with Bauhaus. He strongly influenced non lone pupils but besides instructors. He talked about De Stijl largely and he abhorred trade that was studied on Bauhaus and he asked to utilize modern engineerings to make a modern life. He thought that creative persons should n’t show their religious life or emotions but they should cognize their duty for making the integrity of the universe. He did non let all of the stuffs and he used merely basic colorss ( ruddy, bluish and xanthous ) uniting with no-colours ( black, white and Grey ) but they could be combined in whole, rectangular countries. The creativeness was equilibrating opposite significance of the expressing tools: black and white, xanthous and bluish, horizontal with perpendicular, vacuity and affair. He attributed the creativeness of infinite to the coloring material, that was popular in wall picture workshop.

    Doesburg theory was combination of assortment of cognition. Countervailing of antonyms had to come to the accomplishment of true and beauty of existence. It was followed by belief in machines.

    The alteration from expressionism to constructivism started by group of Magyar pupils. For them constructivism meant: constrictive, useful, rational and international. Not merely pupils changed their manner but besides instructors e.g. Kandinsky made geometrical their expressionistic art linguistic communication. Composition of Paul Klee became more rationalistic ; shot of the coppice and coating of colors was less personal, proficient expression. Schlemmer developed the theory of art, where he connected the basic human motions such as standing, swimming and walking with simple thoughts uniting the basic thoughts of De Stijl and constructivism. When Magyar painter Laszlo Moholy-Nagy entered to Bauhaus in 1923, he changed his expressionistic yesteryear into constructivism art linguistic communication. Until the twelvemonth 1928 Bauhaus was influenced by different influence, that was non merely from his ain instructor but besides from outside designers and interior decorator suggestions.

    alter Adolph Gropius ( * 18. may, 1883, Berlin, German Empire – † 5. July, 1969, Boston, USA )

    He was born into the architect household. He started surveies to be an designer in 1903 in Munich and he finished in 1907 in Berlin. He cooperated with Mies van der Rohe, Dietrich, Le Corbusier, Arcks and Adolf Meyer. But his biggest bearer started when he became a manager of Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in 1919. He transformed whole school into universe celebrated Bauhaus. But under the force per unit area from conservative party he had to travel from Weimar to Dessau in 1924, where he started to learn in more modern manner. In Dessau he built the edifice for school, houses for Masterss and himself, everything built in a functionalism manner. He besides built habitation Torten in Dessau, where he created new urban construct, where houses were built in analogue and the chief communicating was connected to them perpendicular. He left the school in 1928, but he continued working as an designer. Between old ages 1929 and 1956 he was vice-president of CIAM ( Congres International d’Architecture Moderne ) . In 1934 he had to immigrate to London but so he moved to the USA, where he became a professor at Harvard University, where he modernized instruction system. He built batch of celebrated constructing worldwide such as John. F Kennedy Federal Office Building in Boston ; Pan Am Building in New York ; University of Bagdad, etc.

    Ludwig Mies van lair Rohe ( * 27. March, 1886, Aachen – † 19. August, 1969, Chicago )

    He got his first experience from his male parent who had his ain stone-carving store. In 1905 he moved to Berlin, where he got occupation by designer and furniture interior decorator Bruno Paul. He designed his first work when he was merely 21 old ages old. He set up his ain office in 1912. We can see that he tried to link architecture with techniques in his work. He was the first one to utilize level roof and cubistic stuff. Between 1930 and 1933 he became manager of Bauhaus, but he had to confront really complicated state of affairs, so in 1938 he immigrated to the USA. He was celebrated because of his sentence “ less is more ” and his Brno chair is so celebrated that is still produced presents. We can happen his edifices worldwide e.g. Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Seagram Building in New York, National Gallery in Berlin, etc.

    Laszlo Moholy-Nagy

    ( July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946 ) , chyba hviezdicka a krizik

    He was born into Judaic Magyar household but he changed his German family name into Magyar family name after his aunt and he added his 2nd name after the metropolis where he grew up. He studied jurisprudence in Budapest and he met with constructivism in Vienna for the first clip.

    In 1923 he came to Bauhaus where he started to learn preliminary class because Johannes Itten left the school. We can state, that it was the terminal of his expressionism bearer and as we know, the Bauhaus was good known school, because of versatility of creative persons and he was no exclusion. Subsequently at the Bauhaus he focused on picture taking and typography, but his chief passion was preliminary class, where he gave pupils really complicated undertakings to work out. From 1925 to 1928 he cooperated with Herbert Bayer in publishing workshop and his duty was in writing edition of about all books printed by Bauhaus.

    Moholy-Nagy was against the typical picture taking and he tried to learn his pupils to see and present universe by different position and he taught pupils to utilize the modernist techniques. He used different techniques such as collage, inversion of light values, dual light, etc.

    Officially, the picture taking was learnt at the Bauhaus since 1929, but at that clip, he was non more in school. In 1928 he moved to Berlin and after that he travelled through Europe and eventually he moved in 1937 to Chicago where he lived till his decease.

    Hannes Meyer ( * 18. November 1889 – † 19. July 1954 )

    He was born in Switzerland and practised as an designer in different states such as Switzerland, Belgium and Germany.

    Meyer ‘s design doctrine is reflected in the undermentioned quotation mark:

    “ 1. sex life, 2. kiping wonts, 3. pets, 4. horticulture, 5. personal hygiene, 6. conditions protection, 7. hygiene in the place, 8. auto care, 9. cookery, 10. warming, 11. exposure to the Sun, 12. services

    In 1926 he established his ain company with his friend and during that clip, he produced his two most celebrated undertakings for the Geneva League of Nations Building and Basel Petersschule. Unfortunately none was built.

    In 1927 he came to Bauhaus as a instructor of architecture and merely one twelvemonth subsequently he became to be a manager. A batch of alterations to the instruction system came with him, the most of import being expansion of the theoretical scientist base of instruction. He was a good illustration of utmost functionalism and he was strongly against art portion of architecture. During that clip, many good instructors left the school e.g. Herbert Bayer and Macel Breuer. During the vacations in 1930, he had to go forth Bauhaus, because of his rigorous communistic thought. He moved to Moscow where he formed group Left Column. Consequently, he moved to Switzerland, Mexico and back to Switzerland where he died in 1954.

    Herbert Bayer ( Hagg, Austria, 1900 – Santa B & A ; aacute ; rbara, United States, 1985 ) , chyba hviezdicka a krizik

    He was one of the pupils at the Bauhaus being taught by e.g. Wassily Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and meno Gropius. After his perusal, he was named to be a manager of printing and advertisement workshop. One of his characters was that he used merely sans serif fonts for about all of the Bauhaus publications. In 1925 he created his ain font called Universal today known as Bayer Universal. He left the school in 1928 and he moved to Berlin where he became to be the manager for German magazine Vogue. Ten old ages subsequently, he escaped from Nazi Germany to New York, where made bearer about in every possible facet of in writing art. He stayed in the USA till his decease and he produced “ phonic alphabet ” for English. It was fundamentally once more sans serif font but without capital letters. He became one of the most influential in writing interior decorators of the 20th century.

    Printing and advertisement workshop

    During seven old ages of being, 1925 – 1932, publishing and advertisement workshop changed wholly. Each manager had chief function for this workshop. When Walter Gropius was the manager of Bauhaus it was a production workshop in a little graduated table. The chief merchandise was publicizing. When Hannes Mayer became manager of Bauhaus everything changed. Joost Schmidt, the caput of the workshop, developed the advertisement, but in 3-dimensional signifiers where quality of a in writing design was more of import. Meanwhile in De Stijl and constructivism the art was more of import than quality. When Schmidt dream became true, to make o professional printing and advertisement workshop, everything changed once more, new manager, Mies van lair Rohe,it was once more merely the instruction workshop and the consequence was that this workshop was closed before whole Bauhaus was closed.

    When Bayer became a caput of the workshop, he gave it a new intent by presenting the topic of advertisement. The new learning timetable of 1926 contained a sum-up of the content of its categories: the methods and building of advertisement and their effectual application were to be investigated and, in future planning, standardisation and advertisement psychological science were to be studied.

    In 1925, this workshop became a obligatory portion of preliminary class and the Bauhaus was distinguished from other in writing schools that tried to develop pupil to be a specializer in advertisement. In first semester the pupils supposed to take undertake practical work after that it was combination of theoretical and practical. They studied the distinction of advertisement media and the most of import was analyzing how to utilize picture taking and movie in advertisement. In forth semester they studied the construction and drafting of advertisement programs. They had to concentrate on German industrial format and what was the most of import for them, was the gimmick of the spectator ‘s oculus. Bayer focused on design of advertisement, instead than the arrangement, meanwhile when Joost Schmidt was caput of printing and advertisement workshop, he focused on ocular regulations of design. At the get downing the pupils had to experiment with geometric signifiers but it was about out to utilize free signifiers. For him, it was unsuitable to utilize montages, font exercisings and exposures but the abstract signifier was the most of import for advertisement.

    Schmidt created a new kinetic theoretical account for exhibition harmonizing to Moholy-Nagy work. Meanwhile, pupils got the technique accomplishments for advertisement in typesetting and printing. A new workshop for picture taking directed by Peterhans was opened in 1929, but till that clip Schmidt tried to learn pupils perspective drawing and picture. Between 1928 and 1930 they produced several exhibitions, for illustration in Berlin and Linz. But their fiscal state of affairs went incorrect and besides Mies van der Rohe was really critically to Schmidt workshop so for the following exhibition he wanted to demo his uncertainties about Schmidt. What was even worse was the fact that even the picture taking pupils had to distance from Schmidt learning methods. Following twelvemonth he was under large force per unit area and eventually in 1932 he collapsed.

    Typography in Bauhaus

    In the first twelvemonth of being of Bauhaus school in Weimar, typography was non really good developed. There were merely two calligraphists at school, Johannes Itten and Lothar Schreyer but for them, it was merely look of artistic significance and at the get downing practical field of application was losing at that place. Development of typography started in 1923, when school posting with alone typeset and design was made. Year after that, it was changed to school emblem. The original one, that looked like Mason ‘s marketplace, a spread-eagled figure transporting aloft a pyramid, was replaced by the new one designed by Oskar Schlemmer that looked like geometric profile of a caput, which could be really merely reproduced.

    The typical characters for Bauhaus typography were regulations and sans serif types, that somehow became a stereotype, but accepting the stereotype was the portion of extremist reform. In 1921 the Bauhaus maestro Johannes Itten tried to do reform, where he unite black missive ( Fraktur ) with heavy Victorian types, where we can see the combination of pressman ‘s decorations, points and squares. He set up one of the first Bauhaus features, which was geometrical characteristic of the page.

    The following measure for Bauhaus typography was to work out the jobs with German alphabet that was rather old harmonizing to the new machine age. They decided to compose all nouns in German get downing with capital missive. A footer, which appeared on the Bauhaus letterhead designed by Herbert Bayer in 1925, stated the school ‘s attitude uncompromisingly:

    Towards a simplified manner of composing

    1. This is the manner recommended by reforms of lettering as our hereafter letterform, californium. the book ‘sprache und schrift ‘ ( address and letterform ) by doctor porstmann, brotherhood of German applied scientists publishing houses, Berlin 1920.
    2. In curtailing ourselves to lower-case letters our type loses nil, but becomes more easy read, more easy learned, well more economic
    3. Why is at that place for one sound, for illustration a, two marks A and a? one sound, one mark, why two alphabets for one word, why dual the figure of marks, when half would accomplish the same?

    The chief character for Bauhaus typography was geometrical base that was base for functionalism. At the Bauhaus, Josef Alberts and Joost Schmidt made a batch of alphabets, but it was Bayer, who was the chief compositor at that place. His well known font Universal ( 1926 ) consisted of circles and consecutive lines of a changeless thickness on a grid squares. They used upper and lower instance, but they ne’er combined them and they ever combined them with vivacious colorss.

    But state of affairs has radically changed when L & A ; aacute ; szl & A ; oacute ; Moholy-Nagy entered the school in 1923. He introduced the thoughts of “ New Typography ” . What he wanted, fundamentally, was that the typography had to be communication medium and message should be clear. Since 1923 his influence was seeable on advertisement run for Bauhaus and after that when the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, he became co-editor of Bauhaus typography, where the Bayer was manager of printing and advertisement workshop. The typical feature of that period was that bold sans seriph was used for heading and subheading for individual words to disrupt the flow of lines. This invention was technically complicated in metal type.

    From that clip, the typography was really closely connected with corporate individuality of school. It was clear, that type prints, the articulation and accentuation of pages through distinguishable symbols or typographic elements highlighted in coloring material, and eventually direct information in a combination of text and picture taking were the chief features for Bauhaus typography.

    Herbert Bayer besides designed letters that appeared on Bauhaus edifice in Dessau. He was responsible for all publishing stuff for Bauhaus. Because the workshop was limited to contract sans-serifs founts some of them became really similar. He used perpendicular and horizontal regulations and printed it on ruddy and black and this became another stereotype of the Bauhaus. But it was really common for many vanguards. His most ambitious work was posting designed for Kandinsky 16 ‘s birthday exhibition. It was printed on orangish paper and once more he printed it ruddy and black and you can see strong oblongness.

    Bauhaus, De Stijl and Vkhutemas

    Main features of Bauhaus:

    The chief colorss that they used are bluish, xanthous and ruddy and the characteristic forms were triangle, square and circle. One of the most characteristic characteristics for the Bauhaus was simpleness. The design was really simple in lines and forms. They used consecutive lines or gentle, smooth curves. They were n’t afraid to utilize forms. It was n’t so rigorous as in De Stijl. We can besides see repeat of certain beds. They besides used a row of indistinguishable cylinders of two, three corners that were out from the others to bring forth really simple but strong consequence. Following strong characteristic was quality. The merchandises they made were light and aired. They used new stuffs such as steel, aluminum, plastics and glass. Tables and chairs are another strong characteristic. Often they were focused on design some little pieces where they used stuffs such as plastics, category, chrome and other metals that could somehow highlight the stuffs themselves. The stuffs had to be cleaned by H2O easy and speedy. We should besides understand the difference between the functionalism of Craftsman and Bauhaus design. The other typical characteristic was the Bauhaus stuff was n’t handcrafted pieces but it was made in mass production. They had to hold the industrial expression.

    Main features of De Stijl:

    Lapp as in the Bauhaus the chief colors for De Stijl were ruddy, xanthous and bluish and back uping colorss we can state that were black, white and Grey. Every coloring material had some significance for illustration the xanthous meant expansive and perpendicular. On the other manus the blue one was opposite, soft, retiring and horizontal. The significance of red was expressed the radiating motion of the life. Uniting all three colorss you will hold green. But for illustration Mondrian, he avoided of utilizing the green because he associate it with nature. The back uping colorss were used to give a infinite between objects. The other similar characteristic to the Bauhaus was forms but they did n’t utilize curves. They used consecutive lines. Rectangles and squares are the common characteristic. But we can see multiple beds. Their thought of all pictures was that everything should look 3-dimensional.

    Dutch designer Mart Stam that is connected with De Stijl and Bauhaus every bit good, produced the first cantilevered chair. The one of the chief characteristic is that the place is separated from the frame. Almost all chairs from Bauhaus and De Stijl were like this one. It had really simple perpendicular and horizontal form. The features of these chairs are lightness and lightness.


    It was school really similar to Bauhaus. The chief function of this school was to develop creative persons, interior decorators in modern manner. It was sponsored by province. It has besides preliminary class where pupil taught about colorss, aesthetic principals, industrial design and architecture. But it was larger school, it had around 2500 pupils meanwhile the Bauhaus had merely about 200 pupils but Vkhutemas was less known. Hannes Meyer that was 2nd manager on Bauhaus tried to interchange pupils between both schools. And both school were closed under force per unit area from totalitarian governments.

    Vkhutemas was chiefly influenced by constructivism that was chiefly developed in artworks and sculpture ; the architecture was based on constructivism. The most known instructor from Vkhutemas was El Lissitzky. But a lost instructor moved from one section to other. For illustration Gustav Klutsis that was in color theory section moved to painting and sculpture. We can happen batch of illustrations like this. The chief features for Vkhutemas in writing workshop were usage of montage. They besides had red a primary coloring material ; back uping colorss were black and white. Lapp as in the Bauhaus they were n’t afraid of forms. The chief motivation for them was Russian propaganda where in the chief function was a typical Russian worker.

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