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    History – True/False

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    Tool making was one of the characteristics of the Paleolithic era
    true
    For most persons in Mesopotamia, the gods cared little for humanity and were very difficult to appease
    true
    The region of Mesopotamia is located between the Nile and Zambezi reivers in North Africa
    false
    There are important similarites between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the story of Noah and the Ark
    true
    Although the Mesopotamians were tremendous builders, they made no advancements in mathematics
    false
    People in the Middle East perceived natural phenomenon as a direct intervention of divine powers
    true
    As compared ot their Mesopotamian neighbors, the Egyptians made little advance in the area of mathematics and medicine
    false
    Akhenaten was the pharaoh that promoted “monotheism” that is, believe in only one god
    true
    The Phoenicians are credited with creating the first real alphabet
    true
    Although the Hebrew people lived in Mesopotamia, other cultures had little influence on their life and literature
    false
    The Hebrew exodus from Egypt happened after their Babylonian captivity
    false
    Saul led the Hebrew people out of Egypt
    false
    After King Solomon the kingdom split and became two separate kingdoms: Judah and Israel
    true
    According to the prophet Amos, ritual action was far more important than the care of the poor and outcast
    false
    The Minoan civilization was located on the Island of Crete
    true
    For Homer, a Greek should strive to attain arete
    true
    In his funeral oration for those who had died in the Peloponnesian War, Pericles reminded those listening of the importance of democracy and how Athens differed from other city who government favors only the few
    true
    Cleisthenes argued that Athenian democracy would be more successful if the customary divisions of society such as tribes and clans were dissolved and persons developed a stronger sense of civic pride
    true
    Cleisthenes was one of the oligarchs who worked against democracy.
    false
    Pythagoras did not search for one physical thing as the basis of all creation; instead he argued that mathematical relationships were the underlying principle of all created things
    true
    The Sophists argued in favor of the presence of universal truths and against the idea that truth and knowledge is relative
    false
    Socrates was more concerned about questions of morality and ethics than he was of questions dealing with the exact substance that was common for all matter
    true
    Plato did not consider democracy the best form of government
    true
    Aristotle demonstrated a far greater interest in biology and the natural
    true
    Greek philosophy and art placed a great emphasis on the individual
    true
    Greek dramatists saw an inner logic to the universe and called it Fate or Destiny. When people were stubborn or arrogant they were punished
    true
    According to Aeschylus, the Persians were successful in their military campaigns because they displayed arete
    false
    Sophocles was a great Athenian general who led the charge against the Persians
    false
    In Lysistrata, the women of Athens attempt to stop the war by no longer working in the kitchen
    false
    After the death Alexander, the Greek language became the common language of the Mediterranean and the territories conquered by Alexander
    true
    The Ptolemaic, Seleucid, and Antigonid were all philosophical systems established in Athens during the time of Pericles
    false
    Hellenistic science resembled Platonic philosophy in that it favored abstract theory instead of investigation into the material world
    false
    Polybius sought to explain the rise of Rome to the status of a great power
    true
    According to Stoic philosophy, natural law provides human beings with an awareness of what is and is not correct behavior, especially when dealing with other human beings
    true
    The Etruscans learned much about architectural styles, road construction and sanitation from the Romans
    true
    In the early years of the Roman Republic the plebeians controlled most of the land and exerted a strong influence on the army
    false
    Roman citizens, like the Jews, considered law to be given by the gods and its basis in divine inspiration
    false
    Hannibal fought on the side of the Romans
    false
    Tiberius Gracchus worked for land reform
    true
    After Octavian’s forces defeated those of Antony and Cleopatra, there was a continuous round of assaults by various generals against Octavian which lead to internal fighting for the next 40 years
    false
    In 70 A.D. the Jewish people led a successful revolt against the Romans
    false
    Galen advanced methods of architecture and engineering, especially his use constructions of domes such as the Parthenon
    false
    Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius were all stoic philosphers
    true
    According to Ptolemy, the sun revolved around the earth
    true
    Immigrants were treated with high regard in the later years of the Roman Empire
    false
    During the third century the Roman Empire witnessed a severe breakdown of the relationship between its core and periphery
    true
    According to the Letter to the Galatians, Paul was in favor of maintaining certain Jewish practices for those persons who converted to Christianity
    false
    One of the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire was disenchantment with the government and a lack of desire for any public service
    true
    Paul traveled very little and relied on letters as a means of advancing his thoughts concerning Christianity
    false
    Stressing the importance of the intellect and self-reliance, Greco-Roman thought did not provide for the emotional and spiritual needs of the general populace
    true
    Nero and Diocletian were responsible for organizing persecutions against the Christians
    true
    Because of the church councils, Christianity never incorporated Greek philosophy as a means of explaining the truths of the Christian faith
    false
    Arius denied that Jesus was both human and divine
    true
    Basil established the rules for monastic life for the eastern part of the Roman Empire
    true
    The synoptic gospels are those written by Mathew, Mark, and Luke
    true
    The City of God was written by Benedict
    false
    St. Augustine argued that all the truths of faith could be known by reason alone
    false
    In the classical world view, history had no ultimate end, no ultimate meaning. In this regard it differed substantially from the outlook of Christianity
    true
    The date of December 25 as the exact birth date of Jesus comes from the gospels
    false
    John of Damascus considered Icons to be idolatry and argued for their removal from the churches
    true
    During the Early Middle Ages (500-1050), the Byzantine civilization was economically culturally far more advanced than the Latin West
    true
    There was little conflict between the church leadership in Rome and the church leadership in Constantinople after the year 500
    false
    The security of Constantinople was very important since it prohibited Muslims from moving into the Black Sea and up into Europe on the Danube river
    true
    Emperor Justinian was known as a greater codifier of law
    true
    The Iconoclast controversy dealt with whether images of human persons were acceptable in Christian worship
    true
    The prophet Mohamed is considered the person who first articulated and codified the Islamic faith
    true
    Muslims consider Jesus to be both human and divine
    false
    Within three hundred years after the death of Mohammad there was never any disagreement concerning the interpretation of the Koran or the practice of Islam among its members
    false
    At no time did Muslims ever control a portion of Western Europe
    false
    In the early Middle Ages the greatest force in creating stability and learning in Europe was the Church
    true
    Northern styles of art (Celtic and Germanic) exerted little to no influence on Christian art of the 8th and 9th centuries
    false
    The monasteries did not play an important role in the transmission of knowledge
    false
    St. Benedict provided a specific structure for how monastic life was to be lived
    true
    Monastic life was the primary means by which classical learning and knowledge remained in Western Europe
    true
    The Carolingian Renaissance refers to the revival of classical learning during the time of Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
    true
    The ninth and tenth centuries were a time of peace and stability in Western Europe, a time similar to the Pax Romana
    false
    Charles Martel defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours
    true
    On Christmas Day in Rome in the year 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans
    true
    Charlemagne’s empire and rule tended to favor Latin traditions and neglected or ignored Germanic peoples
    false
    Because of the increased invasions of the Vikings after 12th century there was little expansion of trade throughout Europe
    false
    During the 1100s the percentage of persons who were required to produce food increased in comparison to the 900s
    false
    Because of the insistence on the three-field system, the food loss caused a decrease in population
    false
    Because of the diminishment of food sources from 1000 to 1200 Western Europe did not see much growth of urban populations
    false
    Due to the change in trade patterns, the 13th century saw a diminishment in the power of the Italian city-states
    false
    The Magna Carta gave greater rights and control to the English monarch over his nobles
    false
    According to English law, the king could collect taxes without calling parliament
    false
    Hugh Capet was chosen to be king of France because of his strong military power and large land holdings
    false
    One great contribution of the Middle Ages to the modern world was the representative institution such as assemblies or parliaments
    true
    Trial by jury was one of the procedures in English law after 1100
    true
    Europe in the High Middle Ages showed little vitality. The period immediately after 1000 was marked by decreased population, limited population growth and minimal cultural development
    false
    Students behaved about as badly as they did in the Middle Ages as they do today
    true
    The philosophy of the classical world, such as Aristotle, had little influence in the medieval schools
    false
    Islamic civilization acted as a bridge that helped transfer the knowledge of the classical world to that of high middle ages
    true
    According to medieval cosmology the earth revolved around the sun
    false
    Medieval cosmology was hierarchical, with heaven at the top and hell at the bottom
    true
    Aristotle held that the basic composition of everything on earth was made of earth, air, fire, and water but material in the cosmos above the earth was made of a completely different substance
    true
    The Summa Theologicae was written by Thomas Aquinas
    true
    Scholasticism was the name given to the type of philosophy done in the middle ages
    true
    Thomas Aquinas argued that human reason and natural knowledge could support the truths of revealed religion
    true
    After the 1050 Western Europe saw a general diminishment in the authority of the church and the papacy
    false
    Excommunication refers to the ability of the church to remove someone from the community of the church
    true
    The Roman Emperor was the greatest supporter of papal authority
    false
    It was not until the renaissance that strong prejudice and violence occurred against Jewish people in Western Europe
    false
    During the early middle ages, science had progressed in the Latin West beyond what it had achieved in Islamic areas or in Byzantium
    false
    Albert the Great agreed with Plato in that true knowledge did not concern itself with the material world in such disciplines as botany, chemistry or geology
    false
    The presence of Arabic texts had a great influence on the development of science in the high middle ages (after 1100)
    true
    Dante was the author of the Divine Comedy
    true
    The High Middle Ages witnessed the writing down of stories which became national legends such as the Nibelungenlied and the Song of Roland
    true
    Gothic architecture created means by which more windows and therefore more light could be introduced into the church
    true
    In the first decade of the 14th century there was a general shortage of food
    true
    Although the Black Death was severe in some areas, most of Europe escaped with minimal mortality
    false
    The years 1300 to 1350, just before the plague, were marked by great economic growth and prosperity
    false
    The 100 years war was fought between France and England
    true
    In the Papal bull Unam Sanctam Boniface VIII argued that spiritual power was higher than a temporal power, such as the rule of a king, and therefore all rulers were subject to the papacy
    true
    King Philip IV of France was the greater defender of papal authority and
    false
    The period from 1309 to 1377 and referred to as the Babylonian Captivity refers to the time when the papacy was headquartered in Avignon and not in Rome
    true
    The Great Schism of the late 14th and early 15th century refers to the fact that at one time there were two popes and even three popes
    true
    In the late middle ages, the papacy lost power, as kings, political theorists, and religious dissenters challenged papal claims to supreme leadership
    true
    William of Ockham and Duns Scotus argued that reason alone cannot support the truths of faith
    true
    The “rebirth” of ideas for which the renaissance identified itself refers to the renewed emphasis on the ideas held in the middle ages, particularly the teachings of Thomas Aquinas
    false
    The Historian Jacob Burkhardt argued that it was the Renaissance was the departure point for the modern world and that there was a strong break between the Middle Ages and modernity
    true
    During the Renaissance Italy developed into a strong centralized state
    false
    The economy of the Italian city-states was based on trade
    true
    Venice never had a republican (representative) form of government
    true
    A greater emphasis on the individual was a hallmark of renaissance society
    true
    Humanism placed tremendous importance on the study of classical Greek and Latin Literature
    true
    Petrarch and Pico della Mirandola were both humanists
    true
    Humanism was frequently against the ideas of Christianity
    false
    The pope exercised little authority anywhere in the Italian Peninsula
    false
    Geographic areas such as France, Germany and England rejected many of the ideas of the Renaissance because of these areas’ dislike of things Italian.
    false
    The Northern humanists, as compared to the Italian Humanists, demonstrated a greater interest in religion and theological issues
    true
    Everywhere, two factors operated to accelerate the spread of the Renaissance after 1450: growing prosperity and the printing press
    true
    Literacy rates were very high in Europe in the later 15th century
    false
    The vernacular refers to the local language, French for example instead of Latin, the language of the schools
    true
    Both Catholics and Protestants censured books in the Renaissance
    true
    Erasmus made humanism an international movement
    true
    Erasmus was a tremendous supporter of scholastic methodology
    false
    The Catholic Church in Spain maintained a strong control on learning and University life
    true
    Thomas More’s Utopia dealt with the importance of trade and money management. In the Utopia he proposed the ideal methods for economic trade
    false
    Very few persons, if any, would have claimed that the late medieval church had become inefficient and corrupt
    false
    Mysticism was understood as the more immediate and spiritual communication with God, a communication that bypassed the intercession of the saints
    true
    By 1500 the Conciliar movement had proved to be a tremendous success at reforming the papacy
    false
    Jan Hus and John Wycliffe were both promoters of papal authority
    false
    A Dominican by the name of Tetzel was selling indulgences so that people could get out of purgatory. This event instigated Luther’s composition of the 95 Theses
    true
    Luther, towards the end of his life, argued that actions such as fasting, pilgrimages and good works, were a clear and helpful means for attaining salvation
    false
    According to excerpt from the movie Luther, Martin Luther never approved of indulgences and had always disagreed with the idea of veneration of the saints
    false
    Wycliff and Huss were both advocates of religious reform
    true
    The idea of the “***** of Babylon” was an expression for the corruption in the church, particularly the papacy
    true
    Katarina von Bora was the wife of Emperor Charles V and a famous painter as well
    false
    Zwingli and Luther agreed with each other concerning the nature of transubstantiation
    false
    According to the Peace of Augsburg religious affiliation was determined by a person’s free choice
    false
    Calvin’s fundamental work, The Institutes of Religion, argued against the doctrine of double predestination and supplied the Catholic response against the theory of double predestination
    false
    The author of the Institutes of Christian Religion was Ulrich Zwingli
    false
    The St. Bartholomew’s day massacre occurred in Germany when forces of Charles V killed the supporters of Martin Luther
    false
    Huguenots were French Calvinists
    true
    The magisterial reformation referred to those reform movements that were supported by the political authorities
    true
    The largest group of Radical reformers was the Anabaptists
    true
    Ignatius of Loyola was the founder of the Jesuits
    true
    The Council of Trent was a means of promoting reform within the Catholic Church
    true
    According to the diary of Christopher Columbus, religion played an important part in his motives for exploration
    true
    Christopher Columbus argued that you could reach the Indies by sailing west. He had absolutely no knowledge of the great land masses of North and South America
    true
    Barolomé de las Casas worked for the betterment of the native peoples in South America and argued for their rights as persons
    true
    The population of Western Europe increased dramatically between 1450 and 1600
    true
    The largest percentage of African slaves were taken to South America
    true
    Primogeniture describes the tradition of giving the entire estate to the first born male of the family
    true
    The price revolution of the 16th century refers to the unprecedented inflation
    true
    Copyhold identified the method of farming which dated from the middle ages in which the tenants had certain hereditary rights
    true
    Enclosure was the system of farming which caused the end of the open field system and the eradication of the system of medieval farming in favor of production of food for distant markets
    true
    Convertible husbandry caused a decrease in the production of crops
    false
    Absolutism identifies a type of government characterized by a strong centralized power
    true
    Absolutist monarchs were always subservient to religion and religious leaders
    false
    In the 16th and 17th centuries absolutist monarchs usually controlled religion and religious leaders
    true
    The unification of Spain occurred with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
    true
    In 1492 Spain issued an edict of toleration for the Jews within its boundaries
    false
    The Inquisition was created as a means to find persons who were secretly practicing other religions than Catholicism
    true
    Columbus primary purpose of his expedition was to demonstrate that the world was round, not flat
    false
    Under Henry IV the French monarchy regained greater stability and control from the previous decades
    true
    The chief minister to Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu, became the architect of French absolutism
    true
    The term raison d’etat, means that decisions are made in light of what is best for the State and not necessarily individuals within the state
    true
    By the end of the 17th century the Netherlands had failed to develop into a representational type of government
    false
    The Calvinist minority in the Netherlands supported the policies of Phillip II of Spain
    false
    The Union of Utrecht (1579) established independence among the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands to protect themselves from Spanish aggression
    true
    The wealth of the Dutch Republic was gained by land and farming, not by trade and commerce
    false
    In the medieval and early modern periods, the Holy Roman Emperors depended upon the powerful noble lords since the position of Emperor was elected not inherited
    true
    The Thirty Years was fought entirely along religious lines, that is, one side was Catholic and the other entirely Protestant
    false
    The Treaty of Westphalia established a settlement after the 30 Years war
    true
    The Hapsburgs were the ruling family in Austria
    true
    Muslims created the greatest threat to Austria’s eastern border
    true
    The area of Prussia never developed into a strong absolutist government
    false
    The Scientific Revolution brought a new, mechanical conception of nature that enabled westerners to discover and explain the laws of nature mathematically
    true
    Medieval cosmology rested primarily on two writers: Aristotle and Ptolemy
    true
    Ptolemy argued that the sun revolves around the earth
    true
    The physics of Aristotle was in basic agreement with the physics of Newton
    false
    Tycho Brahe used his observations to defend the theory of the crystalline spheres as the forces that moved the planets
    false
    Keppler, like Copernicus, argued that the earth moves around the sun in a perfect circle
    false
    According to Newton, the scientific laws of the universe demonstrate that God did not exist
    false
    Renaissance thinkers placed a great importance on the philosophic insights of Plato
    true
    Newton established the laws for universal gravity
    true
    Newton argued that the laws of gravity on earth were not those which affected the planets
    true

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    History – True/False. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/history-truefalse-7826/

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