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    History 270 Review

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    Atlantic World
    History of interactions among the peoples and the Empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim. Age of Discovery to early 21st century. Relates to the creation of “worlds”. Allows for melting pots of people due to trade and conquest.
    The Pacific World (“The Spanish Lake”)
    Interactions between Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Indian, Americas, Africans.
    Given to them in the Treaty of Tordesillas
    Also allowed for melting pot.
    Ecological Imperialism
    Process by which plants and animals are brought over from the old world and inserted into the new. Each had to displace something else. Sheep, pigs, and cattle ruined crops that natives grew. Wanted to build their new lives around what they had in the Old World.
    A Plague of Sheep
    Elinor Melville’s thesis. “A Plague of Sheep” came in and ate vegetation, crowded on corn/squash, destroyed soil with their hooves.
    Syncretism
    Combining of different (often seemingly contradicting) beliefs. Critical in creating L.A. culture.
    Examples: St. John the Baptist=Quetzalcoatl, Virgin Mary=Tonantzin, Christ=Huitzilopochtli
    Day of the Dead
    “Dia de los Muertos”. Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and people of Mexican ancestry, especially among Mexicans living in the United States. Family and friends gather to honor the life of their loved ones who have passes on. Not a sad day!!. Example of Syncretism.
    Columbian Exchange
    Between 15th and 16th century. Massive shift between new world and old world of food, language, flora, fauna, genetics, disease, customs, ideas. 3 commodities are chocolate, potatoes, silver.
    Also involves movement of people (African slaves brought over)
    Creation of the first global economy.
    Triangle Trade
    Three parts are Europe, Africa, and the Americas
    Europe to Africa (finished products-guns, cloth)
    Africa to the Americas (slaves, gold, ivory)
    The Americas to Europe (raw materials/natural resources-sugar, timber, tobacco, cotton, rice)
    Cochineal
    beetles raised by central Americans for their very bright red dye. The beetles ate a certain cactus (prickly pear cactus) and the Natives wove special baskets to house the beetles on the cactus. At a certain age, the beetles were crushed, which is what gave the dye. The Spanish let the natives continue to do this because they were so good at it.
    Used in the British army (red coats)
    Machismo
    Form of masculinity that asserts dominance and superiority of males in society.
    “Macho” means “male” or “manly” in Spanish
    Marianismo
    Female equivalent of Machismo.
    Characterized by hyper-feminine behavior.
    Related to various culture patterns in Latin America (Virgin of Guadalupe became key symbol of Mexican identity)
    Patriarchy
    Society where men are in charge (of the household and in society). Women should tolerate certain behavior of men such as aggressiveness, sexual infidelity, arrogance, and stubbornness
    Adhere to conservative gender roles (only men can occupy public sphere and women should remain solely in private sphere, main role of women is to be wives/mothers, should stay at home and attend to needs of children/husbands/house)
    Reformation
    Protestant reformation from 1517-forward. Examples are Luther and his 95 Theses in Germany, The Church or England and Henry the 8th.
    Luther disagreed with paying indulgences to the Church and said you can only be saved through faith and deeds.
    Counter-Reformation
    The Council of Trent, mid 16th century, seen as embodiment of it
    the Council had 25 sessions between December 13, 1545 and December 4, 1563
    Redefined doctrines and reaffirmed dogmas, assertion of discipline and education
    New artistic demand, purpose of art should speak to the masses and impress
    Connects to Baroque Period and the Corpus Christi in Cuzco
    Mapuche
    Natives from south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina
    Never subjugated by Spanish because they stopped Spanish advance
    Independence eventually ended in 1861-63 when Chilean and Argentinean conducted a series of military campaigns against them (Catalina de Erauso sent here)
    Carlos Siguenza y Gongora
    1645-1700
    Creole servant who studies mathematics, astronomy, Aztec history, Toltec writing
    Entered Society of Jesuit (Jesuit order) in 1660 but either left or was expelled in 1667 or 1669
    companion of Sor Juana
    Popularized Virgin of Guadalupe among Creoles
    Identified cause of drought/disease ridden wheat harvest as Chiahuitztli
    Extractionist (Extractive) Economy
    linked to Dependency Theory, government profits from goods/resources mined in an economy without investing profits back into colonial economy
    main reason why some nations never develop, means of making a profit depleted
    silver
    Potosi and Zacatecas main sources in new world
    extraction through state and private incentives
    Seen as a gift from God
    value of it eventually decreased as more was mined
    Chinese greatly valued it so it gave the Spanish something to trade with for silks, tea, porcelain, and art
    Sugar engenho
    Portuguese factory, first to ever exist.
    Produces sugar, molasses, and rum
    Large machines to produce sugar in the raw form that were powered by humans and oxen
    No Spaniard would take this job
    Contraband
    Empire placed bans in its colonies, which created a market for contraband and a need for smuggling
    American pirates
    The Dutch
    Controlled by the Spanish until the start of the 17th century
    About half of the Netherlands stayed with the Spanish
    Used maritime technology/ knowledge and challenged Spanish dominance in the sea
    Dutch pirates/privateers raided Spanish ships
    Controlled the Asiento (Spanish slave trade) for a bit
    Quilombos
    illegal settlements in South America and Central America comprised of escaped slaves, Native Americans, general outcasts from Spanish society
    Raided encomiendos and plantations to get supplies
    Represented an escape from Spanish society
    Piracy: Pirates/Privateers
    Privateer-sanctioned by the government, first kind of pirate to own a private ship
    Very fast/small ships, split the profit up between crew members
    Sir Francis Drakes (commissioned by Queen Elizabeth)
    Primary target Spanish fleets and Portuguese slave ships
    “The Golden Age of Piracy’ was 1680-1730
    many pirates were women and were seen as equal
    Limpienza de Sangre
    “Clean blood”
    Measured purity of someone’s blood based on how long you’ve been a Christian
    Top of the pyramid was all Spaniards
    Jews/Moors/Natives still had dirty blood because they were newly converted, still tainted
    Castas
    hierarchical system of race in 18th century Spanish society
    Ranked Peninsular Spaniards, Criollos, Mestizos, Indians, free blacks and mulattoes, and slaves in that order.
    Resulted in migration to cities because there you could transform identities and more opportunity for upward mobility (taken away from Bourbon Reforms)
    Creoles/Peninsulares
    Peninsulares are Spaniards born in Spain who were high level officials
    Creoles are Spaniard who were born in the New World, and while they had Spanish ancestry they had a lower ranking because they were born in the New World
    Many revolutions led by Creoles because they resented Peninsulares
    Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
    17th century nun and prominent writer
    women’s rights activist
    considered’s Latin America’s first published feminist
    Eventually denounced by the Church and forced to stop being an intellectual/take back what she said
    Had one of the most extensive libraries of the New World
    The Baroque World
    1550s-1700s
    A Response in Catholic Europe to the Reformation
    Art should communicate a religious theme, power of Absolutist King/Queens
    Public ritual, architecture, intricacy, formalism, allegory, allusion to authorities, simplicity, emotion, drama
    Diego Velazquez
    Painted Las Meninas (ladies in waiting) in 1656
    Depicted lives of ordinary people
    Baroque painter
    Count-Duke of Olivares
    Spanish royal favorite of Phillip 1V
    Prime Minister from 1621 to 1643
    Over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform.
    Wanted to recapture Holland which led to his major involvement in the Thirty Years’ War
    Downfall from his attempt to centralize power and increase wartime taxation
    War of Spanish Succession
    1701-1714
    End of the Hapsburg Spanish line
    Fight between Phillip V (Bourbon) and Archduke Charles (Austrian Hapsburg)
    Separation of Spanish and French throne, Bourbon line split
    British got the Asiento out of this deal
    Asiento de Negros
    Right/privilege to run a slave trade
    only held by one country at a time but it changed periodically
    Held by Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British
    Ceded to the British after after the War of Spanish Succession in 1714
    Most slaves transported by Brazil
    Treaty of Madrid
    Signed in Spain by Ferdinand V1 of Spain and John V of Portugal.
    January 3rd, 1750
    End border disputes in colonial Latin America
    Spain sold its territory to Portugal
    Defined much of modern day Brazil
    Jesuits
    Catholic Missionaries in Spanish colony of Peru
    advocated peaceful conversion of Natives through education
    Many of the oldest/best schools in L.A. were Jesuit
    Comercio libre (for the colonies)
    Bourbon Reforms of the 18th century
    Allowed for different Spanish colonies to trade with one another directly instead of dealing through Spain as a middleman
    Spanish implemented taxes in order to maintain this cut though (basically a Spanish stamp act)
    Bourbon Reforms
    Carried out by Phillip V and his heirs
    Created intendants and intendancies (new administration) which reversed all the gains the creoles had slowly made into administrative positions
    Suppressed the Jesuits, started confiscating Church land, started heavy taxation
    New secular government
    Intendencias
    Title given to a high-ranking official or administrator
    Loyal exclusively to the king
    Represented a removal from Medieval Contractualism
    Virgin de Guadalupe
    Reported that the Virgin Mary appeared in Guadalupe
    Images created of her and would become the banners used in Mexican Independence
    Became a symbol of nationality
    Highlights importance of Catholicism in Mexico
    Crisis of Legitimacy
    1808-Napoleon invades Spain
    Charles 1V abdicates
    1808-18010- Juntas and Cabido Abiertos formed Proclamation of Sovereignties
    Constitution of 1812 (stays until 1823)
    1813-Ferdinand v11 takes throne
    Public Sphere
    Perceived as the domain of men
    a place where men could meet and discuss enlightment ideas and beliefs
    linked to the riot of 1692
    coffeehouses
    The Enlightment
    Academic awakening in Europe
    Followed the Renaissance
    Accompanied by a new focus on empiricism , evidence became important
    Creole Nationalism
    Anti-Spanish sentiment felt by many Creoles in Latin America
    Effect of Bourbon Reforms which stripped away much of the socio political gains they had made
    Responsible for independence movements of late 18th and early 19th century
    Inspired for American Revolution
    Haitian Revolution
    Successful slave revolt led by Touissant L’Overture
    Kicked French and Polish mercenary allies out of Haiti
    Haiti was purposefully put in bad economic shape and has been ever since
    Significant because first ever successful slave revolt
    Isabella Moctezuma
    Mestizo
    Descendant of Moctezuma 11
    Impressive status in the Spanish system
    Integrated into Spanish society to maintain her status as nobility and ease the transition of other Natives to be brought under Spanish control
    “de Moctezuma” still a common last name
    Santa Rosa de Lima
    Member of the Third Order of the Saint Dominic in Lima, Peru
    known for her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy in the city through her own private efforts
    Declared a Saint by the Catholic Church (first person in the Americas)
    Miguel Hernandez
    Free mulatto in the 16th century Mexico
    Created a thriving business in transporting goods through mules
    Rare because not many economically successful mulattoes
    Crossed racial boundaries, defied typical divisions of the time
    Abominable Sin
    Sodomy, Perversion
    Tupi Guarani
    South American Indian language family
    Guarani one of the most spoken languages in the Americas, one of the official languages of Paraguay
    Been a nearly universal cultural/identity marker of Mestizos
    Old (Classical) Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the Tupi people of Brazil
    Potosi
    Earliest discovered rich silver deposit
    Seen as a gift from God
    Crown possessed the soil and required a mining license
    Peru became wealthiest American kingdom in the 16th century but by mid 17th century all silver that could be easily extracted was gone
    Received slaves to mine
    The Renaissance
    awakening in Europe that began in the mid 1400s in Italy
    Signaled end of middle ages
    People became more skeptical of church (seen by Protestant Reformation)
    General shift towards a more secular society and the diversification of art/architecture/culture
    Da Vinci, Michelangelo
    Miguel de Cervantes (Don Quixote)
    El Greco
    Grammatica-1492, one of the first grammar books of vernacular language
    At the time of Spain’s Golden Age (flourished in art, literature)
    Chocolate and Witchcraft
    The fact that women can create it in the kitchen disrupts perceived gender roles
    society labeled women that made chocolate as witches
    Expertise passed from Native Americans to Spanish women
    Pre-Columbian Americas- chocolate associated with “power and rulership”
    Commonly used in rituals related to birth, coming-of-age, marriage, and death
    In Colonial America it was thought to be the basis of magical potions that cast illness and sexual witchcraft practices
    Gender is Performed
    How someone walks, talks, acts, and speaks
    Gender is not biological but how they portray themselves
    Lt. Nun was seen naked multiple times but they still viewed her as a man and referred to her as “lad”
    Gender socially constructed
    House and Street
    Different domains in society
    When women seen on the street they were thought to be prostitutes because they were supposed to stay in the house and not go out by themselves
    “there are women you sleep with and women you marry”
    Cacique
    Used by the Spanish as a title for the leaders of other indigenous groups.
    Caciques and their families considered part of the nobility in Mexico
    Often held don and dona title
    Catarina de Monte Sinay
    1680-1745
    Raised in a wealthy family to become a nun
    Nun/entrepreneur
    dealt in slaves, gave loans with interest, ran a pastry business in her monastery
    Wondered if her activities would send her to Hell on her deathbed
    Lt. Nun
    Memoirs of Catalina de Erauso
    Transvestite in the New World
    Exemplifies the construction of gender in colonial Latin American Society
    Was a woman based on her genitalia but she performed well as a male and did “masculine” things so no one considered her to be a woman
    These actions include joining the military, killing her brother, sexual attraction to women, getting in fights because of her temper
    Constantly fell back on the Church because it provided a safe haven
    End of her life/conquest she is accepted back into the Church as a nun, lives a celebrity lifestyle
    Pope allows her to keep dressing as a man as long as she stops killing people

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    History 270 Review. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/history-270-review-7800/

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