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History 270 Review

Atlantic World
History of interactions among the peoples and the Empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim. Age of Discovery to early 21st century. Relates to the creation of “worlds”. Allows for melting pots of people due to trade and conquest.
The Pacific World (“The Spanish Lake”)
Interactions between Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Indian, Americas, Africans.
Given to them in the Treaty of Tordesillas
Also allowed for melting pot.
Ecological Imperialism
Process by which plants and animals are brought over from the old world and inserted into the new. Each had to displace something else. Sheep, pigs, and cattle ruined crops that natives grew. Wanted to build their new lives around what they had in the Old World.

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A Plague of Sheep
Elinor Melville’s thesis. “A Plague of Sheep” came in and ate vegetation, crowded on corn/squash, destroyed soil with their hooves.
Syncretism
Combining of different (often seemingly contradicting) beliefs. Critical in creating L.A. culture.
Examples: St. John the Baptist=Quetzalcoatl, Virgin Mary=Tonantzin, Christ=Huitzilopochtli
Day of the Dead
“Dia de los Muertos”. Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and people of Mexican ancestry, especially among Mexicans living in the United States. Family and friends gather to honor the life of their loved ones who have passes on. Not a sad day!!. Example of Syncretism.
Columbian Exchange
Between 15th and 16th century. Massive shift between new world and old world of food, language, flora, fauna, genetics, disease, customs, ideas. 3 commodities are chocolate, potatoes, silver.
Also involves movement of people (African slaves brought over)
Creation of the first global economy.
Triangle Trade
Three parts are Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Europe to Africa (finished products-guns, cloth)
Africa to the Americas (slaves, gold, ivory)
The Americas to Europe (raw materials/natural resources-sugar, timber, tobacco, cotton, rice)
Cochineal
beetles raised by central Americans for their very bright red dye. The beetles ate a certain cactus (prickly pear cactus) and the Natives wove special baskets to house the beetles on the cactus. At a certain age, the beetles were crushed, which is what gave the dye. The Spanish let the natives continue to do this because they were so good at it.
Used in the British army (red coats)
Machismo
Form of masculinity that asserts dominance and superiority of males in society.
“Macho” means “male” or “manly” in Spanish
Marianismo
Female equivalent of Machismo.
Characterized by hyper-feminine behavior.
Related to various culture patterns in Latin America (Virgin of Guadalupe became key symbol of Mexican identity)
Patriarchy
Society where men are in charge (of the household and in society). Women should tolerate certain behavior of men such as aggressiveness, sexual infidelity, arrogance, and stubbornness
Adhere to conservative gender roles (only men can occupy public sphere and women should remain solely in private sphere, main role of women is to be wives/mothers, should stay at home and attend to needs of children/husbands/house)
Reformation
Protestant reformation from 1517-forward. Examples are Luther and his 95 Theses in Germany, The Church or England and Henry the 8th.
Luther disagreed with paying indulgences to the Church and said you can only be saved through faith and deeds.
Counter-Reformation
The Council of Trent, mid 16th century, seen as embodiment of it
the Council had 25 sessions between December 13, 1545 and December 4, 1563
Redefined doctrines and reaffirmed dogmas, assertion of discipline and education
New artistic demand, purpose of art should speak to the masses and impress
Connects to Baroque Period and the Corpus Christi in Cuzco
Mapuche
Natives from south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina
Never subjugated by Spanish because they stopped Spanish advance
Independence eventually ended in 1861-63 when Chilean and Argentinean conducted a series of military campaigns against them (Catalina de Erauso sent here)
Carlos Siguenza y Gongora
1645-1700
Creole servant who studies mathematics, astronomy, Aztec history, Toltec writing
Entered Society of Jesuit (Jesuit order) in 1660 but either left or was expelled in 1667 or 1669
companion of Sor Juana
Popularized Virgin of Guadalupe among Creoles
Identified cause of drought/disease ridden wheat harvest as Chiahuitztli
Extractionist (Extractive) Economy
linked to Dependency Theory, government profits from goods/resources mined in an economy without investing profits back into colonial economy
main reason why some nations never develop, means of making a profit depleted
silver
Potosi and Zacatecas main sources in new world
extraction through state and private incentives
Seen as a gift from God
value of it eventually decreased as more was mined
Chinese greatly valued it so it gave the Spanish something to trade with for silks, tea, porcelain, and art
Sugar engenho
Portuguese factory, first to ever exist.
Produces sugar, molasses, and rum
Large machines to produce sugar in the raw form that were powered by humans and oxen
No Spaniard would take this job
Contraband
Empire placed bans in its colonies, which created a market for contraband and a need for smuggling
American pirates
The Dutch
Controlled by the Spanish until the start of the 17th century
About half of the Netherlands stayed with the Spanish
Used maritime technology/ knowledge and challenged Spanish dominance in the sea
Dutch pirates/privateers raided Spanish ships
Controlled the Asiento (Spanish slave trade) for a bit
Quilombos
illegal settlements in South America and Central America comprised of escaped slaves, Native Americans, general outcasts from Spanish society
Raided encomiendos and plantations to get supplies
Represented an escape from Spanish society
Piracy: Pirates/Privateers
Privateer-sanctioned by the government, first kind of pirate to own a private ship
Very fast/small ships, split the profit up between crew members
Sir Francis Drakes (commissioned by Queen Elizabeth)
Primary target Spanish fleets and Portuguese slave ships
“The Golden Age of Piracy’ was 1680-1730
many pirates were women and were seen as equal
Limpienza de Sangre
“Clean blood”
Measured purity of someone’s blood based on how long you’ve been a Christian
Top of the pyramid was all Spaniards
Jews/Moors/Natives still had dirty blood because they were newly converted, still tainted
Castas
hierarchical system of race in 18th century Spanish society
Ranked Peninsular Spaniards, Criollos, Mestizos, Indians, free blacks and mulattoes, and slaves in that order.
Resulted in migration to cities because there you could transform identities and more opportunity for upward mobility (taken away from Bourbon Reforms)
Creoles/Peninsulares
Peninsulares are Spaniards born in Spain who were high level officials
Creoles are Spaniard who were born in the New World, and while they had Spanish ancestry they had a lower ranking because they were born in the New World
Many revolutions led by Creoles because they resented Peninsulares
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
17th century nun and prominent writer
women’s rights activist
considered’s Latin America’s first published feminist
Eventually denounced by the Church and forced to stop being an intellectual/take back what she said
Had one of the most extensive libraries of the New World
The Baroque World
1550s-1700s
A Response in Catholic Europe to the Reformation
Art should communicate a religious theme, power of Absolutist King/Queens
Public ritual, architecture, intricacy, formalism, allegory, allusion to authorities, simplicity, emotion, drama
Diego Velazquez
Painted Las Meninas (ladies in waiting) in 1656
Depicted lives of ordinary people
Baroque painter
Count-Duke of Olivares
Spanish royal favorite of Phillip 1V
Prime Minister from 1621 to 1643
Over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform.
Wanted to recapture Holland which led to his major involvement in the Thirty Years’ War
Downfall from his attempt to centralize power and increase wartime taxation
War of Spanish Succession
1701-1714
End of the Hapsburg Spanish line
Fight between Phillip V (Bourbon) and Archduke Charles (Austrian Hapsburg)
Separation of Spanish and French throne, Bourbon line split
British got the Asiento out of this deal
Asiento de Negros
Right/privilege to run a slave trade
only held by one country at a time but it changed periodically
Held by Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British
Ceded to the British after after the War of Spanish Succession in 1714
Most slaves transported by Brazil
Treaty of Madrid
Signed in Spain by Ferdinand V1 of Spain and John V of Portugal.
January 3rd, 1750
End border disputes in colonial Latin America
Spain sold its territory to Portugal
Defined much of modern day Brazil
Jesuits
Catholic Missionaries in Spanish colony of Peru
advocated peaceful conversion of Natives through education
Many of the oldest/best schools in L.A. were Jesuit
Comercio libre (for the colonies)
Bourbon Reforms of the 18th century
Allowed for different Spanish colonies to trade with one another directly instead of dealing through Spain as a middleman
Spanish implemented taxes in order to maintain this cut though (basically a Spanish stamp act)
Bourbon Reforms
Carried out by Phillip V and his heirs
Created intendants and intendancies (new administration) which reversed all the gains the creoles had slowly made into administrative positions
Suppressed the Jesuits, started confiscating Church land, started heavy taxation
New secular government
Intendencias
Title given to a high-ranking official or administrator
Loyal exclusively to the king
Represented a removal from Medieval Contractualism
Virgin de Guadalupe
Reported that the Virgin Mary appeared in Guadalupe
Images created of her and would become the banners used in Mexican Independence
Became a symbol of nationality
Highlights importance of Catholicism in Mexico
Crisis of Legitimacy
1808-Napoleon invades Spain
Charles 1V abdicates
1808-18010- Juntas and Cabido Abiertos formed Proclamation of Sovereignties
Constitution of 1812 (stays until 1823)
1813-Ferdinand v11 takes throne
Public Sphere
Perceived as the domain of men
a place where men could meet and discuss enlightment ideas and beliefs
linked to the riot of 1692
coffeehouses
The Enlightment
Academic awakening in Europe
Followed the Renaissance
Accompanied by a new focus on empiricism , evidence became important
Creole Nationalism
Anti-Spanish sentiment felt by many Creoles in Latin America
Effect of Bourbon Reforms which stripped away much of the socio political gains they had made
Responsible for independence movements of late 18th and early 19th century
Inspired for American Revolution
Haitian Revolution
Successful slave revolt led by Touissant L’Overture
Kicked French and Polish mercenary allies out of Haiti
Haiti was purposefully put in bad economic shape and has been ever since
Significant because first ever successful slave revolt
Isabella Moctezuma
Mestizo
Descendant of Moctezuma 11
Impressive status in the Spanish system
Integrated into Spanish society to maintain her status as nobility and ease the transition of other Natives to be brought under Spanish control
“de Moctezuma” still a common last name
Santa Rosa de Lima
Member of the Third Order of the Saint Dominic in Lima, Peru
known for her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy in the city through her own private efforts
Declared a Saint by the Catholic Church (first person in the Americas)
Miguel Hernandez
Free mulatto in the 16th century Mexico
Created a thriving business in transporting goods through mules
Rare because not many economically successful mulattoes
Crossed racial boundaries, defied typical divisions of the time
Abominable Sin
Sodomy, Perversion
Tupi Guarani
South American Indian language family
Guarani one of the most spoken languages in the Americas, one of the official languages of Paraguay
Been a nearly universal cultural/identity marker of Mestizos
Old (Classical) Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the Tupi people of Brazil
Potosi
Earliest discovered rich silver deposit
Seen as a gift from God
Crown possessed the soil and required a mining license
Peru became wealthiest American kingdom in the 16th century but by mid 17th century all silver that could be easily extracted was gone
Received slaves to mine
The Renaissance
awakening in Europe that began in the mid 1400s in Italy
Signaled end of middle ages
People became more skeptical of church (seen by Protestant Reformation)
General shift towards a more secular society and the diversification of art/architecture/culture
Da Vinci, Michelangelo
Miguel de Cervantes (Don Quixote)
El Greco
Grammatica-1492, one of the first grammar books of vernacular language
At the time of Spain’s Golden Age (flourished in art, literature)
Chocolate and Witchcraft
The fact that women can create it in the kitchen disrupts perceived gender roles
society labeled women that made chocolate as witches
Expertise passed from Native Americans to Spanish women
Pre-Columbian Americas- chocolate associated with “power and rulership”
Commonly used in rituals related to birth, coming-of-age, marriage, and death
In Colonial America it was thought to be the basis of magical potions that cast illness and sexual witchcraft practices
Gender is Performed
How someone walks, talks, acts, and speaks
Gender is not biological but how they portray themselves
Lt. Nun was seen naked multiple times but they still viewed her as a man and referred to her as “lad”
Gender socially constructed
House and Street
Different domains in society
When women seen on the street they were thought to be prostitutes because they were supposed to stay in the house and not go out by themselves
“there are women you sleep with and women you marry”
Cacique
Used by the Spanish as a title for the leaders of other indigenous groups.
Caciques and their families considered part of the nobility in Mexico
Often held don and dona title
Catarina de Monte Sinay
1680-1745
Raised in a wealthy family to become a nun
Nun/entrepreneur
dealt in slaves, gave loans with interest, ran a pastry business in her monastery
Wondered if her activities would send her to Hell on her deathbed
Lt. Nun
Memoirs of Catalina de Erauso
Transvestite in the New World
Exemplifies the construction of gender in colonial Latin American Society
Was a woman based on her genitalia but she performed well as a male and did “masculine” things so no one considered her to be a woman
These actions include joining the military, killing her brother, sexual attraction to women, getting in fights because of her temper
Constantly fell back on the Church because it provided a safe haven
End of her life/conquest she is accepted back into the Church as a nun, lives a celebrity lifestyle
Pope allows her to keep dressing as a man as long as she stops killing people

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History 270 Review
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Atlantic World History of interactions among the peoples and the Empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim. Age of Discovery to early 21st century. Relates to the creation of "worlds". Allows for melting pots of people due to trade and conquest.
2017-11-21 09:41:58
History 270 Review
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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