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    13.4 The Harlem Renaissance: US History

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    Zora Neale Hurston
    woman who made it to the top of African- American literary society by hard work, flamboyance, and grit. Many of her writings portrayed the lives of poor, unschooled Southern blacks. In additon, much of her work celebrated what she called the common person’s art form
    “Black is Beautiful”
    slogan which called for the recognition of the cultural achievements of African Americans. This slogan has its roots in the Harlem Renaissance
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks
    W. E. B. Du Bois/ The Crisis
    founding member of the NAACP who led a parade of 10,000 African-American men in New York to protest racial violence. He also used the NAACP’s magazine as a platform for leading a struggle for civil rights (name and magazine)
    James Weldon Johnson
    poet, lawyer, and NAACP executive secretary. He used the organization to fight for legislation to protect African-American rights (main priority was working to pass anti-lynching laws)
    Marcus Garvey
    a Jamaican immigrant who believed that African Americans should build a separate society. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) and gained many followers. He encouraged his followers to return to Africa, to help native people over throw white colonial oppressors. His movement died down when he was convicted of mail fraud and jailed, however, he still left behind a powerful legacy of black pride
    the art of public speaking
    Harlem Renaissance
    a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
    Universal Negro Improvement Association
    Association founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914 to foster African American economic independence and establish an independent black homeland in Africa
    Claude McKay
    a novelist, poet, and Jamaican immigrant who was a major figure during the Harlem Renaissance. His verses urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination. His poems also expressed the pain of life in the black ghettos and the strain of being black in a world dominated by whites
    Jean Toomer/ Cane
    gifted writer during the Harlem Renaissance. His book was a mix of poems and sketches about blacks in the North and the South and was one of the first full-length literary publications (name and book)
    Langston Hughes
    African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance
    Shuffle Along
    a black musical comedy popular in 1921. The song in the musical, “Love Will Find a Way”, won popularity among white audiences. The show spotlighted the talents of black performers, including the singers Florence Mills, Josephine Baker, and Mabel Mercer
    Paul Robeson
    An outstanding athlete, student, singer, and actor who criticized American capitalism and discriminatory. He complained about the economic and political discrimination faced by blacks. Spent most of his time outside of the US because he did not feel welcomed there
    Louis Armstrong
    Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians
    Cotton Club
    a speakeasie where blacks played, but could not be apart of the audience. One of the most famous Harlem nightspots where “Duke” Ellington got his start
    “Duke” Ellington
    Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz
    Cab Calloway/ “scat”
    a talented drummer, saxophonist, and singer, who formed an important jazz orchestra, which played at Harlem’s Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club. Also, popularized a improvised jazz singing form that used sounds instead of words (name and type of singing)
    Bessie Smith
    a female blues singer, who was one of the most famous vocalists of the decade. She recorded on black oriented labels produced by major record companies. She achieved popularity and in 1927 became the highest-paid black artist in the world

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