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Chapter 15 World History

Renaissance
“rebirth”; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
Humanism
an intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements
Secular
having to do with worldly, as opposed to religious, matters
Baldassare Castiglione
Italian diplomat and writer, he wrote the Courtier. This book includes the rules to get a king to favor you
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian political philosopher and statesman, he wrote The prince which advised rulers to separate morals and politics
Lorenzo de Medici
Florentine ruler who supported the artists, best known for his liberal mind
Perspective
A technique renaissance artists used in order to realistically paint the natural world.
Leonardo da Vinci
A very famous painter who was best known for the Mona Lisa
Michelangelo Buonarrot
A very famous artist in Florence who painted the ceiling of a chapel
Raphael
Another very famous painter who painted the School of Athens
Johannes Gutenberg
Created the movable type printing press
Desiderius Eramus
Priest and Humanist who said people needed to live a simple christian life
Sir Thomas More
Writer who wrote Utopia which was about the perfect society
William Shakespeare
Dramatist and poet who wrote, hamlet, Romeo and Juliet
Albrecht Durer
German painter who combined renaissance style art with realism and perspective
Christine de Pisan
French poet and author who wrote The City of Women which taught about roles of women in society
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who focused on landscape and domestic life
Prostestant Reformation
The religious movement in the 1500’s that split the church in western Europe and led to the establishment of new churches
Indulgences
Pardons released by the pope that could reduce one’s time in purgatory
Martin Luther
German Monk who opposed the church, posted the 95 theses and led the reformation
Theocracy
a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God’s authority
John Calvin
French protestant who founded Calvinism
Predestination
The belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would be salvaged
Henry VIII
he wanted a divorce from his wife which angered the pope so he embraced Protestantism
Annulled
To end a marriage, and claim it isn’t valid anymore
Elizabeth I
Queen of England who restated protestant in England
Counter Reformation
The Catholic churches’ series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism
Girolamo Savonarola
Monk known for his prophecies of civic glory
Jesuits
Members of the society of Jesus
Ignatius Loyola
Churchman and founder of the Jesuits
Council of Trent
Meeting of the church leaders in the 1500’s who’s purpose to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Catholic reformation
Charles Borromeo
took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the council of Trent
Francis of Sales
Catholic leader and preacher he worked to win back the district of Savory in France from Calvinism
Teresa of Avila
Spanish carmelite nun and one of the main saints of the Roman Catholic church she reformed carmelite order
Why was Italy the focus of the Renaissance?
Because that was where the new ideas were coming from
How did Humanism contrast with that of the Church teaching
They emphasized individual achievement instead of group achievement like the church did
How does Secular writing differ from religious writing
Writing that focused on worldly things rather than spiritual things
How is the use of perspective a type of realism
Perspective helps artist artists realistically paint the world
How do renaissance works display a change in attitudes
They started painting Greek and roman scenes as well a religious figures which was different from the middle ages
How did science evolve during the Renaissance
They started questioning the Church and people said the earth wasn’t the center of the universe, but instead the sun was.
Describe the masters that emerged during the Renaissance
The masters were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, both were skilled artists.
How might the new ideas of the Renaissance affect society
People started questioning the church which made society change
How were Renaissance artists funded
By patrons of the art who funded them, and they also made money selling their art
How did Machiavelli’s The Prince reflect humanist and Renaissance ways of thinking
It showed that people had to be punished for doing wrong, and had to be punished to be kept in line
How did the Black Death, starvation, and warfare change Europe in the 1300’s?
It decreased the population in Europe which caused there to be less demand for food so people could work on different things like art and writing.
Name the city-states the emerged in Italy during the 1300’s
Venice, Milan, Florence
How did society and cities change during the 1300’s
Venice focused on sea trade
Milan focused on agriculture, silk, and weapons
Florence focused on banking and cloth
How did the Renaissance ideas spread to Northern Europe?
Trade, and Italian artists fleeing to Northern Europe
How did the Hanseatic League help spread the ideas of the Renaissance
Traders brought goods to northern Europe and spread Renaissance ideas there
What impact did the printing press have on the Northern Renaissance
It let people read ideas that came from the Renaissance which quickly spread those ideas in Northern Europe
Was the printing press or trade network more important in spreading Renaissance ideas?
Trade network because without it the ideas wouldn’t have been brought to Northern Europe
How did Northern artists adapt Italian techniques to their own subject matter
They painted with perspective and painted people like Italian artists
Describe the characteristics of Renaissance writer’s work
Dramatic stories that had a theme. They were very dramatic and u sally had something to do with renaissance ideas
How did Northern Renaissance artwork differ from that of Italian artists?
The Northern artists tried to paint people as they really were, but Italian artists drew gods, Greek culture. In the North they were more realistic
Explain the circumstances that led to the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther posted the 95 theses that were against the church
Describe the ideas of Martin Luther and how they contradicted the church’s teachings of his day
He said that selling indulgences was sinful but the church disagreed
How did the ideas of reformers who came after Luther differ from those of Luther
They thought the churches had theocracy at their base
Why was King Henry VIII a key figure of the Reformation
Becuase he went agiasnts the church and married many times
What caused the Reformation to spread to England
Henry VIII made Protestantism the main religion in England
Based on the response to Henry VIII’s break with Rome, what was likely to be the relationship between the church and England? Explain your answer.
The church and England are very separate because Henry VIIII went against the church and he became the head of the church
What methods did the Catholic Church use to stop the Spread of Protestantism?
They banned people, like Martin Luther, who opposed the church
What factors led to the Peasants’ War
Martin Luther’s 95 theses, and they wanted to do the same type of things a Luther
How did the Peace of Augsburg encourage religious toleration
It allowed for state choice of religion
How did Luther’s reaction to the Peasants’ War affect the Counter-Reformation?
This made him a good figure in the eyes of the northern European monarchs

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Chapter 15 World History
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Renaissance "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome Humanism an intellectu
2017-12-01 09:01:38
Chapter 15 World History
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