Leonardo da Vinci
Painter, sculpter, architect, inventor and mathematician during the renaissance.
Established themselves as the Dukes of Milan during the Middle Ages when Milan emerged as a trading center.
1447 – Led a band of merenaries (paid soldiers) to conquered Milan and Sforza became Duke of Milan after the Visconti family. Created at tax system that gave revenue to the government of Milan.
Cosimo de’ Medici
1434 – The wealthy Medici family ran the government of Florence from behind the scenes.
Lorenzo de’ Medici
Grandson of Cosimo de’ Medici – dominated the city of Florence when it was the cultural center of Italy.
In last 1400’s Florence experience economic decline. Dominican Preacher that condemned corruption and excess of Medici family. Medici family ended up turning over control to Savonarola, but people grew tired of his strict regulations on gambling, horses, painting, music etc. Savonarola was accused of heresy and sentenced to dealth. Medici famly came back to power.
French King who wanted the riches of Italy. Led troops into 30,000 troops into Italy in 1494. Italy turned to Spain for help.
King of Spain – 1527 – Turning point in the battle for Italy. Thousands of men belonging to Spain invaded and looted Rome. Spanish became dominant force in Italy.
Wrote The Prince – one of the most influencial works on political power in the western world. About how to get and keep political power.
Wrote The Book of the Courtier described the characteristics of a perfect renaissance noble.
One of the greatest painters of all time. also, sculpter, poet, architect and literary scholar. Sculted “David” and painted Sistine Chapel.
“Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism” Used works of Cicero as literary example and Virgil and poetry example.
Italian renaissance author who wrote in vernacular (the way people actually speak in a region). Divine Comedy the story of the soul’s journey to salvation.
English renaissance author that wrote in vernacular. The Canterbury Tales – short stories of 29 pilgrims going to tomb of Thomas a Becket.
Christine de Pizan
French female writer using vernacular – The Book of the City of Ladies in 1404 – denouced idea that women could not learn.
First master painter of the early renaissance. Painted “frescos” – painting on fresh wet plaster with water based paints.
Sculpter who studied the Greek and Roman statues. Did realistic scupltures.
An architect inspired by the classical buildings of Rome – created arches and columns of gothic cathedrals.
Jan Van Eyck
The first to used and perfect the art of oil painting creating striking realism and fine details in his paintings.
One of Italy’s best painters. Known for his Madonnas and frescos in the Vatican Palace. Taught balance, harmony and order in his School of Athens.
German artist influenced by the Italians. Famous painting is Adoration of the Magi. Sought to achieve a standard of “ideal beauty” and harmony in his works.
Best known Christian Humanist in the early 1500’s. “The Philosophy of Christ” said that Christianity should guide people in living a good life on a daily basis and not just provide the belief of being saved. Stessed the inwardness of religious feeling and that external stuff of the day – fasting, relics and pilgrimages – were not as important. Wrote The Praise of Folly – to inspire church reform. Erasmus stayed loyal to the Catholic Church until his death, but “laid the egg that Luther hatched.”
Three ways to reform the church:
1) spread the philosophy of Christ
2) educate in the works of christiantity
3) end the abuses in the church (abuse of power, selling of relics etc.)
The Warrior Pope – Personally led armies against his enemies.
A monk and professor at the University of Wittenburg in Germany. Through study of the Bible Luther reached the conclusion that a powerless man could not do enough works in his lifetime to earn salvation, and that salvation had to come from an almighty God through faith alone. this is the chief tenet of the Prostestant Reformation. One pope said he was “just a drunken German” for posting Ninety-five Theses – an attack on the abuses of the Catholic Church.
A monk Luther found offensive because he sold indulgences with the slogan “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
Holy Roman Emeror ruled Spain, Austrian lands, Bohemia, Hungary and Northern Italy. (He was also Charles I King of Spain)
Frederick, the elector of Saxony
Student of Martin Luther. Hid Luther when he was wanted as an outlaw and protected Luther when he returned to Wittenburg in 1522.
A priest in Zurich, Switzerland. Spread religious reforms. Replaced art in churches with white washed walls, and replaced Mass with readings, prayer and sermons. Unified with Luther in Germany as a defense against Catholic authorities.
Educated in Catholic France but flees to Switzerland as the new leader of Protistant Reformation. Believed in justification by faith alone, predestination (some would be saved and some damned). Formed the Consistory as a court for moral crimes such as dancing, swearing, singing, obscene language, drunkeness and playing cards.
King Henry VIII
Responsible for the English Reformation when he wanted to annul his Catholic marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn
Catherine of Aragon/Daughter Mary
Catholic wife of King Henry VIII.
2nd wife of King Henry VIII after his marriage to Catherine of Aragon is annulled. Has a daughter named Elizabeth (to become Queen Elizabeth I)
Archbishop of Canterbury and head of high church court in England annulled King Henry VIII’s marriage in 1533
Queen Elizabeth I
Daughter of King Henry VIII
Thomas Moore (Saint)
Opposed Henry VIII’s desire to annul marriage, and his declariation that the King was the superiour authority over the church,
Son of King Henry VIII from his third wife. Assumed the throne at 9 and died at 16
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Was Catholic and wanted to return Catholicism to England when she came to the throne in 1533. Had over 300 Protetants burned and became known as Bloody Mary.
Ignatious of Loyola
Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus known as the Jesuits. A special vow of loyalty to the pope and part of the Counter-Reformation (reform of the Catholic Church internally)
Pope Paul III
Formed the Council of Trent to create a clear body of doctrine under the pope’s leadership.