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    Glencoe World History Chapter 12 (NAMES)

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    Leonardo da Vinci
    Painter, sculpter, architect, inventor and mathematician during the renaissance.
    Visconti Family
    Established themselves as the Dukes of Milan during the Middle Ages when Milan emerged as a trading center.
    Francesco Sforza
    1447 – Led a band of merenaries (paid soldiers) to conquered Milan and Sforza became Duke of Milan after the Visconti family. Created at tax system that gave revenue to the government of Milan.
    Cosimo de’ Medici
    1434 – The wealthy Medici family ran the government of Florence from behind the scenes.
    Lorenzo de’ Medici
    Grandson of Cosimo de’ Medici – dominated the city of Florence when it was the cultural center of Italy.
    Girolamo Savonarola
    In last 1400’s Florence experience economic decline. Dominican Preacher that condemned corruption and excess of Medici family. Medici family ended up turning over control to Savonarola, but people grew tired of his strict regulations on gambling, horses, painting, music etc. Savonarola was accused of heresy and sentenced to dealth. Medici famly came back to power.
    Charles VIII
    French King who wanted the riches of Italy. Led troops into 30,000 troops into Italy in 1494. Italy turned to Spain for help.
    Charles I
    King of Spain – 1527 – Turning point in the battle for Italy. Thousands of men belonging to Spain invaded and looted Rome. Spanish became dominant force in Italy.
    Niccolo Machiavelli
    Wrote The Prince – one of the most influencial works on political power in the western world. About how to get and keep political power.
    Baldassare Castiglione
    Wrote The Book of the Courtier described the characteristics of a perfect renaissance noble.
    Michaelangelo
    One of the greatest painters of all time. also, sculpter, poet, architect and literary scholar. Sculted “David” and painted Sistine Chapel.
    Petrarch
    “Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism” Used works of Cicero as literary example and Virgil and poetry example.
    Dante
    Italian renaissance author who wrote in vernacular (the way people actually speak in a region). Divine Comedy the story of the soul’s journey to salvation.
    Geoffery Chaucer
    English renaissance author that wrote in vernacular. The Canterbury Tales – short stories of 29 pilgrims going to tomb of Thomas a Becket.
    Christine de Pizan
    French female writer using vernacular – The Book of the City of Ladies in 1404 – denouced idea that women could not learn.
    Masaccio
    First master painter of the early renaissance. Painted “frescos” – painting on fresh wet plaster with water based paints.
    Donatello
    Sculpter who studied the Greek and Roman statues. Did realistic scupltures.
    Filippo Brunelleschi
    An architect inspired by the classical buildings of Rome – created arches and columns of gothic cathedrals.
    Jan Van Eyck
    The first to used and perfect the art of oil painting creating striking realism and fine details in his paintings.
    Raphael
    One of Italy’s best painters. Known for his Madonnas and frescos in the Vatican Palace. Taught balance, harmony and order in his School of Athens.
    Albrecht Durer
    German artist influenced by the Italians. Famous painting is Adoration of the Magi. Sought to achieve a standard of “ideal beauty” and harmony in his works.
    Desiderius Erasmus
    Best known Christian Humanist in the early 1500’s. “The Philosophy of Christ” said that Christianity should guide people in living a good life on a daily basis and not just provide the belief of being saved. Stessed the inwardness of religious feeling and that external stuff of the day – fasting, relics and pilgrimages – were not as important. Wrote The Praise of Folly – to inspire church reform. Erasmus stayed loyal to the Catholic Church until his death, but “laid the egg that Luther hatched.”
    Erasmus
    Three ways to reform the church:
    1) spread the philosophy of Christ
    2) educate in the works of christiantity
    3) end the abuses in the church (abuse of power, selling of relics etc.)
    Julius II
    The Warrior Pope – Personally led armies against his enemies.
    Frederick the Wise
    Martin Luther
    A monk and professor at the University of Wittenburg in Germany. Through study of the Bible Luther reached the conclusion that a powerless man could not do enough works in his lifetime to earn salvation, and that salvation had to come from an almighty God through faith alone. this is the chief tenet of the Prostestant Reformation. One pope said he was “just a drunken German” for posting Ninety-five Theses – an attack on the abuses of the Catholic Church.
    Johann Tetzel
    A monk Luther found offensive because he sold indulgences with the slogan “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
    Charles V
    Holy Roman Emeror ruled Spain, Austrian lands, Bohemia, Hungary and Northern Italy. (He was also Charles I King of Spain)
    Frederick, the elector of Saxony
    Student of Martin Luther. Hid Luther when he was wanted as an outlaw and protected Luther when he returned to Wittenburg in 1522.
    Ulrich Zwingli
    A priest in Zurich, Switzerland. Spread religious reforms. Replaced art in churches with white washed walls, and replaced Mass with readings, prayer and sermons. Unified with Luther in Germany as a defense against Catholic authorities.
    John Calvin
    Educated in Catholic France but flees to Switzerland as the new leader of Protistant Reformation. Believed in justification by faith alone, predestination (some would be saved and some damned). Formed the Consistory as a court for moral crimes such as dancing, swearing, singing, obscene language, drunkeness and playing cards.
    King Henry VIII
    Responsible for the English Reformation when he wanted to annul his Catholic marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn
    Catherine of Aragon/Daughter Mary
    Catholic wife of King Henry VIII.
    Anne Boleyn
    2nd wife of King Henry VIII after his marriage to Catherine of Aragon is annulled. Has a daughter named Elizabeth (to become Queen Elizabeth I)
    Thomas Cranmer
    Archbishop of Canterbury and head of high church court in England annulled King Henry VIII’s marriage in 1533
    Queen Elizabeth I
    Daughter of King Henry VIII
    Thomas Moore (Saint)
    Opposed Henry VIII’s desire to annul marriage, and his declariation that the King was the superiour authority over the church,
    Edward VI
    Son of King Henry VIII from his third wife. Assumed the throne at 9 and died at 16
    Bloody Mary
    Daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Was Catholic and wanted to return Catholicism to England when she came to the throne in 1533. Had over 300 Protetants burned and became known as Bloody Mary.
    Ignatious of Loyola
    Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus known as the Jesuits. A special vow of loyalty to the pope and part of the Counter-Reformation (reform of the Catholic Church internally)
    Pope Paul III
    Formed the Council of Trent to create a clear body of doctrine under the pope’s leadership.

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    Glencoe World History Chapter 12 (NAMES). (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/glencoe-world-history-chapter-12-names-9129/

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