A) The papal system of trade to the Crusader states
B) The papal system of tax collection on church lands
C) The papal banking system
D) The provisioning of papal troops throughout Italy
E) The papal selling of indulgences
A) manifested corporate power.
B) was commissioned by nobles only.
C) was seen as subversive by the church.
D) did not depict living people.
E) was produced for art’s sake.
A) some cities were sworn associations of free men who sought political and economic independence from local nobles.
B) some cities were ruled by military leaders who had established order following popular uprisings.
C) some cities were established as republican governments by the common people through armed revolts.
D) some cities were ruled by signori who kept communal institutions in place but left them no actual power.
E) some cities were under authority of the papacy, which ruled them as personal lands of the pope
A) Political loyalty and feeling centered on a passionate attachment to the individual city-state.
B) The papacy prevented any movement toward unification , fearing a treat to its political authority.
C) France and the Holy Roman Empire had too many land claims in the region to permit any unification.
D) Spain claimed all of southern Italy and threatened war on any power seeking to unify the peninsula.
E) The Italians were too culturally and linguistically diverse to realistically contemplate unification.
A) Savonarola came to power in Florence as a general suppressing a popular revolt but lost authority when the merchants rejected his efforts to restrict their wealth.
B) Savonarola came to power in Florence denouncing vice and corruption, but as people tired of his moral denunciations, he lost authority.
C) Savonarola was appointed ruler in Florence by the pope but lost authority when he challenged papal interference in Florence’s baking industry.
D) Savonarola was appointed chief administrator in Florence by ruling oligarchs but lost power when he failed to defeat the French invasion.
E) Savonarola came to power as signori but lost authority when criticism of his extravagant, luxurious lifestyle led the oligarchs and the papacy to oust him.
A) urban palace.
B) military hardware and training.
C) daughter’s dowry.
E) jewelry and clothing.
A) a new era would dawn as writers stripped Christianity of the classical Roman influences that had polluted the church’s teachings.
B) the writers of ancient Greece had reached a perfection in literature and philosophy that the writers of ancient Rome had corrupted.
C) the recovery of classical texts would bring about a new golden age of intellectual achievement.
D) the barbarian invaders had brought a new vigorous energy to Western culture that needed to be integrated into the classical tradition.
E) education should center on the study of the Bible combined with meditation and reflection.
A) As creatures in the age of God, humans were superior to the rest of creation, including the angels and other heavenly beings.
B) Humans, lacking a fixed place, were the one part of the created part of the world that could freely choose to rise to the heavens or sink into the realm of animals.
C) Lacking a specific role in God’s creation, humans were actually below animals but had the potential for greatness denied to animals.
D) Humans were established by God as just below the angels and given to rule over everything on earth.
E) Humans were fundamentally the same as animals, distant from God and all things spiritual.
A) was designed to prevent a single Italian state from dominating the peninsula.
B) successfully prevented foreign domination of Italy.
C) was primarily concerned with controlling the papacy.
D) was critical to the economic success of Italy.
E) led to Venetian domination of the Italian
A) the product of the invaders’ overwhelming superiority.
B) the result of the economic collapse of Italy.
D) the result of the Italians’ failure to coordinate a common defense.
E) the result of a papal invitation to the French king to intervene.
A) The ability to shape the world around oneself according to one’s will
B) The expression of perfection in the life lived in balance and simplicity
C) Moral goodness as set out in the Christian Scriptures
D) The serenity achieved through contemplation and acceptance of life’s hardships
E) Moral goodness as expressed in nature and natural law
A) Christian humility.
B) a concern for the improvement of society in general.
C) a glorification of individual genius.
D) the attempt to use art to educate the urban masses.
E) rejection of spiritual authority.
A) study of the classics for what they could reveal about human nature.
B) study of the classics in order to understand the divine nature of God.
C) absolute authority of classical texts.
D) role of the church in the reform of society.
E) study of Revelation for a clue to the date of the Second Coming.
A) decline of religious feeling.
B) political disunity of Italy.
C) great commercial revival in Italy.
D) creation of powerful, centralized monarchies.
E) French patronage of Italian artists.
A) Fate marked the sheer random movement of nature and people that was beyond the ability of any ruler to control.
B) The most skilled and prepared ruler could not fully escape the operations of fate that might cause a prince to lose his realm.
C) The idea of fate was but a metaphor for the favor that God randomly bestows on some rulers and denies to others.
D) The skilled ruler can overcome the operations of fate if he is willing to abandon all moral limitations and scruples.
E) Fate was the poor justification that deposed rulers used to explain their failure to properly hold and use power.
A) ignored the Renaissance.
B) attempted to crush the secularism of the Renaissance.
C) readily adopted the Renaissance spirit, especially when it came to art.
D) used Renaissance ideals to promote moral reform.
E) came to believe that the Renaissance had caused the Reformation.
A) focused on ridding oneself of vermin.
B) suggested that early choice of a profession was crucial in becoming a gentleman.
C) asserted that real men need not learn French.
D) insisted that the real gentleman show Christian humility and kindness toward the downtrodden.
E) suggested that gentleman cultivate their abilities in a variety of fields, from athletics to music to art to mathematics.
A) Governments rejected pleas to censor publishing, realizing, that expanding knowledge would lead to more prosperous subjects.
B) Increasing literacy and the opening of more schools and universities had created an expanding market for reading material.
C) The technology was highly complex so that only a few presses came into operation, producing large profits for those printers.
D) Printing presses primarily published secular works useful for professionals and merchants.
E) Because the press could not print images, printers could work much more quickly than manuscript copyists, who had to wait for each image to be drawn.
A) because it was good for business.
B) in order to please God.
C) to glorify themselves and their families.
D) to control unemployment.
E) to enlighten the masses.
A) The printing press served to reestablish the idea of a unified Christendom.
B) Provincial towns sought to limit and control the spread of printing, undermining their legitimacy as promoters of the general good.
C) In order to establish legitimacy, printers published primarily in Latin, serving to reinforce a sense of a unified Western culture.
D) Individuals widely separated by geography could read the same material and form a common identity that competed with local loyalties.
E) Central governments ordered printing presses established in all local communities in order to establish a national network of printing.
A) provided the necessary public services.
B) was based on Christian morality.
C) protected the liberty of its citizens.
D) provided order, security, and safety of the populace.
E) improved the economy.
A) women were not allowed to study the male nude.
B) women could not work in public where the fresco technique was done.
C) women were not permitted to join groups of male artists for informal practice.
D) women were not permitted to attend artistic academies.
E) women were not permitted to take up painting until after they were married.
A) Groupings of people based on skin color
B) Groupings of people based on noble lineage
C) Groupings of people based on geographic origins
D) Groupings of people based on ethnic, national, or religious factors
E) Groupings of people based on linguistic families
A) men and women were equals in intellectual pursuits.
B) the status of women had improved since the Middle Ages.
C) women’s sphere of activity was private and domestic.
D) women should have equal opportunity in marital and extramarital sexual relations.
E) women lacked immortal souls.
A) African slaves intermingled with the people they lived among and sometimes intermarried with them.
B) African slaves were socially segregated as a lesser class lacking any rights.
C) African slaves isolated themselves into tight-knit communities that sought to achieve independence from their masters.
D) African slaves were kept in guarded, military-style barracks that limited their ability to move within society.
E) African slaves were few in number and were treated as oddities brought out to be put on display.
A) The nobility retained its status by blocking the newly wealthy from political positions and from marriage into the nobility.
B) The newly wealthy used their resources to establish new forms of social prestige that the nobility could not copy and which discredited the nobility as social leaders.
C) The newly wealthy rejected the claims of the nobility to moral superiority of landed wealth.
D) The nobility retained its status by taking in and integrating the new social elite of wealth.
E) The nobility embraced the innovations of the newly wealthy and abandoned the ineffective limitations of traditional conceptions of honor.
A) The traditional work associated with women was unskilled and, therefore, more widely performed.
B) Women were largely secluded in their homes; therefore, their work was seen as strictly domestic and not worthy of compensation.
C) Women did not seek to organize in guilds so that they could better influence wages and prices for their work.
D) It was understood that a woman was either married or to be married and, therefore, not responsible for supporting a family.
E) Women’s work was viewed as work that affected the body, such as clothing and food preparation; therefore, it was associated with fleshly sinfulness.
A) expelling nobles’ militias and troops.
B) eliminating nobles’ militias and troops.
C) increasing the influence of lawyers and bankers on the royal council.
D) instituting new taxes.
E) establishing regular companies of cavalry and archers.
A) They refused to appoint members of the high aristocracy to the royal council.
B) They adopted major clerical reforms that undermined the political power of the church and hierarchy.
C) They avoided major wars that would require money from Parliament.
D) They required all nobles to assign their noble militias to royal control.
E) They centralized all tax collection into the royal bureaucracy.
B) control of the papacy.
C) a pious life.
D) the concerted effort that only a strong state could afford.
E) adherence to church dogma.
A) permitted the monarchs to undermine the provincial elite by unifying the two states into a single, unified kingdom.
B) unified all of the Iberian peninsula.
C) created a dynastic union but did not unify the separate kingdoms into a single state.
D) undermined the claims of the Holy Roman Emperor to be the defender of he Church
A) American Indians who returned to Spain to demonstrate that they could and would embrace Christianity.
B) Jewish Christians, some of whom held prominent positions in the state, church, and business.
C) Albigensian heretics who had fled to Spain to avoid the Inquisition in France.
D) Muslim converts to Christianity following the fall of Granada.
E) small clans of Celts who had hidden away in the Pyrenees and still practiced traditional Celtic rituals.
A) the problems plaguing society could be solved by a beneficent government.
B) North America would one day be the site of the greatest power in world history.
C) Native Americans could be saved through conservations to Christianity.
D) flaws in the divine nature were responsible for human corruption.
E) human beings evolved from lower animals.
A) Status as a Jew was defined as a cultural rather than biological or Christian, so that it could only be removed by being raised in a non-Jewish culture.
B) Status as a Jew was defined as inherent the blood, so Jews could never be true Christians.
C) Status as a Jew was defined as the result of religious choice, so status, could change Christians.
D) Status as a Jew was defined as political, so status could change if a Jew separated himself from the political authority of Jewish community leaders.
E) Status as a Jew was defined as intellectual, so status could change if a Jew dedicated himself to learning and adopting the Christian scholastic tradition.
A) The papacy received the right to the first year’s income of new bishops and abbots, and the French king retained the right to select French bishops and abbots.
B) The papacy gained the right to maintain its own court system, and the French crown received all revenues from that court system.
C) The papacy received the right to nominate bishops, while the French crown could veto the proposed candidates.
D) The papacy received the right to veto candidates for offices nominated by the king, while the king received the first year’s income from all religious offices
E) The papacy gained the right to appoint bishops, while the king retained the right to tax church lands.
A) dealt with noble threats to royal power in England.
B) was dominated by the great nobles of England.
C) was the English equivalent of the Spanish Inquisition.
D) dealt with the finances of the English government.
E) was largely staffed by conversos.
A) reforming the church.
B) promoting peace and social order at the local level.
C) restricting the wages of the working classes.
D) lowering taxes and subsidizing the wool industry
E) appointing a few great lords as his closest advisers.