With the large city-states and sizeable towns, northern Italy was urban versus the rest of Europe being mostly rural. The cities were an ideal place for an intellectual revolution as they are places where ideas are often exchanged. When the bubonic plague struck in the asses, 60% of the populations of these cities were killed, and this mean that the fewer laborers could demand higher wages, and with fewer opportunities to expand business, merchants began to pursue interests such as art. It. Merchants and the Medici A wealthy merchant class developed in each Italian city-state.Order now
Small city-states like Milan and Florence had a high percentage of citizens that could be intensely involved in political life. Merchants dominated politics Merchants didn’t inherit social rank like nobles. Many successful merchants believed they deserved power and wealth because of their individual merit. Since the late asses, Florence had a republican form of government. During the Renaissance, Florence came under the rule of the Medici, whose family bank had branch offices throughout Italy and in the major cities of Europe.
Cosmic De Medici was the wealthiest European of his time, and in 1434, he won control of Florescence’s government and was dictator for 30 years. He influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. Cosmic De Medici died in 1464, UT his family continued to control Florence. His grandson, Lorenz De Medici (aka Lorenz the Magnificent), came to power in 1469 and ruled as a dictator keeping the appearance of an elected government. Iii. Looking to Greece and Rome Renaissance scholars wanted to return to the culture of the Greeks and Romans.
The artists and scholars of Italy were inspired by Roman around them. Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts preserved in monasteries. Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453. B. Classical and Worldly Values Humanism was an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements that was sparked by the study of classical texts. Instead of approaching the texts with the goal of equating them to Christian teachings, humanists studied them to understand ancient Greek values.
Humanists influenced artists and architects to use classical traditions and promoted the study of subjects typical of classical education (aka humanities: history, literature, philosophy, etc. ) A. 1 . A. Iii. Worldly Pleasures In the Middle Ages, piety had been demonstrated by wearing rough clothing and eating plain foods. Humanists suggested that a person could enjoy life without offending God. The basic spirit of Renaissance society was focused on here and now (worldly) versus spiritual, this was called secular society.
Even church leaders became worldlier: living in beautiful mansions, throwing lavish banquets, and wearing expensive clothes. A. L . A. Iv. Patrons of the Arts Church leaders, merchants, and wealthy families during the Renaissance became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists. By having their portraits painted or by donating art to the city (to be shown of biblically), the wealthy displayed their win importance. A. L . A. V. The Renaissance Man During the Renaissance, as propagated by writers, the ideal individual strove to master almost every area of study.
A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a “universal man” (aka Renaissance men, known as such in later ages) Balderdash Castigation wrote a book called The Courtier (1528) that taught a young man should be charming, witty, well educated in the classics, dance, sing, play music, write poetry, be a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman. A. L . A. Vi. The Renaissance Woman According to The Courtier, upper-class women also should know the classics and be harming, but instead they were expected to inspire art but rarely to create it.
Upper- class Renaissance women were better educated than medieval women, but most had little influence in politics, and few, such as Isabella detest, did exercise power. Born into the ruling family of the city-state of Ferreira, Isabella married the ruler of another city-state, Mantra. She brought many Renaissance artists to her court and built a famous art collection and was also skilled in politics so that when her husband was taken captive in war, she defended Mantra and won his release. C. The Renaissance Revolutionizes Art
Renaissance artists often portrayed religious figures and Greek and Roman subjects, used a realistic style mimicking classical models, and used perspective (showing three dimensions on a flat surface). I. Realistic Painting and Sculpture With the movement of Individualism, painters began to pain prominent citizens. Realistic portraits showed the distinction between people and artists such as Michelangelo Bonaparte (sculptor, painter, architect, poet) used a realistic style when depicting the human body.
Donated also made sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions to convey personality. He revived a classical/ biblical form in his statue of David (David and Goliath story) in the asses, the first European sculpture off large, free-standing nude since ancient times. It. Leonardo, Renaissance Man Leonardo dad Vinci was a true “Renaissance man,” (considered a genius who was a He filled his notebooks with observations and sketches and he incorporated his studies in his art. The Mona Lisa is so realistic that many writers have tried to explain the thoughts behind her smile.
The Last Supper shows the personalities of Jesus’ disciples through their facial expressions and drastically different postures. Iii. Raphael Advances Realism Raphael Sansei was a young man who learned from studying the works of the older Michelangelo and dad Vinci. One of Repeal’s favorite subjects was the Madonna and child, and he often portrayed their expressions as gentle and calm. He was famous for his use of perspective, and his greatest achievement was filling the walls of Pope Julius Sis’s library with paintings (School of Athens conveys classical influence on Renaissance).
Raphael painted famous Renaissance figures, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo, and himself, as classical philosophers and their students. Lb. Anguishing and Gentiles A few Italian women became notable painters, like Isobars Anguishing, the first woman artist to gain an international reputation. She’s known for her portraits of her sisters and people such as King Philip II of Spain. Artemisia Gentiles was trained with her painter father and helped with his work. In her own paintings, she painted heroic women. D.
Renaissance Writers Change Literature Some Renaissance writers followed the example of medieval writer Dante, who wrote in the vernacular (his native language of Italian) instead of Latin. Renaissance writers wrote for self-expression or to portray individuality of their subjects. A. L . A. Vii. Patriarch and Vacation Francesco Patriarch (aka father of Renaissance humanism) was one of the earliest and most influential humanists and a great poet who wrote in both Italian and Latin He wrote 14 line poems, sonnets, in Italian about a mysterious woman named Laura (his ideal), who died in the plague in 1348.
In classical Latin, he wrote letters to many important friends. Giovanni Vacation is best known for the Dodecahedron, a series of realistic, sometimes racy stories supposedly told by a group of worldly young people waiting in a rural villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence, and presents OTOH tragic and comic views of life by using cutting humor to illustrate the human condition (characters are individualized) A. L . A. Viii.
Machiavelli Advises Rulers Quick notes: Machiavelli writes The Prince as a guidebook of sorts for rulers and it does not concern how to rule as a morally correct person, but rather how to rule efficiently and effectively. A. L . A. Ix. Vitro Colony The women writers who gained fame during the Renaissance usually wrote about personal subjects, not politics. Vitro Colony (1492-1547) was born into a noble family, and in 1509 she married the Marquis of Peccary, who spent most of his life way from home on military campaigns.
Colony exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped Castigation publish The Courtier. Her own poems express personal emotions. A. 2. The Northern Renaissance a. The Northern Renaissance Begins By 1450 northern Rupee’s population began to rise again after the plague. When the Hundred Years’ War ended in 1453, many cities quickly grew, causing urban in Italy). The sponsorship began in Flanders, rich from long-distance trade and the cloth industry, and patronage of artists increased directly proportionally to the wealth in other parts of Northern Europe.
England and France were ruled wholly under monarchs (different from Italian city states) who often sponsored the arts by purchasing paintings and supporting artists and writers. Francis I of France invited Leonardo dad Vinci to retire in France, and his castle at Fontainebleau became a showcase for Renaissance art after hiring Italian artists and architects to rebuild and decorate it. The northern Renaissance took on its own character as it blended northern culture with the Italian Renaissance style.
Artists were concerned with realism and human dignity inspired some northern humanists to develop plans for social reform based on Jude-Christian values. B. Artistic Ideas Spread In 1494, war ensued as a French king claimed the throne of Naples causing many Italian artists and writers to leave for safety in Northern Europe, bringing with them the styles of the Italian Renaissance Northern European artists who had studied in Italy also carried ideas back to their homelands I.
German Painters Albrecht DГјere traveled to Italy to study in 1494 and returned to Germany producing woodcuts and engravings, many of which portray religious subjects, and others classical myths / realistic landscapes Udder’s work helped to spread Renaissance tales and his emphasis on realism influenced Hans Holstein the Younger. Holstein painted pictures that almost looked like photographs in their details. He moved to England where he painted portraits of King Henry VIII and other members of the royal family. It.
Flemish Painters The wealthy merchant patrons of art in Flanders made it the artistic center of Northern Europe. Jan van Check (aka first great Flemish Renaissance painter) used recently developed oil-based paints by applying layer upon layer of paint to make many subtle colors in clothing and Jewels. Oil painting became popular and spread o Italy (reverse from how the Renaissance spread from Italy to the north) Cock’s paintings display realistic details that reveal the personality of the subjects and his work influenced other artists in Northern Europe.
Flemish painting reached its peak after 1 550 with the work of Pitter Burgle the Elder who was also interested in realism and individualism and was very skillful in showing large numbers of people. He captured scenes from everyday peasant life such as weddings, dances, and harvests and his rich colors, vivid details, and balanced use of space give the sense of life and feeling. . Northern Writers Try to Reform Society Humanists concerned themselves with education and promoted women’s education and founded schools attended by both genders I.
Christian Humanists Desires Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More of England were close friends and in 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly in which he poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Erasmus believed that in order to improve society, all people should study the Bible. Thomas More tried to show a better model of society and in 1516, he wrote he book Utopia, which in Greek means “no place,” but on English means an ideal place like in Mere’s book. The book is about an imaginary land where greed, corruption, and war no longer exist.
More wrote in Latin and as his works became English, Spanish, and Italian. I’. Women’s Reforms The literacy rates in Europe at this time were poor and the families that could afford formal schooling typically only sent the sons. Christine De Pizza was highly educated for the time and was one of the first women to earn a living as a writer and opposed this sexism. She wrote in French and produced many books, including short stories, geographies, novels, and manuals on military techniques often about the protests men had to educating women, but her goal of same sex schooling wouldn’t be achieved for centuries. . The Elizabethan Age Elizabethan Age was named after Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) who was well educated, spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek, wrote poetry and music, and did a lot to support the development of English art and literature I. William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is often regarded as the greatest playwright of all time He was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon and by 1592 was living in London and writing memos and plays, and soon performing at the Globe Theater.
Like many Renaissance writers, Shakespeare respected the classics and was inspired by them for plots and his works show what a master of English he was and had a deep understand of humans and often times exploited human flaws in his plays e. Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas The Chinese invented block printing – carving words or letters in a wooden block, inked said block, and then used it to print on paper – and was latter used more practically in Europe for their languages had much fewer characters I.
Gutenberg Improves the Printing Process European printers began to use block printing to create whole pages to bind into books, but this process was too slow to satisfy the pace of knowledge during the Renaissance. Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mains, Germany, developed a printing press that made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply and using this improved process, Gutenberg printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible around 1455.
The Gutenberg Bible was the first full-sized book printed with movable type and the printing press allowed a printer to produce hundreds of copies of a single work. Books were now cheap enough to be bought by any people and while printers produced mainly religious works at first, they soon began to print books on other subjects. F. The Legacy of the Renaissance I. Changes in the Arts Influence of Greece and Rome Individualism (more realistically portraying individual and nature) Both secular and religious works Vernacular languages used to express ideas it.
Changes in Society Printing made information available and inexpensive for most of society Greater availability for books created an increased desire for learning and a greater literacy rate throughout Europe Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts led o more discoveries in many field Published legal proceeding made the laws clear so people could better understand their rights Christian humanists’ attempts to reform society changed views about how to live life People began to question political a.
Causes of the Reformation I. Criticisms of the Catholic Church The popes who ruled during the Renaissance belittled the arts, over spent on personal pleasure, and fought wars. Pope Alexander VI, for example, admitted that he had fathered several children Many priests and monks could scarcely read, let alone teach people and others broke their priestly vows by marrying, drinking, or ambling. It.
Early Calls for Reform In the late asses and early asses, John Wickedly of England and Jan Hush of Bohemia denied that the pope had the right to worldly power teaching that the Bible had more authority than church leaders In the asses, Christian humanists like Desires Erasmus and Thomas More also began to criticize the church as well, and Europeans began to form their own opinions from reading religious works b. Luther Challenges the Church I. The 95 Theses In 1517, Luther decided to take a public stand against the actions of a friar, Johann Tested who was raising money to rebuild SST.
Pewter’s Cathedral in Rome by selling indulgences (aka pardons) which were not supposed to affect God’s right to Judge. Tested implied that indulgences could buy one into heaven, and Luther wrote the 95 Theses in response, attacking the “pardon-merchants. ” On October 31, 1517, he posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wattenberg and someone copied Lather’s words and took them to a printer and his name became known all over Germany. This began the Reformation, the movement for religious reform. ‘. Lather’s Teachings Soon Luther wanted full reform of the Church. His teachings rested on three main ideas: People could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness. The Church taught that faith and “good works” were needed for salvation. All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities. All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them. C. The Response to Luther I.
The Pope’s Threat At first Church officials in Rome Just thought Luther was a rebellious monk who should be punished by his superiors, but as Lather’s ideas became more well-known, he pope realized the threat. Luther suggested that Christians drive the pope from the Church by force and in 1520, Pope Leo X issued a decree to excommunicate Luther unless he took back what he was preaching Instead, Luther threw this decree into a fire as his students cheered and was later excommunicated by Leo it.
The Emperor’s Opposition Holy Roman Emperor Charles V controlled a vast empire, including the German states and summoned Luther to the town of Worms in 1521 to take back his statements Luther refused and a month after his refusal, Charles issued an imperial order, the Edict of Worms, which declared no one was to shelter or feed Luther and all his books should be burned, but Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony disobeyed the emperor and sheltered Luther in one of his castles for almost a year.
Here, Luther translated the New Testament into German and then returned to Wattenberg in 1522 where he of continuing to seek reforms in the Catholic Church, Luther and his followers had become a separate religious group, called Lutheran. Iii. The Peasant’s Revolt In 1524, German peasants demanded an end to serfdom and bands of angry peasants raided, pillaged, and burned monasteries. Luther wrote a pamphlet urging the German princes to show the peasants no mercy and the princes’ armies crushed the revolt, killing as many as 100,000 people.
Because Luther was so horrified by the revolt and the peasants felt betrayed, they rejected Lather’s leadership ‘v. Germany at War Many northern German princes supported Lutheranism and some princes genuinely shared Lather’s beliefs, while others liked Lather’s ideas because it was a good excuse to take Church property and to gain independence from Charles V. In 1529, the German princes still aligned to the pope agreed to band together against Lather’s ideas, but those who supported Luther signed a protest against that agreement.
These protesting princes came to be known as Protestants and the term Protestant was eventually applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches. Charles V went to war against the Protestant princes and defeated them in 1547, but still failed to convert them back to Catholicism. In 1555, Charles ordered all German princes to assemble in the city of Suburbs where the Peace of Suburbs (a settlement) decided that each ruler would decide the religion of his state. D. Protestantism e. England Becomes Protestant .
Henry VIII Wants a Son Henry VIII, a devout Catholic, became king of England in 1509, and in 1521, Henry wrote an attack on Lather’s ideas. The pope gave Henry the title “Defender of the Faith. ” Henry needed a male heir for fear of civil war breaking out if he died without an heir, but he and his wife, Catherine of Argon, had only a daughter, Mary and no woman had ever successfully claimed the English throne, so by 1 527, Henry was convinced that the 42-year-old Catherine wouldn’t bear him anymore kids, and thus he wanted to divorce her and take a younger queen.
Church law forbid divorce, but he pope could annul Henrys marriage if there was proof it was never legal, but the pope, for fear of angering Catering’s nephew, Charles V, refused to annul Henrys marriage it. The Reformation Parliament In 1529, Henry called Parliament into session and sought to pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in England. In 1533, Henry secretly married the twenty- something Anne Bobble and soon after Parliament legalized Henrys divorce from Catherine.
In 1534, Henrys break with the pope was completed when Parliament voted to approve the Act of Supremacy that involved people taking an oath acknowledging the divorce and accepting Henry as the official head of England’s Church. Thomas More remained a devout Catholic despite his criticisms of the Church and refused to take the oath and thus Henry had him arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London only to be executed in 1 535 for high treason. Iii.
Anne Bobble gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth who was eventually charged with treason, imprisoned in the Tower of London, and beheaded in 1536. Immediately, Henry took another wife, Jane Seymour and she gave him a son, Edward, in 1537 Henry married three more times after Cane’s death 2 weeks after Edwards birth, but e had no further children from these marriages. After Henrys death in 1547, each of his three children ruled England in succession and created religious turmoil.
Edward, became king when he was nine years old and was guided by adult advisers who were devout Protestants that introduced Protestant reforms to the English Church. Mary took the throne in 1553 and was a Catholic who returned the English Church to the rule of the pope, but her was greatly opposed and had many protestants killed. When Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth inherited the throne. ‘v. Elizabeth Restores Protestantism In 1 559, Parliament set up the Church of England, or Anglican Church, with Elizabeth as its head and this was designated to be the only legal church in England.
Elizabeth decided to establish a state church Catholics and Protestants could both accept so to please Protestants, priests in the Church of England were allowed to marry, they could deliver sermons in English, not Latin and to please Catholics, the Church of England kept some of the accessories of the Catholic service and in addition, church services were changed to be somewhat more tolerable to Catholics. V. Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges Elizabeth managed to bring a level of religious peace to England, but religion still persisted to be a problem.
Some Protestants pushed for Elizabeth to make more church reforms and simultaneously Catholics tried to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with her cousin, the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots and also faced threats from the Catholic Spanish king Philip II In the late asses, the English began to think about building an American empire as a new source of income, but while colonies strengthened England economically, they did not directly reimburse the queen A. 4. The Reformation Continues A. L . A. Calvin Continues the Reformation I.
Calvin Formalizes Protestant Ideas In 1536, John Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion, which was a summary of Protestant theology in which Calvin wrote that men and women are sinful by nature. Taking Lather’s idea that humans cannot earn salvation, Calvin continues that God chooses very few people to save called the “elect” and he believed that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved, called predestination, and the religion based on Calling’s teachings is called Calvinist. It.
Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland Calvin believed that the ideal government was a theocracy, a government controlled y religious leaders. In 1541, Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their city and when Calvin arrived there in the asses, Geneva was a self-governing city of about 20,000 people and Calvin and his followers ran the city according to strict rules. Everyone attended religion class, nobody wore bright clothing or played card games, authorities would imprison, excommunicate, or banish those who broke such rules.
Though anyone who opposed this could be burned at the stake, Calling’s When a Scottish preacher, John Knox, returned to Scotland in 1559 after admiring Geneva, he put Calling’s ideas to work. Each community church was governed by a group of laymen called elders or presbyters, and followers of Knox became known as Presbyterian and in the 1 sass, Protestant nobles led by Knox made Calvinist Scotland official religion. They also overthrew Mary Queen of Scots for her infant son, James, meanwhile Swiss, Dutch, and French reformers adopted the Calvinist form of church organization.
Calvin is considered so influential because many Protestant churches today trace their roots to Calvin but over the years, many softened Calling’s strict rules/teachings. In France, Calling’s followers were called Hugeness, and hatred between Catholics and Hugeness turned violent and the most violent clash occurred in Paris on August 24, 1572 at dawn on the Catholic feast of SST. Bartholomew Day when Catholic mobs began murdering Protestants. The massacres spread to other cities and lasted six months and it is believed as many as 12,000 Hugeness were killed.
A. 4. A. Other Protestant Reformers A. 4. A. I. The Anabaptists Anabaptists said people who were baptized as kids should be arbitrated when they’re old enough to decide to be Christian The Anabaptists taught that church and Tate should be separate, they refused to fight in wars, and they shared their possessions. Both Catholics and Protestants persecuted them, but the Anabaptists survived and became the precursors of the Mennonites and the Amiss.
Their teaching influenced the later Quakers and Baptists, groups who split from the Anglican Church. A. 4. A. Ii. Women’s Role in the Reformation The sister of King Francis l, Marguerite of Invader, protected John Calvin from being executed for his beliefs while he lived in France. Katherine Sell, married to Matthew Sell of Strasbourg, once told off a minister for speaking harshly of another reformer ND the minister responded by saying that she had “disturbed the peace,” but she answered back and held her own.
Katherine von Boar was Lather’s wife and was sent to a convent at about age ten to become a nun, but inspired by Lather’s teaching, she fled the convent After marrying Luther, Katherine had six children, she also managed the family finances, fed all who visited their house, and supported her husband’s work. Though Katherine argued with Luther about woman’s equal role in marriage, women’s activities were limited to the home: Luther said, “God’s highest gift on earth s a pious, cheerful, God-fearing, home-keeping wife. A. 4. B. The Catholic Reformation Helping Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself known as the Catholic Reformation. A. 4. B. I. Igniting of Loyola Igniting grew up in his father’s castle in Loyola, Spain and in 1521 he was injured in a war. In 1522, Igniting began writing a book called Spiritual Exercises that laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study and he compared spiritual and physical exercise.
For the next 18 years, he gathered followers and in 1540, the pope reared a religious order for his followers called the Society of Jesus whoso members were called Jesuits The Jesuits focused on founding schools throughout Europe with well-trained teachers in both classical studies and theology, to convert non- Christians to Catholicism by sending out missionaries around the world, and to stop the spread of Protestantism A. 4. B. Ii.
Reforming Popes indulgence selling and other abuses in the Church, approved the Jesuit order, used the Inquisition to seek out unorthodoxy in papal territory, called a council of Church leaders to meet in Trend, in northern Italy. From 1545 to 1563, at the Council of Trend, Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines: The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final. Christians needed faith and good works for salvation.
The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of indulgences was banned. The next pope, Paul ‘V, carried out the council’s decrees and in 1559, he had officials draw up a list of books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith. This list was known as the Index of Forbidden Books and Catholic shops throughout Europe gathered up the offensive books and burnt them. A. 4. C.
The Legacy of the Reformation A. 4. C. I. Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation Both Catholics and Protestants gave more emphasis to the role of education in promoting their beliefs, which led to the founding of parish schools and new colleges and universities throughout Europe. Women were still mainly limited to the concerns of home and family. A. 4. C. Ii. Political Effects of the Reformation Individual monarchs and states gained power, which led to the development of modern nation-states.