Renaissance and Reformation Test Humanism- Classical texts from the Greek and Roman culture lead to humanism. Humanism focused on human potential and achievements. People stopped worrying about Christian teachings. Influenced artists and architects. History, Literature, and Philosophy are humanities subjects. Secular- People became concerned with the here and now Predestination- Calling’s book/doctrine; Institutes of the Christian Religion states that everyone is sinful by nature and God has known from the beginning who he will save. Council of Trend- Pope Paul Ill 4th step toward reform was to call a great council of hurt leaders to Trend.
Catholic Bishops and Cardinals agreed on several doctrines: 1) Church interpretation of the bible was final anyone who substituted there ideas was a heretic 2) Christians need faith and good works for salvation 3) The Bible and church traditions were both as powerful for guidance 4)illnesses were valid expressions of faith Annul- Divorce was not allowed however the pope could annul the mirage which means to find proof that the mirage was never legal in the first place Recant-to take back a statement you made about something Indulgence- you pay money for an indulgence and it will take away our sin Patron-
Popes who beautified the cities by spending large amounts of money 95 thesis- Luther wrote 95 theses that he thought the church should change which lead to reformation- a movement for religious reform. His teaching had 3 main ideas: 1) People could win salvation by ONLY with faith in god, the church taught that faith and “good workers” were needed for salvation 2) All church teachings should be based on the bible.
The pope and church traditions were false authorities 3) All people with faith were equal therefore people didn’t need priests to interpret the bible for them Edict of Worms- King Charles declared Luther of an outlaw and heretic, no one was supposed to give him food or shelter and his books were to be burned. However Prince Frederick gave him shelter in a castle and people began to follow his sayings; priests wore regular clothes and called themselves misters, led service in German not Latin and some ministers married, which created a new religious group called the Lutheran instead of seeking reforms against the Catholic Church.
Protestant- A Christian who is not Catholic Peace of Suburb- German princes decided if there state would be catholic or rottenest Act of Supremacy- English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as the “Supreme Head” of the Church of England not the pope Anabaptist- Believed that people shouldn’t be baptized into the Christian faith as children because they were not old enough to decide if they wanted to be Christian; taught that the church and the state should be separate, and they refused to fight wars.
Viewing Anabaptists as radicals who threatened society both Catholics and Protestants persecuted them Peasants Revolt-peasants were excited by Lather’s revolutionary ideas and demanded an end to serfdom. The revolt horrified Luther so Luther wrote a pamphlet urging the German Princes to show no mercy, the army crushed the revolt massacring over 100,000 people. Feeling betrayed by Luther many peasants rejected his religious Gigantic of Loyola- Catholic reformer, wrote the Spiritual Exercises that laid out a day by day plan of meditation, prayer, and study.
The pope made Gigantic a religious order called the Society of Jesus Members were called Jesuits- concentrated on 3 ideas: 1) Founded schools throughout Europe. 2) Convert non-Christians to Catholicism 2) Stop Protestantism from spreading Johann Gutenberg- Reinvented evolvable type and the printing press- machine that presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type created the first completed bible called the Gutenberg Bible Johann Textile- Was raising money to rebuild SST.
Pewter’s Cathedral in Rome, he did this by selling indulgences, he gave the impression that by buying indulgences you could buy your way to heaven Martin Luther: Against Textile for selling indulgences Wrote 95 thesis attacking “Pardon Merchants” Believed you can only win salvation through faith and forgiveness of God Excommunicated by Pope Leo X Charles V issued the Edict of Worms declaring Luther as a heretic, but Prince Frederick haltered him in a castle Translated the New Testament to German Lutheran were his followers John Calvin: Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion which expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature Called the few people that God chooses to save the “elect”…
God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved-predestination Calvinist Ruled Geneva, Switzerland with theocracy (government ruled by religious leaders) Geneva was a city of high moral because of how strict he was Henry VIII: Married to Catherine of Argon and has a daughter named Mary but wants a divorce o he can have a son to be the heir to the throne Pope refused to annul his marriage so he called together a session with the reformation Parliament and asked to pass a set of laws that ended the pope’s power in England Act of Supremacy made the king the head of the Church of England, not the pope Closed monasteries and increased total power Anne had a daughter named Elizabeth so he imprisoned her in a tower and beheaded her 3rd wife gave him his son, Edward Erasmus: Christian humanist from Holland who wrote The Praise of Folly which made fun of greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests Believes in Christianity of the heart Wrote in Latin In order to improve society, all people should study the Bible Catherine of Argon- Married to Henry VII never had a boy so Henry wanted to annul the marriage at first the pope said no because she did not want to offend the Holy Roman Empire Charles V but later after Henry VII put in the Act of Supremacy- Made the English King the head of church not the pope the marriage was annulled Pope Leo X- Artists: Denotable- Made sculptures more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions carved the statue David Leonardo De Vinci- Artistic scientist, painted
Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, A True “Renaissance Man” Raphael- Learned from Leonardo De Vinci and Michelangelo, Painted the walls of Julius II Library, Painted School of Athens, conveys the classical literature of the Renaissance and shows classical and Renaissance fugues together Michelangelo- Sculpted David second, glorified the human body and explored Renaissance theme of human potential, painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Scientific artist, true “Renaissance man” Jan Van Eyes- Italian Renaissance, Oil-based Paintings very realistic Writers: Machiavelli- Wrote The Prince which said a prince must be strong as a lion and hired as a fox, he might have to trick his enemy’s and even his own people for the good of the state, he was not concerned with the morally right but with the politically effective Castigation-published The Courtier with the help of Aviators Colony Sir Thomas Moore- Christian Humanists, he was concerned with society’s flaws, wrote Utopia about an imaginary land inhabited by a peace-loving people.
In Greek Utopia means “no place” but in English it has come to mean ideal place because of Mores book Vocal Perspective- AD art Vernacular- Native language Anglican- Anglican Church= only legal Church of England Elizabeth was head of Church Presbyterian-Followers of John Knox; he was a preacher from Scotland whom spread the teaching of John Calvin and made Calvinist Scotland official religion Catholic Reformation- Helping Catholics remain loyal to the church Questions: The Renaissance began in Italy because of thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome. England lagged behind because of the bubonic plague and the 100 years’ war.
A perfect Renaissance Man- Charming, witty, well-educated, Dance, sing, play music, write poetry, skilled rider, wrestler, swordsman, self-controlled Northern vs.. Southern Renaissance Art: Northern: Focused only on Religion; about landscapes and the lifestyles of people Southern: more secular; Greek and Roman mythologies, about gods and goddesses Catholic Reformation took steps like having the Society of Jesus, Jesuits, and the Council of Trend to address the Protestant Reformation 4 movements that made up the Reformation: 2. 3. 4. What changes did this bring to Europe? Of Prohibited books- Institutes of Christian Religion- Index Patriarch- Velasquez- What city was the center of the Renaissance? Florence, Italy What type of art was the focus of the Renaissance?
Realism (sometimes using Biblical scenes) The merchant family named Renaissance. Medici was important at the beginning of the Who led the split away from the Catholic Church in England? Henry VIII Why did England split from the church? The King wanted a male heir so he needed to divorce his wife What country did the Protestant reformation start in? Germany (Martin Luther in Wattenberg) How was the printing press crucial to Martin Luther? He could spread his beliefs more efficiently This movement resulted from the Protestant Reformation. It was an attempt to change the Catholic Church to better meet the needs of its followers. Catholic Reformation 1 .
Reasons that the Renaissance originated on the Italian peninsula include all of the following EXCEPT the peninsula’s A. Geographic location B. Political organization C. Religion D. Social structure E. Economic structure 2. Which of the following is NOT a Renaissance value? A. Mastery of ancient languages B. Patronage of the arts C. Scholarly achievement D. Proficiency in the military arts E. Civic duty 3. Renaissance humanism A. Devalued mastery of ancient languages B. Urged the development of a single talent to perfection C. Valued ancient philosophers as the final authorities on all matters D. Denied the existence of God E. Valued scholarship for its own sake and for the glory it brought the city-state 4.
The belief that by cultivating the finest qualities of their beings, human beings could commune with God was a conclusion of A. Guilds C. The lay piety movement D. The Catholic Church in Renaissance Italy E. The doge 5. Which of the following was NOT a factor that contributed to the Renaissance artistic achievement? A. The patronage of the pope B. The invasion of Italy by the French C. The competitive spirit of competing elites D. The apprentice system E. The lack of separation between artistic and commercial aspects of the Renaissance art world 6. Which of the following did NOT enable the spread of the Renaissance? A. The Treaty of Load B.
Manila’s invitation to Charles VIII to bring troops to Italy C. The printing press D. Students and teachers migrating in and out of the Italian peninsula E. The lay piety movement 7. Renaissance art A. Was characterized by the severe specialization of its artists B. Was characterized by religious subject matter C. Abandoned painting in favor of sculpture D. Was characterized by its concern for the human form E. Did not require patrons 8. Northern humanism A. Was less secular than Italian humanism B. Inked scholarship and learning with religious piety C. Criticized the notion that priests were required to understand the Bible D. Contributed to the Reformation E. All of the above 1 .
Humanist scholars broke with the medieval scholarly tradition (A) in declaring that all knowledge was relative (B) by insisting on reading the original manuscript and not a second-hand commentary (C) by challenging the existence of God (D) by supporting the idea of scientific experimentation (E) by rejecting the central authority of the church 2. All of the following are characteristics of Renaissance art EXCEPT (A) the use of oil mints (B) the emphasis on naturalism (C) the desire to create three-dimensional images (D) secular portraiture (E) hierarchical scaling 3. What was the initial reaction of Pope Leo X to the posting of Lather’s 95 Theses? (A) He declared Luther to be a heretic. (B) He immediately summoned Luther to Rome. (C) He recalled Textile from Germany in order to have him stop selling indulgences. (D) He claimed he was not interested in a squabble amongst monks. 4. Which of the following best describes Lather’s position on the social questions of his day? A) He wanted to see marked improvements in the lives of the peasantry. (B) He was deeply concerned about these questions but feared antagonizing his aristocratic supporters. (C) He was a deeply conservative man who did not want to upset the traditional social order. (D) He feared that his religious reforms would fail unless they were combined with a program to address social concerns. (E) He blamed the Catholic Church for maintaining a spiritual as well as social hierarchy. 5. Following the death of her half-sister Mary, Queen Elizabeth of England pursued which of the following religious policies? (A) She followed her father’s example and refused to embrace either Protestantism or Catholicism.
B) She followed Marry policy by keeping England within the Catholic Church. (C) She began a massive persecution of Catholics on the charge of heresy. (D) She broke with Rome and established a moderate Protestant church. (E) She waited to make a decision on religious matters until many years into her reign. 6 Renaissance artists viewed the medieval past with (A) the same reverence that they held for the classical past. (B) tremendous respect for their achievements, thought they did not view them as equal to the ancients. (C) no clear sense that their own age was distinct from the medieval period. (D) disdain or what they perceived to be its backwardness. E) great interest because it served to inspire their own works of art. 7. Machiavellian The Prince represented an attempt to find ways to (A) blend medieval and Renaissance scholarship. (B) convince the French to intercede in Italian affairs on behalf of his native Florence. (C) show how the rule of princes was clearly inferior to republican forms of government. (D) unify the entire Italian peninsula under a powerful ruler. (E) show how a Christian Prince can use religious precepts as a moral guide. 8. Which of the following cities became the center of High Renaissance (1490-1520) ultra? (A) Rome (B) Venice (C) Florence (D) Naples (E) Milan 9.
The government of Venice during the Renaissance may most accurately be labeled a (A) constitutional monarchy (B) dictatorship (C) republic (D) autocracy 10. The sack of Rome in 1527 played a significant role in the (A) elimination of the papacy as a political force in Italian affairs. (B) end of the High Renaissance (C) Protestant Reformation (D) Counter-Reformation (E) economic collapse of southern Italy 1 1 . Renaissance sculpture differed from medieval sculpture in that A) it ignored religious based themes B) Renaissance artists made use of marble C) it abhorred realism D) it abandoned the classical tradition E) it revived the classical tradition of sculpture in the round. 12.
Martin Luther and Henries Zinging broke over the question of (A) salvation by faith (B) the primacy of the scriptures (C) the role of the clergy (D) Jesus’ presence in the mass (E) infant baptism 13. Renaissance humanists were primarily interested in the Roman politician Cicero because of (A) his moral courage (B) his detailed explanation for the crisis of the Late Roman Republic (C) his denunciation of Career’s tyranny (D) medieval monks who had preserved his work E) the beauty of this Latin prose 14. Martin Luther attended the Diet of Worms without fear of losing his life because A) he possessed a sizeable army B) he was protected by the Elector of Saxony C) he thought the Catholic Church would support his ideas D) he enjoyed the support of the Holy Roman Emperor E) he went in disguise 15.
The revolt of the German peasants in 1525 was caused by all of the following EXCEPT (A) economic distress of the German peasants (B) increasing restrictions on the independence of the German peasantry (C) Martin Lather’s call for a “priesthood of all believers” (D) encouragement by the Catholic Church for the peasants to rebel against the Protestant nobles (E) the loss of hunting and fishing rights that had been taken by the nobles 16. John Calvin argued in his book, Institutes of the Christian Religion, that (A) grace could not be achieved without good works salvation was the one topic that he could not fully explore because God’s will in that area could never be known (D) grace was available to all who had faith (E) salvation was a sign of a compact between God and man 17. The Catholic Church banned the work of which of the following humanist writers? (A) Sir Thomas More (B) Lurch von Hutting (C) Erasmus (D) Rabble’s