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Test 4 Luther and the Reformation

B) A substantial increase in religious toleration.
As a result of the Protestant Reformation all of these things occurred EXCEPT one. Which event is the exception?

A) A series of religious wars in Europe.
B) A substantial increase in religious toleration.
C) A movement within the Catholic Church to correct abuses.
D) The establishment of several Protestant denominations in Europe.

A) France
Which European country was heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church in the 18th century?

A) France
B) Mexico
C) Germany
D) Great Britain

D) The Protestant Reformation
What was the name given to the 16th century religious movement that was critical of the Roman Catholic Church?

A) The Counter Reformation
B) The Catholic Reformation
C) The Scientific Revolution
D) The Protestant Reformation

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D) that the individual has importance and his achievements should be celebrated.
During the Renaissance, a strong belief in humanism emerged. “Humanism” means

A) that obedience to God was not as important as obedience to the state.
B) that the power of the state was more important than individual liberty.
C) that the teachings of the ancient Greeks had no place in Renaissance thought.
D) that the individual has importance and his achievements should be celebrated.

A) humanism.
I had the good fortune to secure the services of a fine, generous, young lad… family and fortune are humble. But he has a force of character and a power of self-control; a mind that is keen and flexible. He has a great deal of invention… and a heart that loves. He is already making new songs of his own; and has a leaning toward poetry.
-Francesco Petrarch, 1365 AD

Petrarch’s letter MOST LIKELY reflects the ideals of

A) humanism.
B) imperialism.
C) liberalism.
D) ostracism.

D) encouraging new religious orders, such as the Jesuits, to set good examples.
The Council of Trent of 1545 addressed the issues raised by Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers by

A) reducing the literacy training of local priests.
B) rejecting the seven sacraments set down by the early church.
C) allowing political leaders to appoint religious leaders, such as bishops.
D) encouraging new religious orders, such as the Jesuits, to set good examples.

C) were inspired by the renewed interest in Greek and Roman culture.
Humanism is associated with the Renaissance because humanists

A) recreated the old Roman Empire.
B) were located in Northern Europe.
C) were inspired by the renewed interest in Greek and Roman culture.
D) believed that the Catholic Church was in dire need of massive reform.

C) restore the power of the Catholic Church
· The Inquisition
· The Jesuits
· The Council of Trent

All of these were MAINLY designed for what purpose?

A) end religious wars in Europe
B) retake the Holy Land from the Turks
C) restore the power of the Catholic Church
D) to spread the influence of Christianity to European colonies in Africa

A) Protestants and Catholics.
The Thirty Years’ War of the 17th century began as a conflict between

A) Protestants and Catholics.
B) Muslims and Christians.
C) France and England.
D) Germany and Italy.

D) Protestant Reformation.
The teachings of Martin Luther sparked the

A) Middle Ages.
B) Renaissance.
C) Industrial Revolution.
D) Protestant Reformation.

A) Humanism
This post-medieval intellectual movement popularized by Petrarch and Erasmus stressed people’s importance in the world and its ability to understand and solve most of the world’s problems.

A) Humanism
B) Renaissance
C) Counter Reformation
D) Protestant Reformation

C) literacy rate began to rise throughout Europe.
After the Protestant Reformation

A) people across Europe embraced the ideas of religious tolerance.
B) the Catholic Church began to allow its clergy to marry.
C) literacy rate began to rise throughout Europe.
D) the order of Jesuits were disbanded.

A) Lutheran
The Protestant Reformation MOST LIKELY resulted in the formation of which of these Christian churches?

A) Lutheran
B) Catholic
C) Greek Orthodox
D) Russian Orthodox

C) it was written in a vernacular language that could be easily understood.
Dante’s The Divine Comedy BEST illustrates the ideals of humanism because

A) it was the first ever epic poem rather than a true comedy.
B) it gave an accurate description of the concept of heaven and hell.
C) it was written in a vernacular language that could be easily understood.
D) it discussed the importance of the Catholic church in the lives of Italians.

A) humanism.
While much of the literature of the medieval period emphasizes religion, works by Renaissance writers such as Dante and Petrarch emphasize the dignity and worth of the individual, a philosophy known as

A) humanism.
B) realism.
C) classicism.
D) romanticism.

C) religion.
While both Italian and Northern Renaissance writers held humanist views, Northern Renaissance writers such as Desiderius Erasmus focused more on

A) nature.
B) politics.
C) religion.
D) science.

C) music, art, literature, and grammar should be available to all
Which of these ideas was stressed by humanists during the Renaissance?

A) the power of the Catholic Church should be unquestioned
B) religious officials needed to follow strict rules of behavior
C) music, art, literature, and grammar should be available to all
D) trade and wealth needed to be the goal of all levels of society

A) his contributions to the Protestant Reformation.
John Calvin is BEST known for

A) his contributions to the Protestant Reformation.
B) his attempts to reform the Catholic Church.
C) his exploration of the St. Lawrence River.
D) his founding of the colony of New France.

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D) Predestination.
In the mid-1500s, John Calvin taught that humans could not change their fate through prayer, faith, or good deeds. This philosophy became known as

A) Indulgence.
B) Pilgrimage.
C) Reformation.
D) Predestination.

D) to address the issues involving the growing Protestant movement
The Council of Trent consisted of Catholic priests who met between 1545 and 1563 for what purpose?

A) to plan what would become the First Crusade
B) to propose ways to convert Native Americans
C) to kick King Henry VIII of England out of the Catholic Church
D) to address the issues involving the growing Protestant movement

A) Protestant Reformation.
An indulgence was a cancellation of the worldly punishment due to a sin for which a priest has offered forgiveness.

The selling of indulgences a major cause of the

A) Protestant Reformation.
B) Scientific Revolution.
C) Enlightenment.
D) Renaissance.

B) Jesuits
What was the name of the religious order whose missionaries were MOST accepted in China during the early 1600s?

A) Dominicans
B) Jesuits
C) Presbyterians
D) Protestants

C) Desiderus Erasmus
·His best-known work was The Praise of Folly, a satirical attack on the traditions of the Catholic Church and popular superstitions.
·He used Humanist techniques for interpreting texts, and prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament.
·He lived through the Reformation period and his philosophy focused on the importance of a personal relationship with God.

Which humanist philosopher is being described by these statements?

A) Dante Alighieri
B) Sir Thomas More
C) Desiderus Erasmus
D) Francesco Petrarch

A) the Counter Reformation.
The period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War was known as

A) the Counter Reformation.
B) the Lutheran Revolution.
C) the Glorious Revolution.
D) the Protestant Reformation.

A) the Jesuits
· They founded schools throughout Europe and ensured that teachers were rigorously trained in Catholic theology.
· They worked to convert non-Christians to Catholicism through the use of missionaries.
· They worked to stop Protestantism from spreading throughout Europe.

Created during the Counter Reformation, which Catholic order is being described by these statements?

A) the Jesuits
B) the Clareni
C) the Franciscans
D) the Benedictines

A) Each of us has the free will to determine our own fate.
Erasmus differed from many other religious reformers of his day. Unlike Martin Luther and John Calvin, he rejected the idea of predestination. Instead, what did Erasmus believe about the human soul?

A) Each of us has the free will to determine our own fate.
B) On Judgment Day we are sent to Hell, Purgatory or Heaven.
C) Our direction in life is determined by the people around us.
D) God has chosen a path for each of us to follow before we are born.

C) portray women as real humans and not simply spiritual symbols
Petrarch was a humanist writer who is sometimes considered the first modern poet. He was also one of the first writers to do what in his writing?

A) attack merchants as evil moneychangers
B) portray the clergy as sometimes lustful sinners
C) portray women as real humans and not simply spiritual symbols
D) attack the church for its granting indulgences to the wealthy

B) a reform movement within the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation
What was the Counter Reformation?

A) a reform movement within the Lutheran Church following the Catholic Reformation
B) a reform movement within the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation
C) a reform movement that favored the sale of indulgences and permission for priests to marry
D) a reform movement that began in Germany after Martin Luther nailed his “95 Theses” to the Church door in Wittenberg

C) The Council strengthened the Papacy, redefined church doctrine, and ended abuses such as the sale of indulgences.
The Council of Trent was a series of meetings held over an eighteen-year period beginning in 1545. Which statement BEST describes the work of the Council?

A) The Council divided the Church, creating a schism between its Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic branches.
B) Conservatives defeated reform efforts thus setting the Church on a course that would lead to the Inquisition.
C) The Council strengthened the Papacy, redefined church doctrine, and ended abuses such as the sale of indulgences.
D) Opponents of Protestantism purged the Church of Martin Luther’s influence and restored the power of local bishops.

D) The Jesuits took vows of poverty and chastity and dedicated themselves to living as Jesus did.
D) The Jesuits took vows of poverty and chastity and dedicated themselves to living as Jesus did.
Ignatius Loyola was a Spanish priest who founded the Jesuit Order. Which these BEST describes the Jesuits?

A) The Jesuits opposed papal authority and attacked the Council of Trent.
B) The Jesuits were the first religious order to allow women into the priesthood.
C) The Jesuits prepared priests to join the Crusades and fight infidels in the Holy Lands.
D) The Jesuits took vows of poverty and chastity and dedicated themselves to living as Jesus did.

C) The Jesuits practiced the spiritual beliefs necessary to reform the Church and restore the piety of the clergy.
The Jesuit Order played what important role in the Counter Reformation?

A) The Jesuits provided the Church with the first religious order for women.
B) Ignatius Loyola inspired the Pope to seek reforms among the clergy and to redefine Church doctrine.
C) The Jesuits practiced the spiritual beliefs necessary to reform the Church and restore the piety of the clergy.
D) Ignatius Loyola’s scholarship inspired the Pope to focus his efforts on organizational rather than spiritual reform.

A) Thirty Years' War begins in Germany
A) Thirty Years’ War begins in Germany
Based on the timeline, what happened after the Jesuits were formed?

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A) Thirty Years’ War begins in Germany
B) Henry VIII founds the Church of England
C) Martin Luther starts the Protestant Reformation
D) Jean Calvin moves to Geneva to spread religious reform

A) After 1538
A) After 1538
The Catholic Church formed the “Council of Trent” to try to address problems within the Catholic Church. Where on the timeline should this be placed?

A) After 1538
B) Before 1517
C) Between 1517 and 1536
D) Between 1536 and 1538

B) Martin Luther
·German priest and professor of theology who started the Protestant Reformation.
·Revolutionized the Christian faith when he criticized the Catholic Church and its practices.
·Published The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.

Which Christian leader and reformer is being described by these statements?

A) John Calvin
B) Martin Luther
C) Johann Tetzel
D) Desiderius Erasmus

B) Martin Luther
Who is responsible for authoring the 95 Theses, which essentially started the Protestant Reformation?

A) King James
B) Martin Luther
C) Johann Tetzel
D) Johann Gutenberg

D) were not as good as other Christian deeds.
41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.

– From 95 Theses, Martin Luther, 1517

According to this excerpt, Luther claimed that indulgences

A) were a good idea.
B) offered people salvation.
C) should be practiced by all Christians.
D) were not as good as other Christian deeds.

B) Selling of indulgences.
What term described the Catholic’s church’s policy of reducing punishment of sins after one’s death that led Martin Luther to challenge the Catholic church?

A) Practice of tithing.
B) Selling of indulgences.
C) Selling of church positions.
D) Participation in the Crusades.

D) The Catholic church discouraged new ideas by forbidding certain books and starting the Inquisition.
Which statement best describes the actions of the Catholic church as new ideas and knowledge began to spread after the Reformation?

A) The Catholic church encouraged new ideas and ways of thinking as a way of honoring God.
B) The Catholic church tried to make peace with the Protestants so they could share new ideas.
C) The Catholic church realized that better educated people could earn more money and encouraged it.
D) The Catholic church discouraged new ideas by forbidding certain books and starting the Inquisition.

B) B
B) B
Which letter represents the countries that became Protestant after the Reformation?

A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

A) A
Identify which letter represents the European countries that remained Catholic after the Reformation.

A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

A) humanism
What was the study of the classics in Greek and Roman culture called?

A) humanism
B) lessons
C) reformation
D) renaissance

C) Many humanist ideas conflicted with the Catholic church ideas.
As literacy grew and people began to read and exchange new ideas, humanists opened schools to meet the needs of the people. These new schools were in conflict with the Catholic schools that were managed by the clergy.

Why did conflict arise between humanists and the Catholic church?

A) The humanist school were free.
B) The humanists were teaching the same material as the clergy.
C) Many humanist ideas conflicted with the Catholic church ideas.
D) The clergy of the Catholic church were angry to lose their jobs.

B) the power of the Catholic Church in Europe was weakened
Which was a result of the Protestant Reformation in Europe?

A) Spain became a predominately Protestant nation
B) the power of the Catholic Church in Europe was weakened
C) Catholic Church leaders refused to make any changes in church practices
D) the Catholic Church accepted the dominance of the new Protestant religions in Italy, France, and Germany

A) prevent the introduction of Protestant religions.
In Spain, an effect of the Inquisition during the 16th century was to

A) prevent the introduction of Protestant religions.
B) reintroduce African culture to the Iberian Peninsula.
C) encourage the development of the Industrial Revolution.
D) implement the ideas of the Renaissance in major cities.

B) new Christian denominations emerged
Which was a major result of the Reformation?

A) the Crusades were organized
B) new Christian denominations emerged
C) the power of the Pope was strengthened
D) religious teachings were no longer allowed in the universities

A) England
A) England
According to the map, which country was Anglican?

A) England
B) Scotland
C) Spain
D) Sweden

A) Humanism
Which Renaissance idea would later lead to the Age of Enlightenment?

A) Humanism
B) Materialism
C) Socialism
D) Spiritualism

B) Erasmus
Who preached Christian humanism and used writings and a call to reform by preaching peace, reason, tolerance, and love?

A) Dante
B) Erasmus
C) More
D) Petrarch

A) Paul III
What Pope called the Council of Trent and helped to lead the Counter Reformation?

A) Paul III
B) Gregory IV
C) Benedict X
D) Innocent III

D) founding the Presbyterian denomination
John Knox is MOST associated with which of these?

A) founding the Anglican Church
B) heading the Council of Trent
C) ending the Protestant Reformation
D) founding the Presbyterian denomination

B) a Protestant in France
Which of these BEST describes the term Huguenot?

A) a Catholic in Italy
B) a Protestant in France
C) a Protestant in England
D) a Presbyterian in Scotland

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Test 4 Luther and the Reformation
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B) A substantial increase in religious toleration. As a result of the Protestant Reformation all of these things occurred EXCEPT one. Which event is the exception? A) A series of religious wars in Europe. B) A substantial increase in religious toleration. C) A movement within the Catholic Church to correct abuses. D) The establish
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