Linguistically and ethnically, the Mongols were most closely related to the ___.
The leader who united the Mongol tribes and began the conquest of China was named ___ who took the title Chingiz Khan.
– In the late twelfth century, the ____ quickly built up a large military force by incorporating the armies of defeated tribes.
– The expression “_____” actually comes from the Turkish word ordu, meaning “tent” or “encampment.”
– The Mongol leader ___ completed the conquest of China, instigated the conquest of Europe, ended the conquest of Europe by his death, and was Chingiz’s Khan’s son.
– For Europeans, the most important consequences of the Mongol conquests were the commercial links it established between Europe and the Far East along the ____.
– When the Ottoman’s conquered Constantinople in 1453, the primary effects of their conquest on Europe were _____.
– The Mongol defeat of the Seljuk sultanate was a contributing factor in the ability of the Ottoman’s to begin raiding against the ____
– The Ottoman army that conquered much of the Middle and Near East was composed mostly of____.
-The majority of Ottoman slaves were ____ because Muslims were not permitted to enslave other Muslims.
– The ____ originated in Italy because during the later Middle Ages, Italy was the wealthiest urban society in Europe.
– The early humanist ____ criticized late-medieval scholasticism because he felt concentrated more on abstract speculation rather than virtuous living.
– Humanists such as Alberti praised the _____ and argued that women should be consigned purely to domestic roles.
– The great influx of Greek manuscripts from the Muslim world in the fifteenth century led to the development of a new interest in a form of ______
literary analysis known as textual criticism.
– The Renaissance humanist _____ proved that the Donation of Constantine was a medieval forgery.
_____ was the era’s greatest philosophical pragmatist.
– In contrast to civic humanists, Castiglione’s Courtier stressed as the hallmark of true nobility an ideal of ______
effortlessness and elegance at court.
– In the fifteenth century, the majority of the great painters were from _____.
– Although born in Florence, ____ ended his career in France, where the king, Francis I, was his patron.
Leonardo da Vinci
– Leonardo da Vinci’s basic approach to painting was to ____ as closely as possible.
– In the year 1500, the social and economic prospects of Europe were rising, _______.
spurred by commercial expansion and a new religious enthusiasm among the laity
– Martin Luther’s family background was the German peasantry; ______.
his father leased mines
– Martin Luther first entered the ______to study law.
University of Erfut
– Martin Luther joined the _______.
Augustinian monastic order
– As a young monk, Luther was fearful that he could never do enough good deeds to deserve ____.
Luther’s doctrine “________” meant that humans are saved by their faith in God’s grace, not by the good works they do.
justification by faith
Following his own advice to other former priests and monks, Martin Luther married former nun _____.
Katharina von Bora
Although Luther’s disputes with the Church generally dealt with matters of doctrine, he also had _____.
disputes with the papacy itself over the lifestyle of the popes themselves
Under Calvin’s guidance, Geneva’s government can be best described as a ____.
During the sixteenth century, Protestant and Catholic countries, marriage practices were changed so as to _______.
encourage more parental control over their children’s choice of marriage partners.