TRUE or FALSE: Images of heaven and hell caused medieval people to consider their eternal fate.
TRUE or FALSE: Relics were held to have spiritual power—to affect healing miracles and time off from Purgatory.
The semicircular space above a Romanesque portal is called a _____.
The Second and Third Crusades were announced at _____.
TRUE or FALSE: Gothic architecture used mostly rounded arches.
The three parts of the Gothic nave elevation are _____.
the arcade, the triforium, and the clerestory
TRUE or FALSE: Berlinghieri’s St. Francis Altarpiece emphasizes the ways in which St. Francis is like Christ.
Abbot Suger wanted to create an architectural style that would express the growing power of _____.
the French monarchy
TRUE or FALSE: In his Ognissanti Madonna, Giotto used light and shadow to model Mary’s body.
TRUE or FALSE: In his Ognissanti Madonna, Giotto begins to create an illusion of space to contain his carefully modeled representation of Mary.
TRUE or FALSE: Through the inclusion of Old Testament prophets, panel paintings of this time, such as Giotto’s Ognissanti Madonna suggest that Christ and Mary initiate a new religion with no ties to past traditions.
TRUE or FALSE: In the medieval Catholic belief system, people who committed sins could atone for them with good works, such as paying to have a chapel decorated with a religious narrative.
Giotto was probably _____’s student and learned chiaroscuro, or the use of light and shadow, from him.
In the Santa Trinita Madonna, Cimabue painted Mary’s drapery in a way that emphasized _____.
TRUE or FALSE: Cimabue’s Santa Trinita Madonna uses a single, unified viewpoint.
Giorgio Vasari saw this artist as the first Florentine artist who began to turn away from the traditional Byzantine style.
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: Enrico Scrovegni commissioned Giotto to paint frescoes in the Arena Chapel because _____.
he believed that engaging in good works would ensure his salvation
he wanted to atone for his and his father’s sin of usury
In the Arena Chapel, Christ is generally shown _____.
The smaller painted panels at the bottom of Duccio’s Maesta decorate the part of the altarpiece called the _____.
The gold background of many Late-Gothic pieces, such as Duccio’s Virgin and Child with Saints Dominic and Aurea, represents _____.
All of these
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: Duccio’s Maesta shows the Virgin and Child surrounded by figures. Who are these figures?
Duccio’s Rucellai Madonna shows the influence of the _____.
Who was the primary audience for the back of Duccio’s Maesta?
Why was the Bayeux Tapestry commissioned?
To celebrate William’s conquest of England.
Previous madonnas, and even those by contemporary Sienese painters, show Mary as ____, where Giotto shows her as ____.
delicate and slender / solid and monumental
The narrative scenes in the Arena Chapel begin with _____, move on to _____, and end with scenes of the _____.
Life of Mary / Life of Christ / Passion
Brunelleschi and Ghiberti’s competition panels for the Florence _____ doors are sometimes seen as the beginning of the Renaissance.
TRUE or FALSE: Ghiberti’s figure of Isaac references Ancient Egyptian sculpture.
TRUE or FALSE: Brunelleschi’s panel shows a violent and dramatic moment where Abraham is in the process of killing Isaac before he is stopped by the angel.
Compared with Brunelleschi’s panel, Ghiberti’s panel is more _____ as Abraham hesitates as looks directly into Isaac’s face.
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: David, the biblical underdog, defeated his giant enemy with God’s help. Who identified with David?
The Medici family
_ made figures look like they were moving and really alive, unlike medieval sculpture.
Which of the following is NOT true of Donatello’s David?
The sculpture is typical of its time in that it shows a sense of eroticism.
TRUE or FALSE: Donatello’s David shows a return to the admiration of the human body we see in ancient Greek and Roman art.
TRUE or FALSE: Masaccio’s Holy Trinity is credited with being the first true example of one-point linear perspective.
One-point linear perspective was developed by _____.
Which of the following is NOT true of Masaccio’s Holy Trinity?
The barrel vault with coffers recalls the architecture of Ancient Egypt.
In Masaccio’s Tribute Money, the scene shows atmospheric perspective, which allows the mountain to recede into the background through changes in _____.
Which of the following is NOT true of Masaccio’s Tribute Money?
Although Masaccio tried to create a convincing illusion of real life, the light in the painting does not align with the light from the windows in the Brancacci Chapel.
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: What are the classical elements of Donatello’s David?
The use of contrapposto
The free-standing nude figure
The use of bronze
The figures in Piero della Francesca’s Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino in profile and the use of the profile was an attempt to recreate ruler portraits from _____.
TRUE or FALSE: Profile portraits are associated with piety and submission to God.
Renaissance women plucked their hairline because high foreheads were also thought to be _____.
Which of the following is NOT true of Piero della Francesca’s Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino?
These two portraits were once part of a larger altarpiece for the family’s chapel.
Michelangelo brought a strong _____ element to the painted figures on the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo brought a strong _____ element to the painted figures on the Sistine Chapel.
The architectural framing that we see surrounding the central scenes is the only real element on the ceiling, the remainder is paint.
TRUE or FALSE: Michelangelo’s figures in the Sistine Chapel recall the strength, beauty, and idealism of classical sculpture.
Which of the following is NOT true of Michelangelo’s sibyls in the Sistine Chapel?
The body of the Libyan Sybil twists in a complex pose that is typical of the High Renaissance.
Raphael is painting the Stanza della Segnatura at the Papal Palace at the same time that Michelangelo is painting the _____.
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
TRUE or FALSE: Raphael’s School of Athens shows how the Catholic world rejected the classical world during the High Renaissance.
Which of the following is NOT true of Raphael’s School of Athens?
The two central figures in the painting are Christ and St. Peter.
TRUE or FALSE: In Raphael’s School of Athens, the gestures of Plato and Aristotle in the painting reference the ideas of these philosophers. Plato points to the heavens, as his writings dealt with intangible heavenly things. Aristotle points down because he was interested in observable, tangible, earthly things.
In the colossal statue of David, Michelangelo created a(n) _____ body.
TRUE or FALSE: A sacra conversazione, or sacred conversation, is a painting that shows the Madonna and Child talking to saints from different time periods.
Which of the following is NOT true of Mantegna’s Dead Christ?
The artist perfectly executed the foreshortening of the body of Christ.
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: What characteristics of oil paint did Giovanni Bellini exploit?
Oil paint dries slowly
Which of the following is NOT true of The Arnolifini Portrait by Van Eyck?
Giovanni Arnolfini’s wife was pregnant with their first child at the time of this painting
In Van Eyck’s The Arnolifini Portrait, the removed shoes may symbolize that _____.
the couple stands on holy ground.
What allowed Jan van Eyck to create the luminous quality of the painting, The Arnolfini Portrait?
Multiple layers of glazes
The Arnolfini Portrait is typical of other works from the Northern Renaissance because of its _____.
attention to detail.
TRUE or FALSE: This scene of the Deposition shows Christ being removed from the cross and is one of the standard scenes from the life of Christ.
Van der Weyden’s Deposition reveals many artistic conventions of the Northern Renaissance. Which of the following is NOT present in the painting?
An interest in detailed landscapes
In his Deposition, Van der Weyden gives his figures great emotional intensity combined with great attention to detail. These allow the viewer _____.
to empathize with the figures in the scene
Van der Weyden carefully constructed the composition of his Deposition. Which of the following does NOT describe the composition of the painting?
Van der Weyden uses rigid symmetry to organize the figures in the painting.
Luther taught that Christians should follow _____.
Before the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church was _____.
the only church in Western Europe.
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: Which of the following statements are true of the Counter-Reformation?
During the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church made a great effort to spread Catholicism, especially to newly discovered places.
As part of the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church tried to stamp out heresy
The Council of Trent affirmed the role of art in the Catholic Church.
The Protestant Reformation brought about _____
the creation of many new Protestant churches.
Luther believed _____.
in the priesthood of all believers.
The anamorphic skull in the center of Hans Holbein’s The Ambassadors is _____.
a memento mori (reminder of death).
Martin Luther taught that Christians should follow _____.
The Counter-Reformation was a response to _____.
the growth of Protestantism.
The rise of Protestantism led to all of the following EXCEPT _____.
the development of the printing press.
Although Baroque art takes various forms, it is characterized by its attempt to _____.
involve the viewer.
What was the main reason the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge was established?
to encourage and share scientific discoveries based on observation and experiment
Which contributed the most to the spread of intellectual ideas in the 16th and 17th century?
advances in printing technology
The term Baroque derives from the Spanish and Portuguese word meaning _____.
an irregular pearl.
Which was an outcome of the Scientific Revolution?
economic growth due to industrialization
SELECT ALL THAT APPLY: In the Dutch Republic in the 17th century _____.
the production of small scale paintings increased to decorate private homes.
the popularity of landscape painting grew.
the popularity of genre scenes grew.
How did the Catholic Church differ in its ideas about religious art from the Protestants?
Protestants criticized what they saw as the Catholic cult of images.
TRUE or FALSE: Bernini’s David makes us want to duck and get out of the way. The involvement of the viewer in this way is typical of Renaissance art.
Which of the following is NOT true of Bernini’s David?
Bernini’s David looks back to the Renaissance in the figure’s elegance and proportions
TRUE or FALSE: Bernini’s David carefully stays inside the confines of the base and pedestal, increasing the dynamic emotion and theatrical impact.
Typical of Italian Baroque art, Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa tries to engage the viewer in order to _____.
Which of the following is NOT true of Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa?
All of the marble was finished in the same way, unifying the figures with the architecture in the chapel.
Bernini expressed ideas of _____ by using the ornate elements of the church to express a direct relationship between the individual and the spiritual realm.
TRUE or FALSE: Bernini involved the viewer through the entire space of the chapel, which suggests we are part of the audience witnessing the spiritual event.
Carvaggio created three paintings about _____ for the Contarelli Chapel in Rome.
How does Caravaggio’s work support ideas of the Counter-Reformation?
It shows the miraculous in everyday life.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Baroque art as seen in Bernini’s David?
the emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines
What did Bernini use to heighten the illusionistic effects of the sculpture groups The Ecstasy of St. Teresa and St. Andrew in Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale?
a hidden window