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    political ideas of the renaissance

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    Niccolo Machiavelli
    an Italian philosopher and writer
    The Prince
    A book published in 1532
    Machiavelli believed
    men are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit.
    Absolute ruler
    Machiavelli felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.
    Refers to the use of deceit in politics
    Machiavellie The Prince ( 5 steps)
    1.better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved
    2. ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making
    3.ruler keeps power by any means necessary
    4. the end justifies the means
    5. be good when possible and evil when necessary
    Major Italian city-states
    Milan- one of the richest cities
    Venice-major trade route between Asia and Europe
    Florence- controlled by the Medici family
    Genoa- had access to trade routes
    Rome- headquarters of all the catholic church
    All of the 5 cities had what in common
    – All had access to trade routes connecting Europe with middle eastern markets
    – Serves as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe
    Italian city-states
    – because Italy failed to become united during the dark ages city-states emerged.
    -Each city-state was controlled by a powerful family and dominated by a wealthy merchant
    Renaissance art
    – The renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature
    – Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
    3 Renaissance arts
    – classical art-showed the importance of people and leaders as well as gods and goddesses
    – medieval art- and literature focused on church and salvation
    – Renaissance art- and literature focused on the importance of people and nature along with religion.
    classical art
    -figures were lifelike but often idealized( more perfect than real life)
    -figures were nude or draped in togas( robes)
    – bodies looked active and motion was believable
    – faces were calm and without emotion
    – scenes showed either heroic figures or real people doing tasks from everyday life.
    medieval art
    – most art was religious , showing Jesus , saints, people from the bible and so on.
    – important figures in painting were as larger than others around them
    – figures looked stiff with little sense of movement
    – figures were fully dressed in stiff looking clothing
    – faces were serious and showed very little feeling
    -paint colors were bright
    renaissance art
    – artists showed religious and non religious scenes
    – art reflected a great interest in nature
    – figures were lifelike and three dimensional
    – bodies looked active and were shown moving
    – figures were either nude or clothed
    – scenes showed people doing everyday tasks
    – faces expressed what people were thinking
    – paintings were often symmetrical( balanced with the right and left sides having similar or identical elements).
    renaissance artists
    – renaissance artists embraced some of the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome in their art
    – the purpose of art would no longer be to glorify god , as it had been in medieval Europe, artists wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion
    – new techniques emerged
    art and patronage
    Italians patrons( financial supporters) were willing to spend a lot of money on art.
    – art communicated social, political, and spiritual values and therefore the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social and political status.
    what was different in the renaissance
    – realism
    – perspective
    – emphasis on individualism
    – geometrical arrangement of figures
    – light and shadowing
    – shadowing of edges
    – artists able to live from Commissions
    – born in 1475 in a small town near Florence
    – considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived
    – was a sculptor, painter, engineer, architect, and poet
    Sistine chapel
    one of Michelangelo’s architects ( built the ceiling)
    Leonardo da Vinci
    – 1452- 1519
    – he was a painter, sculptor, mathematician ,and engineer
    – he was a painter
    Northern renaissance
    – outside of Italy
    – increased cultural exchange between European countries
    – printed materials helped spread ideas
    – centralization of political power made the northern renaissance distinct from the Italian Renaissance
    Northern Renaissance # 2
    – growing wealth in northern Europe supported renaissance ideas
    – The moveable type printing press and the production and sale of books( Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas and allowed more people to become educated
    – cultural and educational reform
    – the study of classical culture( ancient Greece and Rome), in contrast with the study of things related to the church and religion
    – celebrated the individual
    – was supported by wealthy patrons( financial supporters)
    – Literature flourished during the renaissance and spread renaissance ideas which can be greatly contributed to Johannes Guttenberg
    – literacy rates increased
    – In 1455 Guttenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type, the bible, and started a printing revolution that would transform Europe.
    – poet and humanist scholar
    – full name Francesco Petrach
    – born 1304- 1374
    – assembled Greek and roman writings
    – Wrote Sonnets to Laura( love poems in the vernacular)- language you spoke
    William Shakespeare
    – born 1564-1616
    – English poet and playwright
    – well known plays include: hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet
    – he expanded the dramatic potential of characterization( his characters were very complex), plot, language,(creative), and genre.
    – born 1466-1536
    – he was a Dutch Humanist
    – pushed for a vernacular form of the bible
    – wanted to reform the catholic church
    – wrote the “Praise Of Folly”
    – used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people , including the clergy. He felt people should be kind to others.
    Sir Thomas More
    – born 1478-1535
    – English Humanist
    wrote: Utopia
    – A book about a perfect society in which men and women live in harmony, there is no private property, no- one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals.

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