2. ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making
3.ruler keeps power by any means necessary
4. the end justifies the means
5. be good when possible and evil when necessary
Venice-major trade route between Asia and Europe
Florence- controlled by the Medici family
Genoa- had access to trade routes
Rome- headquarters of all the catholic church
– Serves as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe
-Each city-state was controlled by a powerful family and dominated by a wealthy merchant
– Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular.
– medieval art- and literature focused on church and salvation
– Renaissance art- and literature focused on the importance of people and nature along with religion.
-figures were nude or draped in togas( robes)
– bodies looked active and motion was believable
– faces were calm and without emotion
– scenes showed either heroic figures or real people doing tasks from everyday life.
– important figures in painting were as larger than others around them
– figures looked stiff with little sense of movement
– figures were fully dressed in stiff looking clothing
– faces were serious and showed very little feeling
-paint colors were bright
– art reflected a great interest in nature
– figures were lifelike and three dimensional
– bodies looked active and were shown moving
– figures were either nude or clothed
– scenes showed people doing everyday tasks
– faces expressed what people were thinking
– paintings were often symmetrical( balanced with the right and left sides having similar or identical elements).
– the purpose of art would no longer be to glorify god , as it had been in medieval Europe, artists wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion
– new techniques emerged
– art communicated social, political, and spiritual values and therefore the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social and political status.
– emphasis on individualism
– geometrical arrangement of figures
– light and shadowing
– shadowing of edges
– artists able to live from Commissions
– considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived
– was a sculptor, painter, engineer, architect, and poet
– he was a painter, sculptor, mathematician ,and engineer
– increased cultural exchange between European countries
– printed materials helped spread ideas
– centralization of political power made the northern renaissance distinct from the Italian Renaissance
– The moveable type printing press and the production and sale of books( Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas and allowed more people to become educated
– the study of classical culture( ancient Greece and Rome), in contrast with the study of things related to the church and religion
– celebrated the individual
– was supported by wealthy patrons( financial supporters)
– literacy rates increased
– In 1455 Guttenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type, the bible, and started a printing revolution that would transform Europe.
– full name Francesco Petrach
– born 1304- 1374
– assembled Greek and roman writings
– Wrote Sonnets to Laura( love poems in the vernacular)- language you spoke
– English poet and playwright
– well known plays include: hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet
– he expanded the dramatic potential of characterization( his characters were very complex), plot, language,(creative), and genre.
– he was a Dutch Humanist
– pushed for a vernacular form of the bible
– wanted to reform the catholic church
– wrote the “Praise Of Folly”
– used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people , including the clergy. He felt people should be kind to others.
– English Humanist
– A book about a perfect society in which men and women live in harmony, there is no private property, no- one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals.