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    Mathematics Used in Arts and Architechture Essay

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    Mathematics and art have a long historical relationship. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks knew about the golden ratio, regarded as an aesthetically pleasing ratio, and incorporated it into the design of monuments including the Great Pyramid,[l] deportation, the Coliseum. There are many examples of artists who have been inspired by mathematics and studied mathematics as a means of complementing their works. The Greek sculptor Polytheists prescribed a series of mathematical proportions for carving the ideal male nude.

    Renaissance painters turned to mathematics and many, including Piper Della Francesca, became accomplished mathematicians themselves. Contents [hide] 1 Overview k 2 Ancient times 2. 1 The Golden Ratio * 2. 1. 1 Pyramids * Parthenon 2. 1. 3 Great Mosque of Koruna k 2. 2 Polytheists k 3 Renaissance k 3. 1 Paolo Cello * 3. 2 Piper Della Francesca * 33 Notre Dame * 3. 4 Albrecht Dјere -k 3. 6 Dad Vinci -k 4 Industrial and modern times 3. 5 De Divine Proportions 4. 1 Penrose tiles * 4. 2 Eden Project * 4. 3 California Polytechnic State University * 4. 4 M. C. Sheer 4. Salvador Dally * 4. 6 Pablo Palazzo 4. 7 John Robinson 4. 8 The Eightfold way 4. Fractal art 4. 10 Platonic solids inert *4. 11 Bridges conference * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links I alliterative Galileo Galilee in his II Agitators wrote that “[The universe] is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric Artists who strive and seek to study nature must therefore first fully understand mathematics, On the other hand, mathematicians have sought to interpret and analyses art through the lens tot geometry and rationality. Edit]Ancient times little Golden Ratio The Golden Ratio, roughly equal to 1. 18, was first formally introduced in text by Greek mathematician Pythagoras and later by Euclid the SST century BC_ In the fourth century BC, Aristotle noted its aesthetic properties. [3] Aside from interesting mathematical properties, geometric shapes derived from the golden ratio, such as the golden rectangle, the golden triangle, and Keeper s triangle, were believed to be aesthetically pleasing. As such, many works Of ancient art exhibit and incorporate the golden ratio in their design.

    Various authors can discern the presence Of the golden ratio in Egyptian, Sumerian and Greek asses, Chinese pottery, Elmer sculptures, and Cretan and Mycenaean products from as early as the late Bronze Age. [4] The prevalence Of this special number in art and architecture even before its formal discovery by Pythagoras is perhaps evidence of an instinctive and primal human cognitive preference for the golden [disparities Pyramid of Chuff Evidence of mathematical influences in art is present in the Great Pyramids, built Byzantine Pharaoh Chuff and completed in CHUBB.

    Pharmacologists since the nineteenth century have noted the presence of the golden ratio in the design Of the ancient monuments. They note that the length Of the base edges range from 755?756 feet while the height of the structure is 481. 4 feet. Working out the math, the perpendicular bisector Of the side Of the pyramid comes out to 612 feet. (61 If we divide the slant height of the pyramid by half its base length, we get a ratio of 1. 619, less than 1% from the golden ratio.

    This would also indicate that half the cross-section of the Chuff’s pyramid is in fact a Keeper’s triangle. Debate has broken out between prominent pharmacologists, including Temple Bell, Michael Rice, andiron Taylor, over whether the presence of the golden ratio n the pyramids is due to design or chance. Of note, Rice contends that experts of Egyptian architecture have argued that ancient Egyptian architects have long known about the existence of the golden ratio.

    In addition, three other parasitological, Martin Gardner, Herbert Turnbuckle, and David Preproduction that: Possible ratios for the Pyramid of Chuff: (Keepers Triangle), (3-4-5 Triangle), and 1:4/n Herodotus related in one passage that the Egyptian priests told him that the dimensions of the Great Pyramid ever so chosen that the area of a square whose side was the height of the great pyramid equaled the area of the triangle. 7] This passage, if true, would undeniably prove the intentional presence of the golden ratio in the pyramids.

    However, the validity of this assertion is found to be questionable. [8] Critics of this golden ratio theory note that it is far more likely that the original Egyptian architects modeled the pyramid after the 3-4-5 triangle, rather than the Keeper’s triangle. According to the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus, an ancient papyrus that is the best example of Egyptians dating back to the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, the Egyptians certainly knew about and used the 345 triangle extensively in thematic and architecture.

    While Keepers triangle has a face angle of 51049, the 305 triangle has a face angle of 5308, very close to the Keeper’s triangle. 191 Another triangle that is close is one whose perimeter is an the height such that the base to hypotenuse ratio is 1:4/re. With a face angle of SSL 050, it is also very similar to Keeper’s triangle, While the exact triangle the Egyptians chose to design their pyramids after remains unclear, the fact that the dimensions of pyramids correspond 50 strongly to a special right triangulates a strong mathematical influence in the last standing ancient wonder. Did]Parthenon The Parthenon is a temple dedicated the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis. It is contended that Aphid’s, the main Greek sculptor in charge of decorating the Parthenon, also knew about the golden ratio and its aesthetic properties. In tact, the Greek symbol for the Golden Ratio is named Phi (9) because of Pedophilia] The golden rectangle, a rectangle’s length to width ratio is the golden ratio and considered the most pleasing to the eye, is almost omnipresent in the facade and floor plans of the Parthenon.

    The entire facade may be enclosed within a golden rectangle. I I] The ratio of the length of a mettle endearingly to the height of the frieze, as well as the height of the columns and stalemate to the entire height of the temple is also the golden ratio. Aphid’s himself constructed many Parthenon statues that meticulously embody the golden ratio. [121 Aphid’s is also notable for his contributions to the Athena Parthenon and the Statue Of Zeus.

    As With the Pyramids however, more recent historians challenge the purposeful inclusion Of the golden ratio in Greek temples, such as the Parthenon, contending that earlier studies have purposefully fitted in measurements of the temple until it informed to a golden rectangle. [edit]Great Mosque of Koruna Floor plan of the Great Mosque of Koruna The oldest mosque in North Africa is the Great Mosque of Koruna (Tunisia), built by Alga bin Anti in 670 AD.

    Bassoon and Amazon’s study of the mosque dimensions reveals a very consistent application of the golden ratio in its design, Bassoon and Amazon contend: ” The geometric technique tot construction tot the golden section seems to have determined the major decisions of the spatial organization. The golden section appears repeatedly in some part of the building measurements.

    It is found in the overall proportion of the plan and in the dimensioning of the prayer space, the court and the minaret The existence of the golden section in some parts of Koruna mosque indicates that the elements designed and generated with this principle may have been realized at the same I Because of urban constraints, the mosque’s floor plan is not a perfect rectangle. Even so, for example, the division of the courtyard and prayer hall is almost a perfect golden ratio. [edit]Possession Roman Copy Of Doorposts, originally by Polytheists.

    It is the perfect example Of he ideal male nude, as characterized in toothache of Polytheists Polytheists the Elder (c. 450420B. C. ) was a Greek sculptor from the school Of Argos Who was also a contemporary of Aphid’s. His works and statues consisted mainly of bronze and were of athletes. According to the mathematician Exonerates, Polytheists is ranked as one of the most important sculptors of Classical antiquity for his work on the Dropouts and the statue of Hear in the Heroin of Argos. 114] While his sculptures may not be as famous as those Aphid’s, he is better known for his approach towards sculpture.

    In the Canon of Polytheists, a treatise e wrote designed to document the “perfect” anatomical proportions of the male nude, Polytheists gives us a mathematical approach towards sculpturing the human body. The influence of the Canon of Polytheists is immense hot nonsensical Greek, Roman, and Renaissance sculpture, with many sculptors after him following Polytheists prescription. While none of Polytheists original works survive, Roman copies of his works demonstrate and embody his ideal of physical perfection and mathematical precision. Some scholars contend the influence of the mathematician Pythagoras on the Canon of Polytheists.

    IS] The Canon applies the basic mathematical concepts of Greek geometry, such as the ratio, proportion, and symmetric (Greek for “harmonious proportions”) and turns it into a system capable of describing the human form through a series of continuous geometric progressions. Polytheists starts with a specific human body part, the distal phalanges of the little finger, or the tip of the little finger to the first joint, and establishes that as the basic module or unit for determining all the Other proportions Of the human body. [16] From that, Polytheists multiplies the length by radical 2 (1. 4142) to get the distance of he second phalanges and multiplies the length again by radical 2 to get the length of the third phalanges. Next, he takes the finger length and multiplies it again by radical 2 to get the length Of the palm from the base Of the ringer to the ulna. This geometric series of measurements progress until Polytheists has formed the arm, chest, body, and so on. Other proportions are less set. For example, the ideal body should be 8 heads high and 2 heads wide. However, ordinary figures are ah heads tall while heroic figures are ah heads tall. Edit]Renaissance The Renaissance saw a rebirth of Classical Greek and Roman culture and ideas, among them the study tot mathematics as a relevant subject needed to understand nature and the arts. Two major reasons drove Renaissance artists towards the pursuit of mathematics. First, painters needed to figure out how to depict three-dimensional scenes on a two-dimensional canvas, Second, philosophers and artists alike were convinced that mathematics was the true essence of the physical world and that the entire universe, including the arts, could be explained in geometric terms. 1 7] In light of these factors, Renaissance artists became some of the best applied mathematicians of their times. Edit]Paolo Cello Italian painter Paolo Cello (1397?1475) was fascinated by the study Of perspective. A marble mosaic in the floor of the San Marco Basilica in Venice featuring the small castellated dodecahedron is attributed to Cello. [18] [edit]Piper Della Francesca Rays of light travel from the eye to an object. Where those rays hit the picture plane, the object is drawn. Piper Della Francesca (c. 1415-1492), an early Renaissance artist from Italy, exemplified this new shift in Renaissance thinking.

    Though chiefly appreciated for his art, he was an experimentations and geometer and authored many books on solid metro and the emerging field of perspective, including De Prospective Pending (On Perspective for Painting), Attractor dieback (Abacus Treatise), and De curious regularities (Regular 9][20][21]Historian Vassar in the Lives of the painters calls Piper the “greatest geometer of his time, or perhaps tot any time. T[22] He was deeply interested in the theoretical study of perspective and this apparent in many of his paintings, including the S. Agitations altarpiece and The Flagellation of Christ.

    His work on geometry influenced later mathematicians and artists, including Lucas Bacilli in his De Divine Proportions and Leonardo dad Vinci. Piper began his study of classical mathematics and the forks of the Greek mathematician Archimedes in the library at Robin. [23] In addition to this classical training, Piper was taught commercial arithmetic in “abacus schools,” evidenced indirectly by his own writings which copies the format of abacus school textbooks. [24] It is possible therefore that he was influenced by the works of Leonardo Passion (Fibonacci) from which those abacus textbooks were derived.

    Piper lived in the time when linear perspective was just being introduced in the artistic world. Leon Battista Alberta sums up the idea: “light rays travel in straight lines from points in the observed scene to the eye, forming a kind Of pyramid With the eye as The painting therefore is a cross-sectional plane of that pyramid. The study Of perspective precedes Piper and the Renaissance however. Before perspective, artists typically sized objects and figures according to their thematic importance. Perspective was first observed in 5th century B. C. Greece and Culicid’s Optics first introduced a mathematical theory of perspective.

    Muslim mathematician Legalize extended the theory of optics in is Book of Optics in 1021 although he never applied these principals to art. Perspective first exploded onto the Renaissance artistic scene with Ghetto did Bonded, who attempted to draw in perspective using an algebraic method to determine the placement tot distant lines. In 1415, Italian architectonic Brucellosis and his friend Leon Battista Alberta demonstrated the geometrical method of applying perspective in Florence, centered around the usage of similar triangles, a mathematical concept formulated long ago by Euclid, in determining the apparent height of distant objects. 26] However, Piper is the first painter o write a practical treatise for the application of this idea in art in his De Prospective Pending. Piper Della Francesca Flagellation of Christ showing Pipers usage of linear perspective In De Prospective Pending, Prier painstakingly transforms art and his empirical observations into “Vera scientist” (true science), i. E. Into mathematical proofs. His treatise Starts like any mathematics book in the vein of Euclid: he defines the point as “serer nun Costa Tanta poaching quanta e possible ad socio comprehended” (being the tiniest thing that is possible for the eye to From there.

    Piper uses a series of deductive logic to dead us, theorem by theorem, to the perspective representation of a three. Dimensional body. Piper realized that the way aspects of a figure changed with the point of view obeyed precise and determinable mathematical laws. Piper methodically presented a series of perspective problems to gradually ease his reader from easy to increasingly complex problems.

    Mark Peterson explains: In Book l, after some elementary constructions to introduce the idea of the apparent size of an object being actually its angle subtended at the eye, and referring to Culicid’s Elements kooks and VI, and Culicid’s Optics, he turns, in Proposition 13, to the representation of a square lying flat on the ground in front of the viewer. What should the artist actually draw? After this, objects are constructed in the square (tilling, for example, to represent a tiled floor), and corresponding objects are constructed in perspective; in Book II prisms are erected over these planar objects, to represent houses, columns, etc. But the basis of the method is the original square, from Vichy everything else follows. [27] [edit]Notre Dame Illustration of the Notre-Dame of Loan cathedral, In his 1919 book Ad Quadrate, Frederic Macomb Lund, a historian who tidied the geometry of several gothic structures, claims that the Cathedral of Chartres (begun in the 12th century), the Notre-Dame of Loan (1157-1205), and the Notre Dame De Paris (1160) are designed according to the golden ratio. 128]According to Macomb Lund, the superimposed regulator lines show that the cathedral has golden proportions.

    Other scholars argue that until Piccolo’s 1509 publication, the golden ratio was unknown to artists and architects. [291 [edit]Fabricate Dјere Dјre’s Melancholia Albrecht Udder (1 471-BIBB) was a German Renaissance printmaker made important contributions to polyhedral literature in his book, underwriting deer Messing (Education on Measurement) (1 525), meant to teach the subjects of linear perspective, geometry inarticulate, Platonic solids, and regular polygons, Dјere was likely influenced by the works of Lucas Bacilli and Piper Della Freestanding his trips to Italy. C] While the examples of perspective in Undeserving deer Messing are underdeveloped and contain a number of inaccuracies, the manual does contain a very interesting discussion of polyhedral. Dјere is also the first to introduce in text the idea of polyhedral nets, polyhedral enfolded to lie flat for printing. [31] Dјere published another influential book on human proportions called Ever Boucher von Microfiche Proportion (Pour Books on Human Proportion) in 1528.

    Udder’s well-known engraving Melancholia depicts a frustrated thinker sitting by vatu is best interpreted as a “truncated rhomboid” or a “rhombohedra with 72-degree face angles, which has been truncated so it can be inscribed in a sphere” 132] It has been the subject Of more modern interpretation than almost any other tow-volume book by Peter-Klaus and a very influential discussion in Erwin Panoply’s monograph of Dјere. 35] [titled Divine Proportions The first printed illustration off reintroduction’s, belladonna dad Vinci, published in De divine proportions. Written by Lucas Bacilli in Milan from 1496-98, published in Venice in 1503, De Divine Proportions was about mathematical and artistic proportion. Leonardo dad Vinci drew illustrations of regular solids in De divine proportions while he lived with and took mathematics lessons from Bacilli. Leonardo drawings are probably the first illustrations of skeleton’s solids, which allowed an easy distinction been front and back. 6] Skeleton’s solids, such as the reintroduction’s, were one of the first solids drawn to demonstrate perspective why being overlaid on top tot each other. Additionally, the work also discusses the use tot perspective by painters such as Piper Della Francesca, Melody dad Frolic, and Marco Paleozoic. It is in De Divine Proportions that the golden ratio is defined as the divine proportion, Bacilli also details the use of the golden ratio as the mathematical definition of beauty when applied to the human face. The Ancients, having taken into consideration the rigorous construction of the human body, elaborated all heir works, as especially their holy temples, according to these proportions; for they found here the two principal figures without which no project is possible: the perfection of the circle, the principle of all regular bodies, and the equilateral square. ” from De Divine Proportions(1509) [edit]Dad Vinci Woodcut from De Divine Proportions illustrating toughened ratio as applied to the human face.

    Leonardo dad Vinci (1452-1519) was an Italian scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist,painter, sculptor, and architect. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype Of the Renaissance Renowned primarily as a painter, Leonardo incorporated many mathematical concepts into his artwork despite never having received any formal mathematical training. It was not until the asses that he trained under Lucas Bacilli and prepared a series of drawings for De Divine Proportions. Leonardo studied Piccolo’s Summary, from which he copied tables of proportions and multiplication tables. 39] Notably in Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, Leonardo work incorporated the concept of linear perspective. By making all tooth lines in the painting converge on a single, invisible point on the horizon, a flat painting can appear to have depth, In creating the vanishing point, Leonardo creates the illusion that the painting is an extension of the mom itself. 140] Golden rectangles superimposed on the Mona Lisa In Mona Lisa, one can observe the mismatch between the left and right backgrounds which creates the illusion of perspective and depth.

    It is believed that Leonardo, as a mathematician, purposefully made this painting line up with Golden Rectangles in this fashion in order to further the incorporation Of mathematics into art. A Golden Rectangle whose base extends from her right Mist to her left elbow and reaches the top Of her very head can be constructed. This Golden Rectangle can be then further subdivided into smaller Golden Rectangles and can be drawn to produce the Golden Spiral. Also a viewer can note that all these edges of the new rectangles come to intersect the focal points of Mona Lisa: chin, eye, nose, and upturned corner of her mouth.

    It is also worth mentioning that the overall shape of the woman is a triangle with her arms as the base and her head as the tip. This is meant to draw attention to the face of the woman in the portrait. [411 Leonard Vitiation Man In The Last Supper, Leonardo sought to create a perfect harmonic balance teen the placement of the characters and the background. He did intensive studies on how the characters should be arranged at the table. The entire painting was constructed in a tight ratio of entire piece measures 6 by 12 units. The wall in the back is equal to 4 units.

    The windows are 3 units and the recession of the tapestries on the side walls is In Vitiation Man, Leonardo used both image and text to express the ideas and theories of Vitreous, a first century Roman architect and author of De Architecture Libra X. [44] The Vitiation ideas formed the basis of Renaissance proportion theories in art and architecture. Various artists and architects had illustrated Vitreous’ theory prior to Leonardo, but Leonardo drawing differs from the previous works in that the male figure adopts two different positions within the same image.

    He is simultaneously within the circle and the square; movement and liveliness are suggested by the figure’s active arms and legs. The thin lines on his form show the significant points of the proportion scheme. These lines indicate Leonardo concern With the architectural meaning Of the work. Leonardo is representing the body as a building and illustrating Renaissance theory Which linked the proportions Of the human body With architectural planning. [edit]longitudinal and modern times littleness’s tiles Rhombi Penrose Tiling Named after Roger Penrose, Penrose tiles are nonperforming tiles generated from a simple base tile.

    In its simplest form, it consists of 36- and 72-degree rhombuses, with “matching rules” torching the rhombuses to line up against each other only in certain tiles lack translational symmetry due to its nonproductive, and any finite region in a tiling appears infinitely many times in the Both visually complex and simple at the same time, Penrose tiles rise from basic mathematical principles and can be viewed as intricately related to the golden ratio. Two notable relationships between Penrose tiles and the Golden ratio are: 1.

    The ratio of thick to thin rhombuses in the infinite tile is the golden ratio 1. 618_ 2. The distances between repeated patterns in the tiling grow as Fibonacci numbers when the size of the repetition increases. [titled P reject Located near SST. Austral in Southwestern England, the Eden Project has interchangeableness composed Of geodesic domes (also known as biomass). Known to many as a visitor attraction with the world’s largest greenhouse, he Eden Project is a dedication to preserving nature and the mathematics embedded in nature’s design.

    Throughout the center visitors can notice intricate patterning of pentagons and hexagons that form unique architectural structures mimicking natures simple and complex shapes. Additionally, the Eden Project biomass house plant species from around the world with each honeycomb like dome emulating a natural environment. [471 The Core, a new education building, was constructed with the inspiration of the Fibonacci Numbers and plant spirals, From a top down view, one can see the building’s windows aligned n a spiral similar to the golden spiral and plant spirals. 47] [edit]California Polytechnic State University Like many college campuses throughout the U. S. A. Trying to inspire its students, the Engineering Plaza of California Polytechnic State University was designed to incorporate the Fibonacci sequence and golden spiral. Campus buildings were designed around the concept of the golden spiral which is defined at the very center by the three core buildings. The outward spiraling arc can be seen below and extends throughout the campus] [edit]M C. Sheer Circle Limit Ill by M_C, Sheer (1959)

    A renowned artist born in 1898 and died in 1972, M. C. Sheer was known for his mathematically inspired Ocher’s interest in tessellations, polyhedrons, shaping of space, and self-reference manifested itself in his work throughout his career. [SO] In timeshare Sketch, Sheer showed that art can be created With polygons or regular shapes such as triangles, squares, and hexagons. Sheer used irregular polygons When tiling the plane and often used reflections, glide reflections, and translations to obtain many more patterns.

    Additionally, Sheer arranged the shapes to simulate images Of animals and Other figures. His work can be noted in Development 1 and Cycles. Ocher’s was also interested in a specific type of polyhedron that appears many times in his work. These polyhedrons are defined as solids that have exactly similar polygonal faces, also known as Platonic solids. These Platonic solids, tetrahedrons, cubes, octahedron’s, dodecahedron, and icosahedrons stimulations are especially prominent in Order and Chansons Four Regular Solids. 51] Here these castellated figures often reside within another figure which further distorts the viewing angle and conformation of the polyhedrons and providing a alliterated perspective Additionally, Sheer worked with the shape and logic of space in Three Intersecting Planes, Snakes, High and Low, and Waterfall. Many of Ocher’s works contain impossible constructions, made using geometrical objects that cannot exist but are pleasant to the human sight. Some of Ocher’s tessellation drawings were inspired by conversations with the mathematician H.

    S. M. Octogenarian’s hyperbolic geometry. [53] Relationships between the works of mathematician Kurt G¶del, artist C. Sheer and congressperson Sebastian Bach are explored in G¶del, Sheer, Bach, a Pulitzer Prize-winning book. Edit]Savior Dali Dalais 1954 painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercube) Salvador Dali (1904-1989) incorporated mathematical themes in several of his later works. His 1954 painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercube) depicts a crucified figure upon the net of uppercase.

    In The Sacrament of the Last Supper (1955) Christ and his disciples are pictured inside a giant dodecahedron. Dalais last painting, The Swallows Tail (1983), was part of a series inspired by Rene© Tom’s catastrophe theory. [edit]Pablo Palazzo Pablo Palazzo (1969-2007) was a contemporary Spanish painter and sculptor soused on the investigation of form. Heavily influenced by cubism and Paul Sleek, Palazzo developed a unique style that he described as the geometry of elite and the geometry of all nature.

    Consisting of simple geometric shapes with detailed patterning and coloring, Paleness’s work was noted as powerful, attractive, unhesitant, enigmatic, and always new. From works such as Angular to Automate, Palazzo expressed himself in geometric transformations and translations. Over time as Carmen Bone notes, Paleness’s work evolved very rapidly toward an abstract-geometric language of increasing purity. [54] [edition Robinson John Robinson (1935?2007) was originally a sheep farmer who turned to sculpting.

    He began a serious sculpting career at the age of 35. Robinson was deeply interested in astronomy mathematical relationships According to Ronald Brown, Robinsons work was extraordinary because of its proportion, line, rhythm, finish, the resonance of the titles and the forms, and because some of the complex forms, such as Rhythm of Life, had hardly been visualized in such an exact way. Robinsons work from Gordian Knot to Bands Of greenish displayed highly complex mathematical knot theory in polished bronze for the public to e. 55] Many mathematicians working in the field Of topology and specifically with tortures see mathematical relationships in Robinsons sculptures. Rhythm Of Life arose from experiments With wrapping a ribbon around an inner tube and finding it returned to itself. Genesis evolved from an attempt at making Barrymore rings-a set of three circles, no two of which link but in which the whole structure cannot be taken apart without breaking.

    Many of Robinsons works express the theme of common humanity. In Dependent Beings, the sculpture comprises a square that twists as it travels around the circle, giving it a noonday of two strips in contrasting textures-[56] [edit]The Eightfold Way Sculptor Hellman Ferguson has made sculptures in various materials of a wide range tot complex surfaces and other topological objects. [57] His work is motivated specifically by the desire to create visual representations of mathematical objects.

    Ferguson has created a sculpture called The Eightfold Way at the Berkeley, California, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute based on the projective special linear group SSL(2,7), a finite group of 168 elements. [58] [59] [edit]fractal art The Mandelbrot set, a common example of fractal art Main article: Fractal art The processing power Of modern computers allows mathematicians and non-mathematicians to visualize complex mathematical objects such as the Mandelbrot set.

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