Art is something that stimulates an individual’s thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Many definitions of art have been proposed by philosophers and others who have characterized art in terms of mimesis, expression, communication of emotion, or other values. Though art’s definition is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of human agency and creation through imaginative or technical skill. In medieval philosophy, John Chromosome held that “the name of art should be applied to those only which contribute towards and produce necessaries and mainstays of life.
The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Hellhole as “one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture”. Art as mimesis has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle The nature of art, and related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication.
Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art. Here, we consider painting, a visual art and explain its perception. Here arises the question, what are ?Visual arts”? Visual Arts: ?Visual Arts is a term used for a broad category of different types of art. Visual arts include all forms of arts creative and haves expressive production in material. In simple words, ?Visual arts” are art forms that create works that are primarily visual in nature, such as Ceramics, Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, Printmaking Design, Crafts, Photography, Video, Flanking and Architecture.
These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects tot the visual arts as well as arts of other types, The current usage of the term “visual arts” includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts. Visual arts also include applied arts The perception of these visual arts is a lot different from Visual Perception. So, we need to know the difference between the perception of visual art and visual perception of art.
For this purpose, we explain what visual perception is and then show the differences between the two of them. VISUAL PERCEPTION: Visual perception is a function of our eyes and brain. We see images as a Whole rather than in parts. However, images can be broken down into their visual elements: line, shape, texture, and color. Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. These elements are to images as grammar is to language. Together they allow our eyes to see images and our brain to recognize them.
For most of the people, vision appears simple and effortless as it seems like a trivial operation. Our brain, however, has to process, combine and separate heaps, colors, shadows, object relations, and much more within fractions off second in order to build a representation from its sensory input. Vision perception is ambiguous. For example, to see a painting, a piece of sculpture or a building takes a few moments, Other art objects may take a little more time. Most of the people appreciate (comment on) the object within moments of seeing them.
But it is the product of an extraordinarily developed and complicated visual system. Visual perception helps a lot in the aesthetic experience of art, Visual perception of art vs. Perception of Visual Art: The main difference between the visual perception of art and perception of visual arts is that in the Visual perception of an art we explain how Our vision sees an art and sends it whereas in the perception of visual arts we explain how our vision sees the art and the reason Why our vision sees the art in such a manner.
One important difference between the perception of visual arts and visual perception is the task Of the observer. In everyday perception, the task Of the observer is well defined, often by the action that the perception supports. As we watch the uncorking traffic before crossing the road, our perception of the traffic s oriented to the extraction of useful information such as the recognition of a car and the estimation of its speed, while at the same time disregarding irrelevant information such as the make or color of the car.
Once the task is established, one can define the decisions necessary to perform it, and if one so wishes, the efficiency of the observer in this task can be computed by normalizing the performance to that of the ideal observer for this task. It is more difficult to identify an appropriate task in the perception of visual arts, Without specifying a task, the question tot how good one is at looking at a painting becomes irrelevant, ND the notion of risk associated to an alleged wrong perception becomes meaningless.
One way to identify a plausible task in visual arts perception is to return to the challenges of everyday perception. PAINTING Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination faith drawing, composition and, or, other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from art,fork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself. Painting is the practice Of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base With a brush but Other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders.
Paintings ay have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous, Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner, paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or he political in nature,
Painting only can “describe” everything which can be seen and suggest every emotion which can be felt, Painting is not just mere impression of our thoughts but is composed of a number of elements like intensity, form, figure, filial, color and tone, texture, garnet, line, conduit, deformation, organic, rhythm and non- traditional elements. Some of the important elements are discussed below. ELEMENTS AND MEDIA Modern artists have extended the practice Of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense.
Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works office Duffel and Ansell Kefir. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photos, Corer Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required. ELEMENTS INTENSITY: What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between.
In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity: by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes, Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular vitae wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness.
In technical drawing, thickness f line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object vitamin a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone: Color and tone are the essence Of painting as pitch and rhythm are Of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next Black is associated With mourning in the West but in the East white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Sandbanks, and Newton, have written their own color theory.
Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word “red”, for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc. ). Painters deal practically with pigments, 50 “blue” for a painter can be any of the blues: Patagonian, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on.
Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear ?sound in music (like “C”) is analogous to light in painting, “shades” to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music ?though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it. Tone describes how light or dark a color is.
If the painting is going to be successful, you must get the tones right. In describing any form in particular light conditions tone is critical. You’ll be amazed how dark those darks can be. Get the tone of a color right and will make the form you want to depict. It will stay where you put it and add to the solidity and realism of the picture. Get the tone wrong, and it will jar the eye. A blazing highlight in a shadow/ eye will jump out of its socket. Remember that all colors in your subject are affected by the same light.
For example, if one side of a blonde head is in deep shadow, like the subjects suit, the hair is going to be very dark blonde. If you paint those bright tones from the lit side of the head in the shadows it will he just plain wrong, This ay sound obvious, but people do it all the time. Your brain =knows’ that a dark blue suit is very dark in the shadow areas, hut it also might tell you it _knows’ that skin is still the same value in the darks. But, it is not and your eye sees the difference. Colors have tones (how light and dark) and temperature (how intense).
Warm colors tend to advance. Cool colors tend to recede. The interplay between warm and cool not only creates believable form and space but is a pleasure to look at ? a painting that is all cold or all blazingly hot tends not to work so well. EDGES: Generally our eye will go straight to the crispest edge in a painting creating a focal point. This is most often a point of high contrast oeuvre a light and dark meet. Make sure that edge is where you want it, up around the head. For example, in a human face, the dark Of hair against the edge Of a lit cheek creates a focal point.
The artist can lead a viewer around a picture by the use of different types Of edge. If it’s all soft or all crisp there is no focal point and no one knows what they are supposed to be looking at! BACKGROUNDS: The question that arises is how much detail should be in a background? Too much in the background can be overwhelming. Remember, the background should stay back. The subject is primary; the other stuff while it may have emotional or historic significance is secondary, Control of edges here really helps. Simple color and shadow shapes can work well.
This makes the subject the sole rendered object and focal point in the painting, Rhythm: Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as “a pause incorporated into a sequence”, then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations? arm, melody, coloration, The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetically value of that furor_ This is because the esthetically value is functionality dependent, i. E. He freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Pre flow of energy, in art as well as in Other forms Of “techno”, directly contributes to the esthetically value. LINE: Line is a continuous marking made by a moving point on the surface. A line is the path made by a pointed instrument, such as a pen, a crayon, or a stick. A line implies action because work needs to be done to make it. Moreover, the impression of movement suggests sequence, direction, or force. In other words, a line can be seen as a distinct series of points. Line is believed to be the most expressive of the visual elements because of several reasons.
First, it outlines things and the outlines are the key to their identity, Most of the time, we recognize objects or images only from their outlines. Second, line is important because it is a primary element in writing and drawing, and because writing as well drawing is universal. Third, unlike texture, shape and tort, line s unambiguous, We know exactly when it starts and ends, Finally, line leads our eyes by suggesting direction and movement. Line outlines shapes and can contour areas within those lines, Even though most of the art we see uses line only to form shapes, some artists allow line to call attention for itself in the art Piece.
TEXTURE is the surface ?feel of something. When the brush strokes have been smoothened, a surface is seen as smooth, when left rough, its texture is seen as rough. COMPOST ION refers to the ordering Of relationship. Artists utilize organizing principles to create forms that inform. Techniques are ways artists go about applying the principles Of composition. BALANCE refers to the equilibrium Of opposing visual forces. GRADATION refers to a continuum of changes in the details and regions such as gradual variations in shape, color value and shadowing.
PROPORTION refers to the emphasis achieved by the scaling of sizes of shapes. VARIETY refers to the contrasts of details and regions. UNITY refers to the togetherness, despite contrasts, of details and regions to the whole. MEDIA Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil?especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these ever called ‘varnishes’ and were prized for their body and gloss.
Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlands painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe. PASTEL: Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation.
The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process. Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative, Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared tort, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries, Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings dad with a fluid medium, to the cracking and disconsolation that result tromp changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.
ACRYLIC: Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water- resistant when dry Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolors or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and Oil paints is the inherent drying time.
Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over under-paintings. This slow drying aspect Of Oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in Other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly. WATER COLOR: Watercolors is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolors paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas.
In East Asia, watercolors minting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Fingerprinting with watercolors paints originated in China. Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill.
Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubility’s, surfactants, particulate tater, fluoresces, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, coolants, and Other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry. HOT WAX: Enigmatic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface?usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used.
The simplest enigmatic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used?some intonating other types of waxes, dammar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other torts Of pigment, Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface.
Other materials can be encased or collagen into the surface, or layered, using the enigmatic medium to adhere it to the surface. FRESCO: Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or linings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word fresco which derives from the Latin word for “fresh”. Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Boon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer feet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonation, is used.
A sector painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (cosec is “dry” in Italian). The pigments require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or Oil to attach the pigment to the wall. GOUACHE: Gouache is a water based paint consisting of pigment and other materials designed to be used in an opaque painting method. Gouache differs from watercolors in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present.
This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Like all water-media, it is diluted with water. ENAMEL: Enamels are made by painting a substrate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass, Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750-850 degrees Celsius (1380-1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects, but have also been used for other purposes.
In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures. In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor mural SPRAY PAINT: Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed resized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store.
Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics. Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late sass, street graffiti writers’ signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required tort illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as unique art for and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil can be used to protect a surface except the specific shape that is to be painted.
Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos or hand-cut by artists. TEMPERA: Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are ere long lasting, and examples from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 even it was superseded by the invention Of Oil painting.
A paint Which is commonly called tempera (although it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint. WATER MISCIBLE OIL PAINT: Water miscible oil paints (also called “water soluble” or “water-mixable”) is a modern variety of oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water.
Its water solubility comes from the use tot an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution. PAINTING . Painting is an art. There are different kinds of painting and you might have seen the canvas in many places. This is used in many homes and in buildings to decorate the walls. It is not possible for each and every individual to paint a picture and convert in to beautiful art work. You might be confused by seeing many art works and you may not be able to differentiate the one which is more beautiful than the other. What does painting do?
LIE Painting makes things and their qualities much clearer than they are in nature. ј Painting, with its ?All-at-ensconces more than any Other art, gives us the time to allow our vision to focus and participate. SIC We can hold any detail or region or the totality as long as we like and follow any order of details or regions at our own pace More than any other art, painting is the art that has most to do with revealing he visual appearance of objects and events, The eye is the chief sense organ involved in our participation with the painting. Painting has existed as an artistic tradition for thousands of years.
From the cave painting of Lascar to the great, masterpieces of Dad Vinci it has played a historical and aesthetic role in the different ages of existence. Let’s see the history of painting. ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY Painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chaplet and Lascar caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown, yellow and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer _ Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt.
In the great temple of Rammers II, Inferential, his queen, is depicted being led by The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations is the mosaic of the Battle of Issues at Pompeii, which was probably based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. The history Of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted tradition from Antiquity.
Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity, which continues into the 21st century. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-versa.
Painting was initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, private, civic, and religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class, TYPES OF PAINTINGS ABSTRACT PAINTING: It is also called as non-representational painting. It might be difficult to appreciate it if we are confused about subject matter. In these paintings, no objects or events are depicted. So, it seems that these painting do not have object matter. But it is not so. The subject matter is relating to or affecting the senses rather than the intellect.