In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behavior of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among Others. There are open world classes Which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all. Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these here are significant variations in different languages.
For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has on; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have nominal classifiers whereas European languages do not; many languages do not have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see sedative verbs) or adjectives and nouns, etc. This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties entails that analysis is done for each individual language, Nevertheless the labels for each category are signed on the basis to universal criteria.
History The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics In the Nirvana, written in the 5th or 6th century BC the Sanskrit grammarian Yak defined four main categories of words: 1. Mama – nouns or substantives 2. Katz -” verbs 3. Passage – pre-verbs or prefixes 4. Inapt – particles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions) These IS were grouped into two large classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and inflected (pre-verbs and particles). The ancient work on the grammar Of the Tamil language.
Totalitarian, dated variously been 1st and 10th centuries AD, classifies words in Tamil as I. Appear (noun), 2. Vinci (verb), 3. Ida (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns) and 4. URI (word that further qualifies a noun or verb) A century or w. ‘o after the work of Nirvana, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Crystals dialog that sentences are, conceive, a combination adverbs and nouns Another class, “conjunctions” (covering conjunctions,pronouns, and the article), was later deed by Aristotle. Y the end to the 2nd century BC, the classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar (T‰xv Raphael) : 1. Noun: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity 2. Verb: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone 3. Participle: a part of speech sharing the features of the verb and the noun 4. Interjection: a part of speech expressing emotion alone .
Pronoun: a part Of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for a person 6. Preposition: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax 7. Adverb: a part Of speech Without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb, adjective, clause, sentence, or other adverb 8. Conjunction: a part Of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation The Latin grammarian Parisian (FL. 500 AD) modified the above eightfold system, substituting “article” for “interjection”. It was not until 1767 that the adjective was taken as a separate class. 61 Traditional English grammar is patterned after the European tradition above, and is still taught in schools and used indoctrinates, It names eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection (sometimes called an exclamation), English words have been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories, or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries): Noun any abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery) pronoun any substitute for a noun or noun phrase Adjective any qualifier of a noun Verb any action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be) Adverb any qualifier Of an adjective, verb, clause, sentence, or Other adverb Preposition any establisher of relation and syntactic context Conjunction any syntactic connector Interjection any emotional greeting (or “exclamation”) Although these are the traditional eight English parts of speech, modern linguists eave been able to classify English words into even more specific categories and sub-categories based on function. The four main parts of speech in English, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are labeled form classes as well.