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    Are lexical categories universal?

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    Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these here are significant variations in different languages. For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have nominal classifiers whereas European languages do not; many languages do not have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see sedative verbs) or adjectives and nouns[citation needed], etc.

    This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties entails that analysis be done for each individual language, Nevertheless the labels for each category are assigned on the basis of universal criteria. Noun A noun is a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal, or idea. In linguistics, a noun is a member of a large, open lexical category whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

    Lexical categories are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase. Examples The cat sat on the renal Please hand in your assignments by the end of the week. Cleanliness is next to godliness.

    Plato was an influential philosopher in ancient Greece. Please complete this assignment with black or blue pen only, and keep your eyes on your own paper. A noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective. Verbs and adjectives can’t. In the following, an asterisk (k) in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical. The name (name is a noun: can co-occur with a definite article the. ) *the Baptist (Baptist is a verb: cannot co-occur with a definite article. Constant circulation circulation is a noun: can co-occur with the attributive adjective constant. ) *constant circulate (circulate is a verb: cannot ACH)occur with the attributive adjective constant. ) a fright (fright is a noun: can co-occur with the indefinite article a. ) afraid (afraid is an adjective: cannot co-occurring the article a. ) terrible fright (The noun fright can co-occur with the adjective terrible. ) *terrible afraid (The adjective afraid cannot co-occur vivid the adjective terrible. Gender Main article: Grammatical gender In some languages, nouns are assigned to genders, such as masculine, feminine and neuter (or other combinations). The gender of a noun (as well as its number and case, where applicable) Will often entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it. For example, in French, the singular form of the definite article is lee with masculine nouns and la with feminine; adjectives and certain verb forms also change (with the addition of -e with feminine).

    Grammatical gender often correlates with the form of the noun and the inflection pattern it follows; for example, in both Italian and Russian most nouns ending -a are feminine, Gender also often correlates with the sex of the noun’s referent, particularly in the case f nouns denoting people (and sometimes animals), Nouns do not have gender in Modern English, although many theme denote people or animals of a specific proper nouns and common nouns Main article: Proper noun A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as Earth, India, Jupiter, Harry, or BMW), as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities (such as city, animal, planet, person or car). Countable and uncountable nouns Main articles: Count noun and Mass noun Count nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or quantifiers (e. . , one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article (a or an). Examples of count nouns are chair, nose, and occasion. Mass nouns (or Nan-count nouns) differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they can’t take plural or combine with number words or quantifiers. For example, it is not possible to refer too furniture or three furniture.

    This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between mass and count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns resent these entities. ‘Collective nouns Main article: Collective noun Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting to more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include committee, herd, and school (to fish). These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.

    Concrete nouns and abstract nouns Further information: Physical body and Abstract object Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can, in principle at least, be observed by at least one of the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts (such as justice or hatred). While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept (e. G. , Art is an important element Of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts (e. G. Put my daughter’s art up on the fridge).

    Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, With the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key. In English, many abstract nouns are formed by adding noun-forming suffixes news, -itty, -ion) to adjectives or verbs. Examples are happiness (from the adjective happy), circulation (from the verb circulate) and serenity (from the adjective Rene). Concrete nouns and abstract nouns observed by at least one to the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). N important element of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork serene). Noun phrases Main article: Noun phrase A noun phrase is a phrase based on a noun, pronoun, or other noun-like word (nominal) optionally accompanied by modifiers such as adjectives. Pronouns Main article: pronoun Nouns and noun phrases can typically be replaced by pronouns, such as he, it, which, and those, in order to avoid repetition or explicit identification, or for other reasons. For example, in the sentence Janet thought that he was weird, the word he is a pronoun standing in place of the name of the person in question. The English word one can replace parts of noun phrases, and it sometimes stands in for a noun.

    An example is given below: John’s car is newer than the one that Bill has. But one can also stand in for bigger sub parts off noun phrase, For example, in the following example, one can stand in for new car. This new car is cheaper than that one. Substantive as overdo for noun “Substantive” redirects here. For other uses, see Substance (disambiguation). Starting With Old Latin grammars, many European languages use some form of the word substantive as the basic term for noun (for example, Spanish sustaining, “noun”). Nouns in the dictionaries Of such languages are demark by the abbreviation s. Or sob. Instead of n, which may be used for proper nouns instead.

    This corresponds to those grammars in which nouns and adjectives phase into each other in more areas than, for example, the English term predicate adjective entails. In French and Spanish, for example, adjectives frequently act as nouns referring to people who have the characteristics f the adjective. The most common metallurgy to name this concept is multinational. An example in English is: This legislation will have the most impact on the poor. Similarly, an adjective can also be used for a whole group or organization of people: The Socialist International. Hence, these words are substantives that are usually adjectives in English. The word nominal also overlaps in meaning and usage with noun and adjective.

    Verb A verb, from the Latin verb meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, come), or a State of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some Of its arguments, such as its subject, or Object In many languages, verbs have a present tense, to indicate that an action is being carried out; a past tense, to indicate that an action has been done: and a future tense, to indicate that an action will be done. Washed the car yesterday. The dog ate my homework. John studies English and French.

    Lucy enjoys listening to music. Verb types Verbs vary by type, and each type is determined by the kinds of words that follow it and the relationship those words have with the verb itself. There are six types: intransitive, transitive, infinitives, to-be verbs, and two-place transitive (VGA- verb give), and two-place transitive (PVC- verb consider). Intransitive verbs An intransitive verb is one that does not have a direct object. Intransitive verbs may be followed by an adverb (a word that addresses how, where, when, and how often) or end a sentence. For example: “The woman spoke softly. ” “The athlete ran faster than the Official. ” “The boy wept. Linking verbs A linking verb cannot be followed by an adverb or end a sentence but instead must be followed by a noun or adjective, whether in a single word or phrase. Common linking verbs include seem, become, appear, look, and remain. For example: “His mother looked worried. ” “Josh remained a reliable friend. ” Therefore, linking verbs ‘link’ the adverb to the subject. Adjectives that come after linking verbs are predicate adjectives, and nouns that come after linking verbs are predicate nouns. Transitive verbs A transitive verb is followed by a noun or noun phrase. These noun phrases are not called predicate nouns but are instead called direct objects because they refer to the object that is being acted upon. For example: “My friend read the newspaper,” “The teenager earned a speeding ticket. A way to identify a transitive verb is to invert the sentence, making it passive. For example: “The newspaper was read by my friend. ” “A speeding ticket was earned by the teenager. ” Two-place transitive: VGA verbs VGA verbs (named after the verb give) precede either two noun phrases or a noun hears and then a prepositional phrase often led by to or for. For example: “The players gave their teammates high fives. ” “The players gave high fives to their teammates. ” When two noun phrases follow a transitive verb, the first is an indirect Object, that Which is receiving something, and the second is a direct object, that being acted upon. Indirect objects can be noun phrases or prepositional phrases.

    Two-place transitive: PVC verbs PVC verbs (named after the verb consider) are followed by a noun phrase that serves as a direct object and then a second noun phrase, adjective, or infinitive hears. The second element (noun phrase, adjective, or infinitive) is called a complement, which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning. For example: “The young couple considers the neighbors wealthy people. ” “Some students perceive adults quite inaccurately. ” “Sarah deemed her project to be the hardest she has ever completed. ” ‘To be verbs The verb be is manifested in eight forms: be, is, am, are, was, were, been, and being. These verbs precede nouns or adjectives in a sentence, which become predicate nouns and predicate adjectives similar to those that function with a inking verb.

    They can also he followed by an adverb of place, which is sometimes referred to as a predicate adverb. For example: “Her daughter was a writing tutor. ” “The singers were very nervous. ” “My house is down the street. ” ‘Adjectives What 15 An Adjective? An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs.. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music.

    A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. For example, the adverb “intricately” modifies the adjective “patterned. ” Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. For example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles (“the,” “a,” “an”) to be adjectives.

    Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective (“my,” “your,” “his,” “her,” “its,” “our,” “their”) is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: can’t complete my assignment because don’t have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective “my” modifies “assignment” and the noun hears “my assignment” functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form “mine” is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective “your” is used to modify the noun phrase “phone number”; the entire noun phrase ‘Your phone number” is a subject complement, Note that the possessive pronoun form “yours” is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.

    The bakery sold his favorite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective “his” modifies the noun phrase “favorite type of bread” and the entire noun phrase “his favorite type of read” is the direct object of the verb “sold. ‘ After many years, she returned to her homeland. Here the possessive adjective “her” modifies the noun “homeland” and the noun phrase “her homeland” is the object of the preposition “to. ” Note also that the form “hers” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the possessive adjective “our” modifies “way” and the noun phrase “our way” is the direct object of the compound verb “have lost”.

    Note that the possessive pronoun form “ours” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents. Here the possessive adjective “their” modifies “parents” and the noun phrase “their parents” is the object of the preposition “by. ” Note that the possessive pronoun form “theirs” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases, The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective “its” modifies “ball” and the noun phrase “its ball” is the object of the verb “chased” Note that “its” is the possessive adjective and “it’s” is a contraction for “it is. Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives “this,” “these,” “that,” “those,” and “what” are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective “that” modifies the noun “cord” and the noun phrase ‘that cord” is the object of the preposition “over. ” This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here “this” modifies “apartment” and the noun phrase “this apartment” is the subject of the sentence, Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these, In the subordinate luaus, “those” modifies “plates” and the Nolan phrase “those plates” is the object of the verb “preferred,” In the independent clause, “these” is the direct object of the verb “bought. Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun. Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective (“which” or “what”) is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, “which” can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, “which” modifies “plants” and the noun phrase “which plants” is the subject of the compound verb “should be watered”: What book are you reading?

    In this sentence, “what” modifies “book” and the noun phrase “what book” is the direct object of the compound verb “are reading. ” Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective “many” modifies the noun “people” and the noun phrase “many people” is the subject of the sentence. Will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sturdy. The indefinite adjective “any” modifies the noun “mail” and the noun phrase “any mail” is the direct object of the compound verb “Will send. ” they found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.

    In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun “goldfish” and the noun hears is the direct object of the verb “found”: The title of Kelly’s favorite game is “All dogs go to heaven. ” Here the indefinite pronoun “all” modifies “dogs” and the full title is a subject complement. ‘Interjection An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part tooth sentence. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch, that hurt!

    Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today. Hey! Put that down! Heard one guy say to another guy, “He has a new car, eh? ” don’t know about you but, good lord, think taxes are too high! ‘Pronouns like “he,” “which,” “none,” and “you” to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

    Subjective Personal Pronouns A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence The subjective personal pronouns are “you,” “she,” “he,” “it,’ “we,” “you,” “they. ” In the following sentences, each of the highlighted overdo is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject Of the sentence: was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom Of the green knapsack. You are surely the strangest child have ever met. He stole the kylie’s skin and forced her to live With him. When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner. After many ears, they returned to their homeland. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p. M. It is on the counter.

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