About simple, compound, and complex sentences. Words You Need to Know: While viewing the video, fill in the blank with the correct word. Answers are on page 13. I. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete 2. A good sentence has to be and have a theme the same way an essay does. 3. The two components of a sentence are and . 4. Good writing begins With and thoughtful Points to Remember: You can easily follow a correct sentence from beginning to end. A “primitive” command sentence Will have few words and an implied “you. ” Fragments are sometimes used in dialog, for emphasis, and to get attention.
A Good Sentence After the initial work of conceiving ideas and thoughtfully organizing them, then its time to get down to work and create sentences and paragraphs that will communicate to the reader the ideas you have. Each sentence, in its own way, tells a story. For it to be effective in telling the story, you must be able to put the sentence together, scrutinize it, and correct any problems the sentence might have. Unlike spoken language, written language does not give the luxury of a back and forth exchange. It is not possible to know if the reader understands, nor is it possible to go back and fill in the gaps if s/he doesn’t.
Writing must stand on its own. The definition Of a sentence is “a group Of words that expresses 3 complete thought. ” It must be focused, concentrated, and have a theme of its own the same way an essay does. You’ve written a correct sentence if it is easy to follow from beginning to end, has no missing parts, makes sense, and is understood by the reader. Sentence Components A sentence has two components: a subject and a predicate. A subject must contain a noun (name of a person, place, thing, or idea) or pronoun and may contain individual words, clauses, or phrases that serve as adjectives or modifiers of the noun.
A predicate must contain a verb (and maybe a helping verb like “is,” “are,” “have,” “has,” etc. ) and may contain words, clauses or phrases that serve as adverbs or modifiers. A predicate may also contain an object, the receiver of the action of the verb. Complete sentences may range from one word through 20-30 words. The smallest, “primitive,” sentences are direct commands and may contain only one word, a verb, Examples of these are, “Stop! ” and “Continue. ” The reason direct commands can be considered complete sentences is because the subject, “you,” is understood.
Here are examples of complete sentences from ere simple to more complex, short to long. Note that the subject is underlined once and the predicate twice. Help! (subject “you” is understood) Karen cried. The dog ran into the street. The red-tinged spider scared the children who were playing on the porch. House cats differ greatly from lions and tigers. The teacher taught the students the worthwhile lesson that honesty pays. In each of those sentences, the subject comes first followed by the predicate. However, in some sentence forms such as questions, the predicate (or part of it) may come before the subject or main verb. Do plants grow in the desert? Is Bobby crying? Are flashing red signals indicating danger? When will your softball team arrive for the game against your arch rival? Both subjects and verbs can be compound. In other words, there may be more than one of them. They are most often joined by words like “and” and “or. ” Look at these examples. Karen and Bobby cried. The dog ran into the street and jumped at the car. Are the potatoes or carrots sliced and cooked? In the following sentences, underline the subject with one line and the predicate with two lines. Answers are on page 13. . 2. 3. 4. . DVD players have already captured most of today’s popular movies. Be quiet! Did the burglar rob the store before the police arrived? Is the porch light still burning? John has written a memo regarding Rereads meeting. Something Missing A good sentence is a complete thought vivid a subject and a verb. When one or the Other is missing, then it interferes With the reader’s ability to grasp What you are saying. We call this a fragment, and we must add extra words or combine With another portion Of a sentence to complete it. Look at these fragments and see what is missing. Fragment The blond woman.
Came through the door with brass hinges. Mrs.. Kennedy, the director of the play. A very difficult and trying task. What’s Missing predicate/verb subject/noun or pronoun predicate,’ verb predicate/verb Exercise A Decide if the following words make a complete thought or a fragment, Write C for complete or F for fragment on the line. Answers are on page 13. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Where the buffalo roamed. Who will play the main character? Large footprints marked the long and winding trail. Talking over plans for the party. After the play was over, the jubilant cast took many bows. John and Bill hit.
The team, feeling disappointed. Drenched through her clothes. NOW go back to those you marked and write the rest Of the sentence to make it complete. Possible answers are on page 13. Generally speaking, fragments do not produce clarity. However, fragments are sometimes used intentionally in dialog for emphasis, and to get attention. Whether they are acceptable depends upon the purpose of the writing. People often speak in fragments so they are frequently used in informal writing and to tell stories. They are never used in business or formal writing such as on the GEED test. Goes on And on
Fragments do not give enough information, but run-on sentences do the opposite. They give too much information because they are made up of two or more complete thoughts stuck together when they should stand alone, It is difficult tort the reader to know where one thought ends and another begins. Run-on sentences are not necessarily long, but they usually lack ending marks like periods, question marks, or exclamation points. They may also lack commas, conjunctions like “and,” “but,” or “because,” or subordinating words. Look at these examples. The salesman was talking fast he was determined to make a sale he needed the commission.
Corrected. The salesman was talking fast. He was determined to make a sale. He needed the commission. (This produced correct but choppy sentences. ) Corrected: The salesman was talking fast because he was determined to make a sale. He needed the commission. (This is better. It joined two independent but related thoughts With a conjunction and let the final sentence stand alone. ) Many children in Southern California have never seen snow they seldom get up to the mountains when on the rare occasion that it does snow, they rush outside and try to catch the snow on their tongues they are disappointed that the snow lets so fast.
Corrected: Many children in Southern California have never seen snow. They seldom get up to the mountains. When on the rare occasion that it does snow, they rush outside and try to catch the snow on their tongues. They are disappointed that the snow melts so fast. Corrected: Many children in Southern California have never seen snow, and they seldom get up to the mountains. When on the rare occasion that it does snow, they rush outside and try to catch the snow on their tongues, but they are disappointed that the snow melts so fast. This is better because it uses commas, conjunctions, and ending incaution to create more complex sentences that increase clarity. ) Independent clauses have a subject and a verb and can stand alone as complete sentences. When two independent, but related clauses, are joined by commas and conjunctions, they produce a compound sentence with two related thoughts Dependent or subordinate clauses may hue a subject and a verb, but they cannot stand alone. They are considered fragments. (Yes, a fragment can have both a subject and a verb and still be a fragment. ) Here are some subordinating conjunctions that may introduce a dependent clause. After before Hough when Who therefore although if unless where Whom so as since until which whose however because that what while consequently nevertheless Notice the following clauses. Even though they have subjects and verbs, they are fragments and cannot stand alone. They make you want to ask the question: so? Although we got to the theater early since he helped us unless he finished his work on time 6 Here are some possible ways of connecting each fragment to an independent clause to produce clarity. The independent clause is underlined with a wavy line and the dependent clause is underlined with a dash.
Note: sometimes you need to add commas,) Although we got to the theater early, the tickets were sold out. Since he helped us, we gave him a pumpkin pie. The worker could not go home unless he finished his work on time, Exercise B Rewrite this paragraph using conjunctions, subordinating words, and punctuation to correct the run-ions and fragments and increase the clarity. Answers are on page 13. When you go to San Francisco. Notice the way the city is built on hills the streets are often steep and crooked cars have to travel slowly around pedestrians and cable cars. The view is spectacular.
Unless its rainy or foggy. Tourists like to shop. In the many stores. And sightseeing brings in much money to the city economy. Writing With Rhythm Part of the impression you give the reader is created by the rhythm of your writing, The number of words in a sentence signals something: short, abrupt sentences signal urgency or seriousness, while long, leisurely sentences give a conversational quality. Long sentences convey complicated thoughts that can not be summed up in short sentences. Long sentences impart a sophistication to the reader, Knowing when to use, alternately, short, medium, or long sentences s a powerful tool.
To know which sentence to use, you must know about simple, compound, and complex sentences. Simple sentences contain between one and ten or so words. This includes the subject (ahoy” understood in commands), verb, and adjectives and adverbs (modifiers) that may take the form of phrases, They consist of one independent clause that can stand alone. In these sentences, the subject is underlined once and the verb twice. Stand up! (command with understood “you”) Charlie, the calico cat, walked slowly into the crowded room. Bob and Carol traveled to Europe last summer.
Compound sentences are two or more independent sentences or complete thoughts separated by a comma with a coordinating conjunction (a connecting word. ) You can take two or more short, choppy sentences, combine them With one of the following coordinating conjunctions, and create a clear sentence that adds interest and clarity to your writing. The easy way to remember the connecting words is through BOYS FAN: but, or, yet, so, for, and, nor. The subject in each clause is underlined once and the verb in each clause in underlined twice. Stand up and bring me your paper! Two commands with understood “you”) Charlie, the calico cat, walked slowly into the room, but he did not stop to meow at the company. Bob and Carol traveled to Europe last summer, yet they did not get to France, nor did they visit Ireland. Complex sentences are made up of at least one independent clause and one dependent or subordinate clause oeuvre the dependent clause volute’s make sense standing on its own. It depends on the main or independent clause for clarity and meaning. Complex sentences indicate a relationship between the joined clauses and thoughts. Sometimes that relationship is cause and effect.
Independent and subordinate clauses are joined by one of the subordinating conjunctions on page 5 to form a complex sentence: Join the clause from the first column with the clause from the second column adding a subordinating conjunction from page 5 to make a complex sentence. Possible answers are on page 13. He worked hard at his job he worked hard at his job he never worked hard at his he was promoted he was not promoted he was not promoted Conclusion Remember that the purpose of writing is to communicate our ideas to others, The best way to do that is to use a variety tot sentence types, simple, compound, ND complex.
Whether it is a letter to Mom or a GEED Essay, the foundation of clear writing begins with a well-constructed sentence. GEED EXERCISE 1 On the editing part of the Writing Test, you will be expected to spot and correct fragments and run-ions. You’ll also need to know construction and punctuation for the three kinds Of sentences so you can use a variety Of sentences on the essay part of the test. Look at this letter of complaint, and choose the best way to correct the sentences if necessary. Answers are on page 14. January 14, 2004 Donald Simpson, General Manager Golden Horse Restaurant 19001 Highway 99
Sacramento, CA 95854 Dear Mr.. Simpson: (1) Your restaurant it’s one of the best steak places around. (2) Go there all the time. (3) Man, it has great fries! (4) Was there the other night though. (5) don’t like to complain. (6) had a bad waiter the food was cold the steak was too well-done. (7) It was a bad scene all the way around, (B) While usually like going there. (9) I’m not sure I’ll be back. (10) You guys need to get your act together. (11) See way, Brandon Jones Sentence (1): Your restaurant its one of the best steak places around. ) sentence is correct as it stands 2) contains slang 3) run-on sentence: put a period after stature and capitalize it’s. 4) poor construction: change its to is 5) sentence fragment Sentence (2): Go there all the time. I) 2) 3) 4) 5) fragment: add verb contains jargon fragment: add subject sentence is correct as it stands contains slang 3. Sentence (3): Man, it has great fries! 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) contains jargon run-on sentence sentence is correct as it stands fragment: add a subject fragment: add a verb 8. Sentence (8): While I usually like going there. ) dependent clause: putt comma after there and combine with sentence 9 2) sentence is correct as it stands 3) contains slang 4) informal writing S) contains jargon . Sentence (10): You guys need to get your act together. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) combine with sentence 9 contains slang fragment: add verb fragment: add subject put after sentence 1 4. Sentence (4): Was there the Other night though. I) 2) 3) 4) S) sentence is correct as it stands fragment: add verb informal writing contains slang 5. Sentence I don’t like to complain. 10, Sentence (1 1): Seesaw! ) 2) 3) 4) 5) fragment: add verb sentence is correct as it stands remove apostrophe in don’t contains jargon combine it with sentence 6, add a comma and but to make a compound sentence 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) run)n sentence contains jargon UT after sentence 9 6. Sentence (6): had a bad vitiate the food was cold the steak was too well done. I) 2) 3) 4) run-on sentence: put period after “cold fragment: add verb informal writing run-on sentence: change to: I had a bad waiter. The food avgas cold and the steak too well done. S) contains slang 7 _ Sentence It visas a bad scene all the way around.
I) 2) 3) 4) 5) run-on sentence: put period after scene fragment: add subject contains slang sentence is correct as it stands combine with sentence g With comma before while GEED EXERCISE 2 Read the following letter and answer the questions. Answers are on page 14. Dear Parents: A 1) As you have probably heard on television or seen in the newspaper, childhood obesity is becoming a major problem in this country, 2) For children who are growing every day, it is wise to consider all aspects of a diet before putting them on severe restrictions. ) It seems everyone is on a diet and they are putting their children on diets as well. B 4) One area tot concern is snacking, S) Everyone believe that snacking is bad, but we believe like the Mayo Clinic that there are benefits to snacking. 6) Young children have tiny stomachs, and snacks, or mini-mean, several times a day will more readily satisfy their mall appetites. 7) Snacks can provide extra nutrition and energy they can keep a child from overeating later at mealtime, C 8) There are several kinds of snacks that can contribute to your childish health. ) Foods that contain protein, complex carbohydrates, fiber, and some vitamins and minerals are the best for everyone, especially children. 10) These include whole grain crackers, pretzels, and breads, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and low-fat dairy products. D II) We here at Loving Child Preschool is helping to keep your child healthy by providing daily snacks that contribute to their growth and well-being. 2) Hope you’re doing the same at home. 1.
Sentence 2: For children who are growing every day, it is wise to consider all aspects Of a diet before putting them on severe restrictions. I) 2) 3) 4) 5) change who to whom change them to him move Sentence 2 after Sentence 3 capitalize children sentence is correct as it stands 2. Sentence 3: It seems everyone is on a diet and they are putting their children on diets as well, 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) change is to are run-on sentence change It to That put a comma before and sentence is correct as it stands 3.
Sentence 4: One area of concern is snacking. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) sentence is correct s it stands fragment: combine with Sentence S capitalize concern put comma after concern move Sentence 4 after Sentence 7 4) change childish to child’s 5) change your to you’re 7. Sentence 10: These include whole grain crackers, pretzels, and breads, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and low-fat dairy products, I) 2) 3) 4) S) sentence is correct as it stands remove comma after crackers capitalize dairy put Sentence 10 before Sentence g run-on sentence 4.
Sentence 5: Everyone believe that snacking is bad, but we believe like the Mayo Clinic that there are benefits to snacking. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) remove comma after bad move capital from Clinic change believe to believe put comma after believe 8. Sentence I l: We here at Loving Child Preschool is helping to keep your child healthy by providing daily snacks that contribute to their growth and well-being. L) 2) 3) 4) S) run-on sentence put comma after healthy remove capital on Preschool change is to are change that to than 5.