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    MUSIC Test 2

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    Because minimal Greek music notation exists today
    Why don’t we know exactly what Greek music sounded like?
    A Greek drinking song, the music notation was carved on a tombstone
    “Epitaph of Seikilos” is an example of what?
    Monophonic
    Improvising
    Involved voices and/or instruments
    Explain greek music and what the fundamentals of it included.
    Lyre
    Aulos-player held both pipes in mouth in a V shape
    What are two examples of Greek Musical Instruments?
    Melody, Harmony, Rhythm
    Orchestra, Organ
    Symphony, Chorus
    What are some examples of modern words that are Greek origin and meaning
    Dramas were sung
    Poetry was sung
    Dance included music
    What was the purpose for music for Greeks? and where was it used
    Overwhelming, even magical, powers of music
    Ex. Orpheus, who played a lyre, could move even the rocks
    What do many Greek tales describe? Give an example of a story/myth
    He used his music to enter Hades to bring his wife Euridice back from the dead
    What did Orpheus use his music to do?
    -Nature of music
    -Music’s place in the universe
    -Music’s effect on human behavior
    -Music’s proper use in society
    The ancient Greeks had many theories about what?
    Ethos
    Listening to particular kinds of music affected not only one’s mood but one’s very self
    Healing the sick and accomplishing other miraculous feats
    What was music capable of doing?
    To relieve certain kinds of physical and emotional distress
    What did music therapists use music to do?
    Pythagoras
    Who explored acoustics?
    Acoustics
    The science of sound, including tuning of musical instruments and measuring intervals based on their relative consonance and dissonance
    An octave
    A fifth
    A fourth
    What music theory elements did Pythagoras demonstrate and create?
    An octave
    Created by shortening the string to half of its original length
    A fifth
    Created by shortening a string to 2/3 of its original length
    A fourth
    Created by shortening a string to 3/4 of its original length
    Modes
    Pythagorean intervals, the Greeks developed a system of seven-note scales called what?
    Apollo- calm, orderly, balanced, restrained
    Classical music associated with which God? What describes this music?
    Dionysus- racous, suitable for drama, revelry and competitive games
    Romantic music associated with which God? What describes this music?
    Classical Style
    More restrained with an emphasis on balance and formal design
    Romantic Style
    More concerned with emotional expression than with balance and formal design
    The Romans
    Who assimilated many Greek practices and theories
    Europe was left in a state of turmoil for centuries. The arts did not flourish
    When Rome fell in the 5th century, what happened to Europe and the arts?
    Medieval (Middle Ages)
    500-1450
    Renaissance
    1450-1600
    Baroque
    1600-1750
    Classical
    1750-1820
    Romantic
    1820-1910
    20th Century
    1910- Present Day
    Western Europe entered a chaotic period of social and political unrest
    What happened to Europe with the fall of Rome?
    A blissful eternal life
    What did people of the Middle Ages look forward to and believe in?
    To express religious devotion
    What was the purpose of Medieval art and music?
    The Christian Church
    After the fall of Rome in the 5th Century, who became the only effective unifying force in the Western world?
    One Christian deity
    The early Christian church attempted to focus people’s minds solely on what?
    Vocal music with a religious text
    In Medieval Christian Music, what was considered worthwhile?
    Daily Prayer hours
    Singing of Psalms
    Chanting part of the church service
    The early Christians adopted ancient Jewish rites, and rites of ancient Greeks and Eastern cultures how?
    7-note modal scales
    Medieval church melodies were based on what type of scale?
    Gregorian Chant
    The practice of singing religious text to simple melodies
    A Cappella
    Voices only, no instruments
    Monophonic
    One melody sung in unison, NO harmony
    Free and flexible reflecting the natural spoken voice
    What is the rhythm of a chant?
    A Cappella
    Monophonic
    Free and Flexible Rhythm
    The musical descriptions of a chant include:
    Syllabic
    One note of music per syllable
    Melismatic
    Many notes per syllable
    Pope Gregory
    Organized the body of chants for a more convenient systematic use by Christian churches, but did not actually compose chant melodies.
    Neumes
    Squiggly lines that reminded monks of the melodic contour of a chant
    Four-lined staff
    Indicated pitch more precisely within a chant
    Hildegard of Bingen
    Woman who lived in a convent, developed a reputation as a composer of sacred song and chant
    Original
    Wide range of pitch
    Wide leaps
    Highly melismatic
    Sounded improvised, but were notated
    Hildegard’s Melodies unlike regular chant were:
    Drone
    Sustained tone sung in this case by other sisters
    Simple drone accompaniment
    What did Hildegard’s melodies have?
    Add a line of melody parallel to the original chant
    During the 9th century, Christian monks began to do what?
    Polyphony
    Independent melodies performed together
    Messe De Notre Dame
    Guillaume de Machaut was a French-born composer wrote a great quantity of music including what piece of work?
    Rebirth
    The word Renaissance means _____
    Ancient Greece and Rome
    What two countries is the renaissance based on?
    Yes, although secular music was composed and performed
    Was Renaissance music sacred?
    Sung a Cappella
    Polyphonic
    Renaissance sacred music was:
    The Golden Age of Polyphony
    The Renaissance was known as what?
    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    Outstanding composer of the late Renaissance that wrote mostly sacred polyphonic vocal compositions for the catholic church
    Have mercy upon us
    What does Miserere nobis mean
    Lute
    This renaissance string instrument was plucked
    Viols
    This renaissance instrument was a bowed string instrument with frets
    Recorders
    Trumpets
    Trombones
    What are the three winds of the Renaissance period
    Clavichord
    This renaissance keyboard had strings struck with a piece of metal
    Odd, irregular, rough, or uneven
    What does the word “baroque” mean
    Rich and inspired
    What do listeners today think of Baroque music
    The buildings just and protrude, projecting a sense of dramatic instability
    What was the architecture of the baroque period like?
    Blinding light, religious fervor, dramatic action- David by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
    What were some characteristics of baroque paintings. give an example
    Sacred and secular music in equal quantity and quality. Instrumental vocal music in equal quantity and quality.
    How did baroque composers write their music?
    Contrasts
    Baroque music is dramatic and full of what?
    Movements
    What is within a work that contrasted each other in mood, tempo, key, melodic material, texture and more.
    Polyphonic Style & Homophonic
    Many composers of the Baroque period wrote in what two textures/styles?
    Homophonic
    One melody with chords
    The Greeks
    The musical drama was invented by who?
    Opera
    What is one of the most important developments of the Baroque period that was the first skillful blending of all of the arts?
    Monteverdi
    L’Orfeo
    Who was the first composer of early opera? and what is he famous for?
    Recitative & Aria
    What are two styles of singing in opera?
    Recitative
    Suitable for a rapid exchange of dialogue, the melody reflects a natural inflection of spoken text. Free and flexible rhythm, homophonic so that the audience can hear the words
    Aria
    Character reflects on events that have occurred in the drama, the melody is designed to express emotion and display the singing voice. The rhythm is metered, and the form follows a formal design (ABA).
    Oratorio
    Like opera, it is a dramatic work that involves singers with an orchestra that perform as equal members with the orchestra on stage
    Solo singers who sings a recitative or aria.
    A chorus is used extensively
    Oratorio features who?
    Messiah
    Handel wrote the famous oratorio which contemplates the life of Christ. It has more than 30 movements, and takes more than 2.5 hours to perform.
    Hallelujah Chorus
    what is Handel’s most famous movement from Messiah
    Violin, viola, cello, bass
    In the Baroque Orchestra, the strings included what
    Oboe, bassoon, flute (or recorder)
    In the Baroque Orchestra, the woodwinds included what
    Trumpet, French Horn at times
    In the Baroque Orchestra, the brass included what
    wood
    What were the baroque flutes made of
    Earthy sound
    Baroque stringed instruments used gut strings to make what kind of sound
    Harpsichord
    This Baroque instrument each key connected to a plectrum that plucks the strings inside the instrument. A regular member of the Baroque orchestra
    not tuneful or easy to sing or remember. The phrase lengths were long and uneven
    What was the melody of the baroque period
    Fast and complex
    What were the harmonic changes of the baroque period
    Steady and driving. Often doesn’t speed up and slow down except at the end of pieces
    What was the tempo of the baroque period
    Terraced- sudden contrasts in loud or soft levels of loudness
    What were the dynamics of the baroque period
    Polyphonic
    What is the texture of the instrumental music of the baroque period?
    Homophonic
    What is the texture of the vocal music of the baroque period?
    Monteverdi
    Vivaldi
    Bach
    Handel
    Who were some of the major baroque composers?
    J.S. Bach
    This composer’s music often features complex polyphony (many melodies at the same time)
    Fugue
    A polyphonic composition with 2-6 melodic lines or voices
    Vivaldi
    This composer is most known for composing more than 500 concertos, especially for violin.
    The Four Seasons
    What is Vivaldi’s most famous violin concerto
    Concerto
    A work for orchestra + one or more solo instrumentalists
    Solo concerto
    1 solo instrument + orchestra
    Concerto grosso
    Small group of solo instruments + orchestra
    3 movements
    Each of Vivaldi’s concertos had how many movements?
    Trumpet, Recorder, oboe, violin
    In Bach’s Brandenburn Concerto no. 2, what does the concerto grosso consist of?
    Haydn
    Mozart
    Beethoven
    Who were some of the classical composers
    Franz Joseph Haydn
    Wrote pleasant, good natured music throughout his life in the classical period
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Invested a degree of emotional expression, but it never dominated his art in the classical period
    Beethoven
    Early compositions are considered classic but his middle and later compositions are considered romantic because of his emphasis on emotional expression.
    Emotional Restraint
    What did classic composers value?
    Classical
    Which was simpler, classical or baroque music
    Tuneful, easy to remember, sing and recognize-
    Explain the melodies of classical music
    They consist of short question and answer phrases and their distinct rhythm
    Why are classic melodies tuneful?
    The Fortepiano
    What instrument replaced the harpsichord as the main keyboard instrument
    1st. Sonata (fast)
    2nd. Theme & Variations (Slow)
    3rd. Minute & Trio (meter of 3)
    4th. Rondo or sonata form (fast)
    Each movement has its own form consisting of the following 4 things
    Exposition
    Development
    Recapitulation
    A sonata consists of what:
    Exposition
    Main melodies get introduced
    Development
    Melodies from Exposition get developed and performed in many key areas. Drama increases
    Recapitulation
    Original melodies get restated. A coda ending often happens
    Rondo Form
    ABACADA alteration between
    -Sections of music that return (A)
    -Contrasting sections of music (B,C,D)
    Haydn
    The grandfather of Classical music, had a long successful career working for Prince in Austria.
    Mozart
    Child prodigy on piano, violin and as a composer
    Beethoven
    Studied with Haydn, did both classical and romantic works

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