Because minimal Greek music notation exists today
Why don’t we know exactly what Greek music sounded like?
A Greek drinking song, the music notation was carved on a tombstone
“Epitaph of Seikilos” is an example of what?
Involved voices and/or instruments
Explain greek music and what the fundamentals of it included.
Aulos-player held both pipes in mouth in a V shape
What are two examples of Greek Musical Instruments?
Melody, Harmony, Rhythm
What are some examples of modern words that are Greek origin and meaning
Dramas were sung
Poetry was sung
Dance included music
What was the purpose for music for Greeks? and where was it used
Overwhelming, even magical, powers of music
Ex. Orpheus, who played a lyre, could move even the rocks
What do many Greek tales describe? Give an example of a story/myth
He used his music to enter Hades to bring his wife Euridice back from the dead
What did Orpheus use his music to do?
-Nature of music
-Music’s place in the universe
-Music’s effect on human behavior
-Music’s proper use in society
The ancient Greeks had many theories about what?
Listening to particular kinds of music affected not only one’s mood but one’s very self
Healing the sick and accomplishing other miraculous feats
What was music capable of doing?
To relieve certain kinds of physical and emotional distress
What did music therapists use music to do?
Who explored acoustics?
The science of sound, including tuning of musical instruments and measuring intervals based on their relative consonance and dissonance
What music theory elements did Pythagoras demonstrate and create?
Created by shortening the string to half of its original length
Created by shortening a string to 2/3 of its original length
Created by shortening a string to 3/4 of its original length
Pythagorean intervals, the Greeks developed a system of seven-note scales called what?
Apollo- calm, orderly, balanced, restrained
Classical music associated with which God? What describes this music?
Dionysus- racous, suitable for drama, revelry and competitive games
Romantic music associated with which God? What describes this music?
More restrained with an emphasis on balance and formal design
More concerned with emotional expression than with balance and formal design
Who assimilated many Greek practices and theories
Europe was left in a state of turmoil for centuries. The arts did not flourish
When Rome fell in the 5th century, what happened to Europe and the arts?
Medieval (Middle Ages)
1910- Present Day
Western Europe entered a chaotic period of social and political unrest
What happened to Europe with the fall of Rome?
A blissful eternal life
What did people of the Middle Ages look forward to and believe in?
To express religious devotion
What was the purpose of Medieval art and music?
The Christian Church
After the fall of Rome in the 5th Century, who became the only effective unifying force in the Western world?
One Christian deity
The early Christian church attempted to focus people’s minds solely on what?
Vocal music with a religious text
In Medieval Christian Music, what was considered worthwhile?
Daily Prayer hours
Singing of Psalms
Chanting part of the church service
The early Christians adopted ancient Jewish rites, and rites of ancient Greeks and Eastern cultures how?
7-note modal scales
Medieval church melodies were based on what type of scale?
The practice of singing religious text to simple melodies
Voices only, no instruments
One melody sung in unison, NO harmony
Free and flexible reflecting the natural spoken voice
What is the rhythm of a chant?
Free and Flexible Rhythm
The musical descriptions of a chant include:
One note of music per syllable
Many notes per syllable
Organized the body of chants for a more convenient systematic use by Christian churches, but did not actually compose chant melodies.
Squiggly lines that reminded monks of the melodic contour of a chant
Indicated pitch more precisely within a chant
Hildegard of Bingen
Woman who lived in a convent, developed a reputation as a composer of sacred song and chant
Wide range of pitch
Sounded improvised, but were notated
Hildegard’s Melodies unlike regular chant were:
Sustained tone sung in this case by other sisters
Simple drone accompaniment
What did Hildegard’s melodies have?
Add a line of melody parallel to the original chant
During the 9th century, Christian monks began to do what?
Independent melodies performed together
Messe De Notre Dame
Guillaume de Machaut was a French-born composer wrote a great quantity of music including what piece of work?
The word Renaissance means _____
Ancient Greece and Rome
What two countries is the renaissance based on?
Yes, although secular music was composed and performed
Was Renaissance music sacred?
Sung a Cappella
Renaissance sacred music was:
The Golden Age of Polyphony
The Renaissance was known as what?
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Outstanding composer of the late Renaissance that wrote mostly sacred polyphonic vocal compositions for the catholic church
Have mercy upon us
What does Miserere nobis mean
This renaissance string instrument was plucked
This renaissance instrument was a bowed string instrument with frets
What are the three winds of the Renaissance period
This renaissance keyboard had strings struck with a piece of metal
Odd, irregular, rough, or uneven
What does the word “baroque” mean
Rich and inspired
What do listeners today think of Baroque music
The buildings just and protrude, projecting a sense of dramatic instability
What was the architecture of the baroque period like?
Blinding light, religious fervor, dramatic action- David by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
What were some characteristics of baroque paintings. give an example
Sacred and secular music in equal quantity and quality. Instrumental vocal music in equal quantity and quality.
How did baroque composers write their music?
Baroque music is dramatic and full of what?
What is within a work that contrasted each other in mood, tempo, key, melodic material, texture and more.
Polyphonic Style & Homophonic
Many composers of the Baroque period wrote in what two textures/styles?
One melody with chords
The musical drama was invented by who?
What is one of the most important developments of the Baroque period that was the first skillful blending of all of the arts?
Who was the first composer of early opera? and what is he famous for?
Recitative & Aria
What are two styles of singing in opera?
Suitable for a rapid exchange of dialogue, the melody reflects a natural inflection of spoken text. Free and flexible rhythm, homophonic so that the audience can hear the words
Character reflects on events that have occurred in the drama, the melody is designed to express emotion and display the singing voice. The rhythm is metered, and the form follows a formal design (ABA).
Like opera, it is a dramatic work that involves singers with an orchestra that perform as equal members with the orchestra on stage
Solo singers who sings a recitative or aria.
A chorus is used extensively
Oratorio features who?
Handel wrote the famous oratorio which contemplates the life of Christ. It has more than 30 movements, and takes more than 2.5 hours to perform.
what is Handel’s most famous movement from Messiah
Violin, viola, cello, bass
In the Baroque Orchestra, the strings included what
Oboe, bassoon, flute (or recorder)
In the Baroque Orchestra, the woodwinds included what
Trumpet, French Horn at times
In the Baroque Orchestra, the brass included what
What were the baroque flutes made of
Baroque stringed instruments used gut strings to make what kind of sound
This Baroque instrument each key connected to a plectrum that plucks the strings inside the instrument. A regular member of the Baroque orchestra
not tuneful or easy to sing or remember. The phrase lengths were long and uneven
What was the melody of the baroque period
Fast and complex
What were the harmonic changes of the baroque period
Steady and driving. Often doesn’t speed up and slow down except at the end of pieces
What was the tempo of the baroque period
Terraced- sudden contrasts in loud or soft levels of loudness
What were the dynamics of the baroque period
What is the texture of the instrumental music of the baroque period?
What is the texture of the vocal music of the baroque period?
Who were some of the major baroque composers?
This composer’s music often features complex polyphony (many melodies at the same time)
A polyphonic composition with 2-6 melodic lines or voices
This composer is most known for composing more than 500 concertos, especially for violin.
The Four Seasons
What is Vivaldi’s most famous violin concerto
A work for orchestra + one or more solo instrumentalists
1 solo instrument + orchestra
Small group of solo instruments + orchestra
Each of Vivaldi’s concertos had how many movements?
Trumpet, Recorder, oboe, violin
In Bach’s Brandenburn Concerto no. 2, what does the concerto grosso consist of?
Who were some of the classical composers
Franz Joseph Haydn
Wrote pleasant, good natured music throughout his life in the classical period
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Invested a degree of emotional expression, but it never dominated his art in the classical period
Early compositions are considered classic but his middle and later compositions are considered romantic because of his emphasis on emotional expression.
What did classic composers value?
Which was simpler, classical or baroque music
Tuneful, easy to remember, sing and recognize-
Explain the melodies of classical music
They consist of short question and answer phrases and their distinct rhythm
Why are classic melodies tuneful?
What instrument replaced the harpsichord as the main keyboard instrument
1st. Sonata (fast)
2nd. Theme & Variations (Slow)
3rd. Minute & Trio (meter of 3)
4th. Rondo or sonata form (fast)
Each movement has its own form consisting of the following 4 things
A sonata consists of what:
Main melodies get introduced
Melodies from Exposition get developed and performed in many key areas. Drama increases
Original melodies get restated. A coda ending often happens
ABACADA alteration between
-Sections of music that return (A)
-Contrasting sections of music (B,C,D)
The grandfather of Classical music, had a long successful career working for Prince in Austria.
Child prodigy on piano, violin and as a composer
Studied with Haydn, did both classical and romantic works