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Music Appreciation – Terms from Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque Periods

more than one pitch played at the same time, what we typically call harmony
parallel organum
first type of polyphony, here the cantus firmus and the other higher harmony mirrored each other
Ars Antiqua
Middle Ages school of music from 1100-1300, literally means old art, stemmed directly from the Gregorian Chant
Music Appreciation – Terms from Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque Periods

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French musicians who traveled across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries. They sang mostly love songs. They accompanied their love songs with instruments, unlike the church. Most famous was Adam de la Halle (1237-1286).
First ever musical theater piece
Le Jeu de Robin et Marion
a piece of music where two or more different verses are fit together simultaneously, without regard to harmony
Medieval instruments
Harp, Krumhorn, Lute, Muted Cornett, Psaltery, Sacbut, Serpent, Shawm, Hurdy-Gurdy, Drum or Tambor, Recorder, and Viol
Ars Nova
Medieval school of music (1300-1450), creation of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, popularity of the motet, representative composers were de Mauchaut, Landini
Guillaume de Mauchaut 1300-1377
poet and a musician, created the first Ordinary for the Catholic Mass, created many musical forms of today (rondos and ballades), master of counterpoint
1450-1600 means “rebirth”, emergence of the idea of the universal (Renaissance) man, every educated person was expected to be interested/knowledgeable in everything, including music and the arts
Painters and Sculptors during Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian
Women in Renaissance
acceptance as virtuoso singers
Renaissance books
printed music became available and affordable
Characteristics of Renaissance Music
vocal music continues to be more important than instrumental, words and music have a close relationship, word painting, no extreme contrasts of dynamics, tone color, or rhythm
word painting
when music enhances the meaning and emotion of the text
Renaissance texture
mostly polyphonic but fuller than Medieval
Renaissance Choral Pieces
have four, five, or six independent parts sung as a capella
Renaissance imitation of voices
each has the same melodic line in turn as in a round
Homophonic texture
succession of chords, used in dance like music only during Renaissance
Renaissance Rhythm and Melody
Each melodic line has great rhythmic independence and moves more with a gentle flow than a sharply defined beat, melodies are easy to sing because the melody usually moves along a scale with a few large leaps
Sacred music
Renaissance Mass, Paletrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass
Renaissance Mass
five main sections, Kyrie eleison, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus
Monophonic chant opening
voices set in various registers (high vs. low voices), alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, full, consonant harmony
Paletrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass
was dedicated to his patron Pope Julius 3rd, it is sung in a cappella, only sung by a male choir, text was set syllabically
Secular Dance Music, Instrumental
Galliard, Pavane, Rone, Saltarello
song in triple meter
processional court dance was performed by pairs of dancers and arranged in formal patterns
round dance, performed in a circle
very fast moving dance in duple rhythm
Josquin des Prez
Flemish composer and Renaissance Motet, wrote Ave Maria, Virgo Serena, uses new polyphonic device
Renaissance Motet
words are proclaiming humanistic and emotional spirit of a new age, meter change from duple to triple and back
Italian – aristocratic form of poetry and music in Italy, very expressive word painting music, English – Queen Elizabeth was the subject of flattering original poems, English composers preferred simpler text, instruments duplicating or substituting for the voices
John Farmer
1591-1601, most popular composer of English madrigals
Pierre Passereau
in France
Madrigal instruments
lute, recorder, dulcian
a type of piece written for solo voice and basso continuo that imitated natural speech
Francesca Caccini
1587-1640, one of the early composers of monody
monody (this type of singing)
led to the formation of opera
the first great opera, written by Monteverdi in 1607, based on Greek myth, Orpheus and Eurydice
Orfeo elements
madrigal like-choruses, dances, instrumental interludes
lyrical songs became known as this
aria’s use
to explore the full emotional content of a situation
common form of arias
the ABA form with the B section providing the contrast
Ground Bass Form
single phrase in bass repeated while voice an extended melody above it
Henry Purcell
1659-1695, the most talented English composer of the late 17th century, music – many vocal and instrumental works, sacred and secular songs, cantatas and chamber music, harpsichord music
Dido and Aeneas
Henry Purcell is best known for this opera
sonata and concerto
favorite genres of violin music in the last part of the 17th century
a chamber piece for instruments with contrasting movements
solo sonata
1 violin and a basso continuo
trio sonata
2 violins, cello or bass and a basso continuo
sonata da camera (chamber)
sonata da Chiesa (church)
more serious
a much larger composition that involves solo players and an orchestra
means struggle or fight and to cooperate
concerto grosso
much like the concerto but a much larger work (ex. Four Seasons by Vivaldi)
concerto grosso solo
2 violins, basso continuo with orchestra
Archangelo Corelli
1653-1713, the first composer to bring Italian violin music internationally, his music included repeated notes, fast scales and double stops, concentrated on violin sonatas and concertos and was the first composer to write especially for the violin
Louis XIV
ruled during the 17th century in France, he was called the Sun King because of the symbolic brilliance of his cultured court, he had an orchestra of 24 violins, his court conductor was Lully, was an avid supporter of the arts, he loved to dance and promoted instrumental dance music, this let to ballet in operas
a collection of dances is called this
Vivaldi, Bach and Handel
three of the greatest composers during the late baroque era
Late Baroque
opera flourished during this period, OPERA SERIA was the favorite of the day, later the OPERA BUFFA was the favorite, arias were still being used and were still in ABA form, concertos for keyboard instruments were being written
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741, nicknamed the Red Priest because of his hair, his father was a violinist at St. Marks Cathedral in Venice
Antonio Vivaldi
wrote large amounts of music for Ospedale, a girls school in Venice
Antonio Vivaldi
wrote the Four Seasons 1725
program music
music designed to tell a story (Four Seasons)
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1720, is considered one of the most influential musicians of all time and one of the greatest composers in the history of music
Johann Sebastian Bach
spent his entire life in Germany, had 20 children, music was written to fulfill the requirements of his job, he never wrote an opera
Johann Sebastian Bach
at 23, he married and obtained a job at the court of the Duke of Weimar as organist and conductor, he asked to leave his position and was placed in prison for 4 weeks
Italian for something that returns, alternating solo and orchestra sections
Johann Sebastian Bach
well-known pieces include The Well-Tempered Clavier, St. Matthew’s Passion, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, Mass in B minor, Brandenburg Concertos
George Fredric Handel
1685-1759, known as the Baroque master of the Italian opera, he traveled extensively throughout Europe
George Fredric Handel
composed his first opera at 19, at 24 he was appointed as music director to the Elector of Hanover in Germany
George Fredric Handel
in London, he composed the Water Music Suite for King George I, some best known compositions are Julius Caesar, Saul, Water Music Suite, Music for Royal Fireworks, the Messiah
the Messiah
took Handel 24 days to compose, lasts 2.5 hours, written in 3 parts, Prophecy and Birth of Christ, the accomplishment of Redemption and Faith and Certainty of Eternal Life

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Music Appreciation - Terms from Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque Periods
Polyphony more than one pitch played at the same time, what we typically call harmony parallel organum first type of polyphony, here the cantus firmus and the other high
2021-02-24 03:20:06
Music Appreciation - Terms from Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque Periods
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