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    Music Appreciation – Terms from Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque Periods

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    more than one pitch played at the same time, what we typically call harmony
    parallel organum
    first type of polyphony, here the cantus firmus and the other higher harmony mirrored each other
    Ars Antiqua
    Middle Ages school of music from 1100-1300, literally means old art, stemmed directly from the Gregorian Chant
    French musicians who traveled across Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries. They sang mostly love songs. They accompanied their love songs with instruments, unlike the church. Most famous was Adam de la Halle (1237-1286).
    First ever musical theater piece
    Le Jeu de Robin et Marion
    a piece of music where two or more different verses are fit together simultaneously, without regard to harmony
    Medieval instruments
    Harp, Krumhorn, Lute, Muted Cornett, Psaltery, Sacbut, Serpent, Shawm, Hurdy-Gurdy, Drum or Tambor, Recorder, and Viol
    Ars Nova
    Medieval school of music (1300-1450), creation of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass, popularity of the motet, representative composers were de Mauchaut, Landini
    Guillaume de Mauchaut 1300-1377
    poet and a musician, created the first Ordinary for the Catholic Mass, created many musical forms of today (rondos and ballades), master of counterpoint
    1450-1600 means “rebirth”, emergence of the idea of the universal (Renaissance) man, every educated person was expected to be interested/knowledgeable in everything, including music and the arts
    Painters and Sculptors during Renaissance
    Leonardo da Vinci, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian
    Women in Renaissance
    acceptance as virtuoso singers
    Renaissance books
    printed music became available and affordable
    Characteristics of Renaissance Music
    vocal music continues to be more important than instrumental, words and music have a close relationship, word painting, no extreme contrasts of dynamics, tone color, or rhythm
    word painting
    when music enhances the meaning and emotion of the text
    Renaissance texture
    mostly polyphonic but fuller than Medieval
    Renaissance Choral Pieces
    have four, five, or six independent parts sung as a capella
    Renaissance imitation of voices
    each has the same melodic line in turn as in a round
    Homophonic texture
    succession of chords, used in dance like music only during Renaissance
    Renaissance Rhythm and Melody
    Each melodic line has great rhythmic independence and moves more with a gentle flow than a sharply defined beat, melodies are easy to sing because the melody usually moves along a scale with a few large leaps
    Sacred music
    Renaissance Mass, Paletrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass
    Renaissance Mass
    five main sections, Kyrie eleison, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus
    Monophonic chant opening
    voices set in various registers (high vs. low voices), alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, full, consonant harmony
    Paletrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass
    was dedicated to his patron Pope Julius 3rd, it is sung in a cappella, only sung by a male choir, text was set syllabically
    Secular Dance Music, Instrumental
    Galliard, Pavane, Rone, Saltarello
    song in triple meter
    processional court dance was performed by pairs of dancers and arranged in formal patterns
    round dance, performed in a circle
    very fast moving dance in duple rhythm
    Josquin des Prez
    Flemish composer and Renaissance Motet, wrote Ave Maria, Virgo Serena, uses new polyphonic device
    Renaissance Motet
    words are proclaiming humanistic and emotional spirit of a new age, meter change from duple to triple and back
    Italian – aristocratic form of poetry and music in Italy, very expressive word painting music, English – Queen Elizabeth was the subject of flattering original poems, English composers preferred simpler text, instruments duplicating or substituting for the voices
    John Farmer
    1591-1601, most popular composer of English madrigals
    Pierre Passereau
    in France
    Madrigal instruments
    lute, recorder, dulcian
    a type of piece written for solo voice and basso continuo that imitated natural speech
    Francesca Caccini
    1587-1640, one of the early composers of monody
    monody (this type of singing)
    led to the formation of opera
    the first great opera, written by Monteverdi in 1607, based on Greek myth, Orpheus and Eurydice
    Orfeo elements
    madrigal like-choruses, dances, instrumental interludes
    lyrical songs became known as this
    aria’s use
    to explore the full emotional content of a situation
    common form of arias
    the ABA form with the B section providing the contrast
    Ground Bass Form
    single phrase in bass repeated while voice an extended melody above it
    Henry Purcell
    1659-1695, the most talented English composer of the late 17th century, music – many vocal and instrumental works, sacred and secular songs, cantatas and chamber music, harpsichord music
    Dido and Aeneas
    Henry Purcell is best known for this opera
    sonata and concerto
    favorite genres of violin music in the last part of the 17th century
    a chamber piece for instruments with contrasting movements
    solo sonata
    1 violin and a basso continuo
    trio sonata
    2 violins, cello or bass and a basso continuo
    sonata da camera (chamber)
    sonata da Chiesa (church)
    more serious
    a much larger composition that involves solo players and an orchestra
    means struggle or fight and to cooperate
    concerto grosso
    much like the concerto but a much larger work (ex. Four Seasons by Vivaldi)
    concerto grosso solo
    2 violins, basso continuo with orchestra
    Archangelo Corelli
    1653-1713, the first composer to bring Italian violin music internationally, his music included repeated notes, fast scales and double stops, concentrated on violin sonatas and concertos and was the first composer to write especially for the violin
    Louis XIV
    ruled during the 17th century in France, he was called the Sun King because of the symbolic brilliance of his cultured court, he had an orchestra of 24 violins, his court conductor was Lully, was an avid supporter of the arts, he loved to dance and promoted instrumental dance music, this let to ballet in operas
    a collection of dances is called this
    Vivaldi, Bach and Handel
    three of the greatest composers during the late baroque era
    Late Baroque
    opera flourished during this period, OPERA SERIA was the favorite of the day, later the OPERA BUFFA was the favorite, arias were still being used and were still in ABA form, concertos for keyboard instruments were being written
    Antonio Vivaldi
    1678-1741, nicknamed the Red Priest because of his hair, his father was a violinist at St. Marks Cathedral in Venice
    Antonio Vivaldi
    wrote large amounts of music for Ospedale, a girls school in Venice
    Antonio Vivaldi
    wrote the Four Seasons 1725
    program music
    music designed to tell a story (Four Seasons)
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    1685-1720, is considered one of the most influential musicians of all time and one of the greatest composers in the history of music
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    spent his entire life in Germany, had 20 children, music was written to fulfill the requirements of his job, he never wrote an opera
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    at 23, he married and obtained a job at the court of the Duke of Weimar as organist and conductor, he asked to leave his position and was placed in prison for 4 weeks
    Italian for something that returns, alternating solo and orchestra sections
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    well-known pieces include The Well-Tempered Clavier, St. Matthew’s Passion, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, Mass in B minor, Brandenburg Concertos
    George Fredric Handel
    1685-1759, known as the Baroque master of the Italian opera, he traveled extensively throughout Europe
    George Fredric Handel
    composed his first opera at 19, at 24 he was appointed as music director to the Elector of Hanover in Germany
    George Fredric Handel
    in London, he composed the Water Music Suite for King George I, some best known compositions are Julius Caesar, Saul, Water Music Suite, Music for Royal Fireworks, the Messiah
    the Messiah
    took Handel 24 days to compose, lasts 2.5 hours, written in 3 parts, Prophecy and Birth of Christ, the accomplishment of Redemption and Faith and Certainty of Eternal Life

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