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    Architecture and Urbanism in Renaissance Italy

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    Duomo/ Florence Cathedral (1420-1436)
    Duomo/ Florence Cathedral (1420-1436)
    – Brunelleschi
    -solved chief problem by adding double shell
    -simplified overdone means of support by reducing weight of masonry
    -herringbone brickwork pattern takes weight off
    -substituted horizontal cable chains with stone ribs
    -designed all scaffholding
    -invented special hoisting apparatus for transporting business material
    -first work of new style
    -blend of liberal arts and applied sciences
    -proportions and visual harmony
    -medieval and classical
    -perspective construction
    Ospedale degli Innocenzi/ Foundling Hospital (1419)
    Ospedale degli Innocenzi/ Foundling Hospital (1419)
    -Florence, SS.Annunziata
    – Brunelleschi
    -1st public building done by Brunelleschi
    – aisleless church= transitional style with corbels of open timber roofs
    -unfluted column shafts, corinthianesque capitals
    -roundels in spandrells
    -shallow domes in bays of loggia
    -groin vaulting
    -flat ceilings in interiors
    -regularity of plan, artistic structure
    -romanesque arch in tuscany
    – module- centralized and symmetrical
    -placing of this building determined layout for the rest of Piazza
    San Lorenzo (1421)
    San Lorenzo (1421)
    – Brunelleschi
    – Parish church of Medici Family
    -patron= Giovanni de Medici
    -centralized basilican plan, latin cross
    -lacks a facade, unfinished
    -plain cube with zone of change of pendentives forming transition into inscribed circle of dome- characteristic of brunelleschi
    -umbrella dome over cube of sacristy and crossing
    -famous imposts between capital and arches in nave
    -blend of romanesque with gothic spatiousness
    – Pilasters @ end of each colonnade to support floating entablature
    – Twin colonnades separating nave from side aisles & arched openings separating side aisles from chapels → variant of loggias facing another
    – Double-arch → arch above entablature echo bigger arches separating the nave from the side aisles
    Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo (1418-1428)
    Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo (1418-1428)
    -Dedicated to St. John the Evangelist
    -Giovanni de’ Medici buried in one of the chapels
    -Relief by Donatello in roundel of St. John = patron saint of the Medici
    – San Giovanni → he identifies himself w/ his name saint
    – Cosimo de’ Medici also buried @ underneath dome/crossing of the church
    – Growing family ambition → “founder” now tradition to bury @ crossing
    – Floor tomb → more extensive use of rare stones + coat-of-arms
    – In red/green inscription → “Pater Patriae” = “father of the fatherland”
    -Fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting entablature = width of chapel
    -Pilasters intersect at a right angle @ the corners
    – Walls rising up to arches → fusion between squares & circles
    -Arch of Constantine → potential influence arch & pier construction
    -String course replacing entablature
    – Masses of private intentions in family chapels → Medici tombs
    -Same module governing S. Lorenzo also present in Sacristy
    • St. Lawrence = patron saint of Cosimo de’ Medici
    • First time Brunelleschi treats wall surface like sculpture as a whole
    -Suggesting depth & malleable wall like Michelangelo
    Santo Spirto (1436)
    Santo Spirto (1436)
    – Brunelleschi developed even further idea of centralizing basilica
    -original plan rejected, erected new church so entrance front faces piazza
    -module= square of crossing
    -continuous aisles round transepts
    -semicircular chapel niches
    -perfectly symmetrical
    -arcade: clerestory ratio= 1:1
    -enhanced sculptural massiveness
    -sturdier columns
    – impost blocks
    -piers frame niches in exterior
    -more massive structure than S. Lorenzo, spatial effect arising from powerful sculptural quality of individual members
    -scenographic vista with no single observer, interplay of geometrically abstract and solidly concrete perceptions
    -picture + mass
    – discovers plasticity of walls
    Pazzi Chapel, S. Croce (1429)
    Pazzi Chapel, S. Croce (1429)
    – supreme example of Brunelleschi’s new style
    -patron= Andrea Pazzi (rival of Medici)
    – to serve as chapter house of monastery and assemblr room for family
    -site’s shape determined by existing parts
    -remains model of perfection and strict logic
    -scenographic effect on cloisters
    – most ornate decoration with color harmonies
    -prototype of form
    -Variant of Old Sacristy @ San Lorenzo by Brunelleschi → but dome looks higher & floating
    -High altar topped by dome; pietra serena; Della Robia roundels & frieze
    Oratory of S. Maria degli Angeli (1434-1437)
    Oratory of S. Maria degli Angeli (1434-1437)
    -completely centralized church
    -1st example of new style and capital importance
    -use of construction of piers from central space with radiating chapels
    -octaganol center
    -conceived in terms of mass: 3D substance of piers which shape all parts of space
    -influenced by ancient roman monuments
    -plasticity of wall
    – perfect synthesis between medieval and classical
    -set standard
    -inspired by the antique Temple of Minerva Medica in Rome
    -exterior was flat with recessed niches
    Palazzo Pitti (1458)
    Palazzo Pitti (1458)
    -Brunelleschi/ Fenelli
    -Patron= Luca Pitti, principal supporter and friend fo Cosimo de Medici
    -closely resembles Palazzo Medici but bigger
    -ashlar rustication, gives severe and powerful atmosphere
    -roman style architecture
    -exterior- prison like due to continuous additions later on each side
    -rigid, flat, static facade
    -design and fenestration suggest that fancelli was more – experienced in utilitarian domestic arch than Alberti’s humanist ideals
    -Palace bought by Medici family in 1549 → became chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
    S. Marco (1430s)
    S. Marco (1430s)
    – Michelozzo
    -Supreme simplicity
    -lucid and perfectly proportioned
    Library at S. Marco
    Library at S. Marco
    -1st library built in renaissance
    -plain ionic capitals
    -pedestals to columns in cloister
    Church at SS. Annunziata (1444)
    Church at SS. Annunziata (1444)
    – Michelozzo
    – patron=ludovigo gonzaga
    -halls with chapels with intersecting tranverse walls between nave pillars and outer walls of bays
    -rotunda= exact copy of temple of minerva medica in rome
    -added equally plan and monumental chancel
    -unfinished, later finished by alberti
    -underwent many renovations
    -vestibule= architectural ornament
    -• Portico inspired by Brunelleschi’s Ospedale degli Innocenti
    • Addition of the tribune w/ radiating chapels behind high altar
    o Circular choir = rotunda → Michelozzo in 1444
    o Rotunda later finished by Alberti from 1469-1470
    o Rotunda = exact copy of the temple of Minerva Medica in Rome
    o Dramatically remodeled by Alberti → even removed some of Michelozzo’s components of the rotunda
    o Alberti eliminated ambulatory = wide open space under dome
    • Rotunda is much higher than rest of church → almost separate from rest
    • Clerestory pierced by large windows spaced out evenly
    • Strong cylindrical structure
    Chapel of Crucifex, S. Miniato (1448-1450)
    Chapel of Crucifex, S. Miniato (1448-1450)
    • Tiny coffered barrel-vault archway in the chapel → single arcade?
    • Supporting Corinthian columns in front & Corinthian pilasters against the wall
    o Four variations of capitals
    • Insertion of entablature between columns and arch
    • Coffered vault → Masaccio’s Holy Trinity for stone masonry
    Magi Chapel, Palazzo Medici- Ricardi (1444)
    • Patron = Cosimo de’ Medici
    • @ Piano nobile → main residence never situated on ground floor
    • Permission to build private chapel w/ portable family altar (papal connection)
    o Dedicated to the Holy Trinity → church authority = prestige
    • Nearly square room & on a step higher also square altar separated by pair of Corinthian pilasters → elite manufacturing → colored/ancient stones $$$
    • Pictorial program → frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli in main room and fresco altarpiece by Filippo Lippi in altar w/ angels on side walls
    o Adoration of the Child, Filippo Lippi, 1460
    o Procession of the Youngest King (east), Benozzo Gozzoli, 1459-1460
    o Procession of the Middle King (south), Benozzo Gozzoli, 1459-1460
    o Procession of the Oldest King (west), Benozzo Gozzoli, 1459-1460
    • Altarpiece also of the Holy Trinity → God, Holy Spirit, and Christ united
    Magi Chapel, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Michelozzo, Florence, begun 1444
    • Patron = Cosimo de’ Medici
    • @ Piano nobile → main residence never situated on ground floor
    • Frescoes continuously processing on surrounding walls
    • Some figures modeled after real Medici family members (i.e. Cosimo)
    o Artist paints his self-portrait w/ Cosimo de’Medici
    • Some figures modeled after real Medici family members (i.e. Cosimo)
    • Medici identifying themselves w/ the story of the 3 Magii to prove wealth
    o Position of wealthy bankers problematic in terms of the Bible
    o Linking wealth & piety in ancient as well as contemporary terms
    o Defends exceeding wealth/lifestyle → finds solace in Magii story
    • Colored stones decorating floor most likely taken from ancient Roman temples that were in turn taken from ancient Egyptian buildings
    Palazzo Medici (1444)
    Palazzo Medici (1444)
    – Michelozzo
    – patron= Cosimo de Medici
    -Latin cross plan = traditional plan for medieval churches
    -Prime residence @ peak of Medici family → expressive of wealth & political authority but much of it today = additions later on
    -Masonry → visually asserts power & fortifies from foreign attack
    – Tripartite rustication → staggering treatment of each storey
    -Divided by horizontal stringcourses according to decreasing height
    -Interior → monastic cloisters that provided light into palace = courtyard
    -Where Donatello’s David once stood to be seen 360°
    -Decorated w/ coat-of-arms in roundels → depict mythological figures
    -Medici strongly interested in restoring antiquity
    -Cameos duplicated in marble (i.e. competition btw Minerva & Neptune)
    -Before it was filled in, there were corner loggias where visitor’s protocols were carried → private-public duality aspect
    -Michelangelo filled them in w/ pedimented aediculae in 1517
    -Massive cornice protruding out almost like a roof → distinctly Florentine
    -prototype of Tuscan- Renaissance Palazzo
    -clarity and order
    – fenestration determined by harmony of facade
    -bipartite windows
    -rusticated blocks= status symbol
    -Donatello’s David in courtyard
    S. Maria Novella (1458)
    S. Maria Novella (1458)
    -Proof of Alberti’s great artistic adaptability
    – He unified the façade by continuing Gothic design from the lower portion
    -Order of pilasters & engaged columns harmonize w/ rest of structure
    -patron= Guovanni Ruccelai
    – pilasters and engaged columns unified facade
    -cornice projections
    -round windows
    -volutes screening the lean-to roofs of the aisles inspired by Brunelleschi’s volutes on the lantern of the Duomo
    -double scrolls= renaissance/baroque facade
    -Florentine Arch
    Palazzo Ruccelai (1453)
    Palazzo Ruccelai (1453)
    – Alberti
    -prototype of pilaster facade
    -pilaster system + traditional rusticated front
    -gradation in rustication with storeys
    – similar to Colosseum with different storeys
    -frieze decorated w/ political devises
    o Personal symbols intertwined → ostrich plumes & bejeweled plates
    o Medici sails → represent Medici’s client to the public
    Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini (1450)
    Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini (1450)
    – patron= Sigismondo Malatesta
    -closest approximation to antique monuments
    -criticized for being too pagan
    -medieval aisleless church= secular power
    – fluted engaged columns and capitals
    – monumental impact due to apparatus and volumes
    -never finished
    -first composition of facade based on unity as use of great, simple forms
    -princely architecture
    -imposing, absolutist manner
    -collaboration of patron, advisor, and working architects
    Chapel of Holy Sepulchre in S. Pancrazio (1458)
    Chapel of Holy Sepulchre in S. Pancrazio (1458)
    – Alberti
    -many colored costly materials
    -imitation of Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
    -derived structural elements from baptistery in Florence
    – onion cupolette imitation
    -intricate stone work
    -barrel vault of chapel
    S. Sebastiano, Mantua (1460)
    S. Sebastiano, Mantua (1460)
    – Alberti
    -patron= Ludovico Gonzaga
    -oratory + votive church gave peculiar form
    – centrally planned
    -strangest Albertian work
    -never finished
    -narthex facade = peculiar in how high it goes
    -hard to imagine original state
    -Greek cross plan
    – rises on basement storey
    -pilasters support entablatures
    New Sacristy at S. Lorenzo (1526-1533)
    New Sacristy at S. Lorenzo (1526-1533)
    – Michelangelo
    -Andrea del Verrocchio → beautiful side tombs
    -Tomb of Cosimo de’ Medici’s sons → male members of the family = lineage
    -Giuliano di Lorenzo de’ Medici w/ Night & Day statues
    o Lorenzo di Piero de’ Medici w/ Dusk & Dawn statues
    -Tombs paid by Piero’s son and his paternal uncle
    -Shares balance w/ Brunelleschi’s Old Sacristy in cubical space format surmounted by a dome and of pietra serena & white stucco
    Laurentian Library, S. Lorenzo (1524)
    Laurentian Library, S. Lorenzo (1524)
    • Vestibule = explosion of originality fitting fanciful character of Mannerism
    o Staircase spills out into vestibule → sense of momentum
    o Appears like pouring forward = liquid → overwhelming the vestibule
    o First free-standing staircase in architectural history
    o Staircase itself in pietra serena = Brunelleschi; cool atmosphere
    • Vestibule intensified b/c of Mannerist walls that are covered w/ classical antiquity elements in completely unconventional ways
    o Brackets → also used in New Sacristy where they “support” heavier structure above; here they hang in purely decorative ways
    o Free-standing columns framed in niches as if they were sculptures
    o Michelangelo playing around & reinvented classical antiquity vocabulary
    o Michelangelo’s virtuosity & knowledge of classical antiquity
    • Warmer, more serious atmosphere → use of orderly classicism vocabulary
    Cappella dei Principi (
    Cappella dei Principi (“Chapel of the Princes”), S. Lorenzo, Florence, begun 1604
    • Patron = Grand Duke Ferdinando I de’ Medici
    • His ambitions = lavish design of monumental chapel-museum w/ secular appearance → commemorate all princes of Medici dynasty
    • Interior walls entirely encrusted in precious, colored marble
    • Family tombs
    The “Ideal City Panels” (1480-1484)
    – oil & tempera on panel
    • Exemplifies Renaissance ideals of urban planning → respect for Greco-Roman antiquity & mastery of central perspective
    • Features triumphal arch; structure that looks similar to the Florence Baptistery (15th cent. mistaken as reused Roman temple); an amphitheater modeled after Colosseum in Rome
    • Together reflect importance of security, religion, recreation in well-regulated city & value of Roman ideals in urban design
    • Commissioned for palace of Duke Federico da Montefeltro of Urbino
    • Problems of attribution & dating
    Palazzo Piccolomini, Tuscany (1459-1462)
    -Bernardo Rosselino
    • Patron = Pope Pius II elected 1458 (Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini)
    • Indisputable influence of Michelozzo’s Palazzo Medici & his artistic idiom
    • Plan determined in part by pre-existing streets → medieval town hall, and to either side of cathedral, bishop’s palace and his own Palazzo
    o Forming a trapezoidal piazza
    o Duomo’s triple-arched façade recalls ancient Roman triumphal arches
    o Bishop’s palace → Tuscan in appearance & Roman style windows
    • Pius’s architectural nucleus/renewal of the city
    • Pattern on pavement “suggests” orderly relationship between buildings
    • Question of authorship w/ Alberti similarly to Rucellai (only provided façade)
    • Courtyard very similar to that of Palazzo Medici + triple-storey loggia
    S. Maria della Carceri, Prato, Tuscany (1485)
    -Guilano da Sangallo
    -• Patron = Lorenzo de’ Medici
    • Miraculous vision 1484 → a child saw image of Madonna and Child painted on wall of public jail (carceri) of Prato animate itself → built basilica on that site
    • External cover left unfinished → flat, 2D, Brunelleschian decoration
    • Built on outskirts of town for pilgrims to pass by
    • Greek cross plan with a central dome → indebted to Alberti & Brunelleschi
    o Inspired by Brunelleschi or Michelozzo’s Pazzi Chapel
    o Interior → Corinthian pilasters meet where walls meet at right angles
    o Definition of beauty → Vitruvian man in architecture
    • Brunelleschian motif → pietra serena (Sangallo trained by Brunelleschi)
    o Bichrome like other Prato’s buildings → white & green marble
    • Sangallo used the same idea for his project of St. Peter’s Basilica (superseded by Michelangelo) → inspired the Elder for S. Biagio @ Montepulciano
    Palazzo Strozzi (1489-1490)
    -Giuliano da Sangallo w/ contributions by Benedotto da Maiano and Cronaca
    • Proving own ambition by so closely imitating Palazzo Medici but BIGGER
    • Sangallo/Maiano’s contribution unimaginable w/o Michelozzo’s artistic idiom
    • Same types of Florentine traditional motifs →
    o Tripartite division by horizontal stringcourses
    o Roman biforate windows
    o Enormous, projecting cornice almost roof-like
    o Open courtyard enclosed by four sides of colonnade w/o impost block
    • Keystone of each arch articulated w/ corbels
    o Convenient bench going around structure for the public to sit
    • Status of owner reflected in crowdedness around building
    • Advertising authority & popularity w/ intentional bench
    • Difference → more unified rustication façade than Palazzo Medici
    Palazzo Gondi, Florence (1490s)
    -• Architect names not as important contemporarily
    • Similar Florentine style = Palazzo Strozzi & Palazzo Medici
    • Channeling ashlar masonry from rough rustication on piano nobile
    o Used 3 colors of stone → forming of pattern and consistency
    o But 3rd floor = regular ashlar masonry w/o channeling
    • Appears subtle → smooth, unified surface
    • Keystone + voussoirs decorating windows & not pediments
    • Courtyard also similar to Strozzi & Medici → no impost blocks
    S. Egidio, Cellere, Lazio (1512-1520)
    -Antonio da Sangallo the younger
    • Patron = Cardinal Alessandro Farnese
    • Central plan church = Greek cross plan
    • Farnese family’s extensive power over this region → “owned” by Farnese
    o Church politics and family name patronage → coat-of-arms decorations
    o Farnese family almost replace Medici in importance of patronage
    • Altar arm = apsidal extension → elongated Greek cross plan
    • “Beveled crossing piers” → corners cut away producing polygonal space
    o Influenced by Bramante’s plan for St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
    o Cut away corners used for altars, niches w/ sculptures, etc.
    • Heavy use of rustic Doric order
    small, rustic country church
    S. Biagio, Montepulciano, Tuscany (1518)
    – Antonio da Sangallo the Elder
    -• Patron = Pope Leo X (Medici)
    • Greek cross plan w/ central dome & semi-circular apse; flanked by 2 belltowers
    o Belltowers = separate buildings but beautiful visual continuity = 4 stories
    o Influenced by Bramante’s plan for St. Peter’s Basilica
    • cf. S. Carceri → similar in design; clearly articulate ground plan
    o Dome clearly visible vs. entirely absent in Prato
    o Semi-circular extension of 1 arm → separate room housed in this space
    o Combinations of pilasters & engaged columns aligning w/ church stories
    o Heavy use of rustic Doric order; triglyphs & metopes on entablature
    o Denser walls → niches & roundels cut into belltowers
    o Moving away from Bru. → uniform use of local pinkish stone
    -• Miraculous fresco 1518 → 2 women and a shepherd passed in front of fresco of Madonna and Child in her lap w/ St. Francis & saw Virgin’s eyes move
    • Middle door flanked by 2 others leading into secret space behind altar
    • Niches on either side of altar filled w/ aediculae
    • Inside of drum → pattern of 3 niches in between each window
    o Depth of niches alternate between deep and shallow
    S. Andrea, Mantua (1470)
    S. Andrea, Mantua (1470)
    – Alberti
    -Patron = Ludovico Gonzaga
    -barrel vault nave
    -tunnel vault above semicircle
    -proportions calculated
    -lighting= sublime
    -monumental spaciousness
    -brilliant application of ancient Roman triumphal arch motif echoed in interior
    -Façade = of square proportions
    -Painted coffers on ceiling barrel vault but real coffers on side barrel vaults
    -Interior → rhythmic bays popularized in early 16th c. by Bramante

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