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    RCM History 2 Cram :D (2552 words)

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    Monothematic exposition
    in sonata form: theme 2 is transposed theme 1.
    Based on an earlier polyphonic chanson by Josquin des Prez
    Responsorial style
    Two-voice work with newly composed counterpoint against the original chant melody
    Example of music from the Notre Dame School (in the style of Léonin)
    Haec Dies (organum)
    Gradual from the mass for Easter Sunday
    Homophonic, single melody line
    Unmeasured rhythm
    Haec Dies (Mass for Easter Sunday)
    Concertino includes a violin, oboe, recorder and trumpet
    Ripieno is a string orchestra with continuo
    First movement uses a ritornello
    Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+
    Terzetto in sonata form, featuring musical characterization
    Overture in D+ uses modified sonata-allegro form without a development
    Characters include a teenage page boy and a gossipy music teacher
    Makes fun of aristocrats
    Da Ponte
    The Marriage of Figaro
    Twenty-two movements in three suites
    In the opening, trumpets play ascending triadic figures answered by descending scales
    Was first performed on a barge in 1717 (intended for outdoor performance, no harpsichord)
    Terraced dynamics
    Allegro in loose ternary, features brass instruments
    Hornpipe is in ternary form
    Water Music
    Five voices (a cappella), highly chromatic
    Meter shifts from duple to triple, then duple
    Descending chromatic line represents death and grief
    Exaggerated use of word painting is typical of the late Renaissance style
    Moro lasso al mio duolo
    Strophic Latin poem
    Contains continuous imitation, paired imitation and homorhythmic passages
    Opens with imitative entries of an upward perfect 4th, from highest to lowest voice
    Consonant harmony based on thirds and sixths
    For SATB (a cappella)
    15th century motet with a single text
    Characteristics of the ars nova
    Written by a Franco-Flemish composer
    Ave Maria
    Five movements
    Violin, viola, cello, bass and piano
    Fourth movement based on a Lied by same composer, a theme and variations
    Theme is played by the double bass in the third variation
    Modified strophic form, piano accompaniment describes splashing water
    Piano Quintet in A+ ‘The Trout’
    Arranged by Tielman Susato
    In the collection Danserye
    Source is a chanson by Josquin des Prez
    Duple meter
    E Phrygian
    Pavane ‘Mille Regretz’
    First movement is in sonata-allegro form with a double exposition (first presented by orchestra, then by soloist)
    Second theme is in the dominant
    Cadenza after recapitulation
    Piano Concerto in G+
    Three movements (sonata, ABACA coda, ABACABA coda)
    Slow intro with dotted rhythms reminiscient of French overture
    Piano Sonata op. 13 ‘Pathétique’
    Slow introduction
    Monothematic exposition in first movement, second theme is in the dominant
    Symphony no. 104 in D+
    Used a chorale by Martin Luther (movements 1258)
    Ritornello in the first movement
    Word painting
    Eight movements create a balanced, arch-like structure
    Cantata no.80
    Four voices
    Imitation overlaps and obscures the meter
    Extensive use of word painting
    Fair Phyllis
    Rhythmic ostinato (long-long-short-long) in tenor
    Uses a different text for each part (polytextuality)
    Triplum in the top voice, duplum in the middle, cantus firmus in the bottom (the ‘tenor’)
    Overlapping triplum and duplum that create the effect of a triple meter (they also share the same range)
    Upper voices are syllabic/neumatic, tenor is melismatic
    13th century motet
    O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
    Demonstrates stile concitato/opera seria/ground bass
    Coronation of Poppea
    L’Orfeo, L’Arianna
    Monteverdi’s operas
    Plot from an epic poem written by Roman poet Virgil
    Ground bass
    First true English opera
    Dynamic string writing of Italy and regal character of France
    Dido and Aeneas
    King Arthur, The Fairy Queen
    Purcell’s dramatic music
    Te Deum, Jubilate
    Purcell’s sacred vocal works
    Rose, liz, Douce dame jolie
    Guillaume de Machaut’s chansons
    Ave Maria, Absalon, fili mi
    (over 100)
    Josquin des Prez’s motets
    Missa l’homme armé, Missa La sol fa re mi
    Josquin des Prez’s masses
    El grillo, Mille regretz
    (over 60)
    Josquin des Prez’s chansons
    Rinaldo, Giulio Cesare, Serse, Orlando and Alcina
    Handel’s operas
    Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks
    Handel’s orchestral works
    Messiah, Creation, Judas Maccabeus, Israel in Egypt
    Handel’s oratorios
    Te Deum, Ode for Saint Cecilia’s Day
    Coffee, Peasant
    Bach’s secular cantatas
    Christmas, St. Matthew Passion, St. John Passion
    Bach’s oratorios
    Magnificat, Mass in B Minor
    Bach’s motets
    Surprise, Farewell, Clock, London
    Haydn’s symphonies
    Seasons, Seven Last Words of Christ
    Haydn’s oratorios
    Haydn’s operas
    Standard dances (All Cats Sing Gross)
    Allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue
    Optional dances (May Green Bunnies Attack)
    Menuet, gavotte, bourée and aria
    Two dances in the Renaissance paired for contrast
    Pavane and Galliard
    Idiomatic harpsichord writing, from the collection ‘Esercizi per graicembalo’
    Homophonic texture
    Rounded binary (no cadenza)
    Harpsichord Sonata in D+
    Stabat mater, Salva regina
    Scarlatti’s sacred works
    Tolomeo et Alessandro
    Scarlatti’s operas
    Orfeo ed Euridice, Alceste
    Gluck’s operas
    Don Giovanni (dramma giocosa/tragic comedy) Idomeneo (opera seria), The Magic Flute (Singspiel), the Absudcion from the Seraglio, Cosi fan tutte
    Mozart’s operas
    Haffner, Linz, Prague, Romantic, Jupiter
    Mozart’s symphonies
    Hunt, Dissonance
    Mozart’s chamber music
    Moonlight, Appassionata, Fur Elise
    Beethoven’s solo piano sonatas
    Eroica, Pastoral, Choral
    Beethoven’s symphonies
    Beethoven’s operas
    The Unfinished, The Great
    Schubert’s symphonies
    Erlkonig, An die Music, Die Forelle, Standchen, Heidenroslein
    Schubert’s lieder
    Schubert’s operas
    Performances of this monophonic dance may have included improvised accompaniment
    Earliest examples of Medieval dance
    Contained in Chansonnier du Roy
    Sectional structure, open and closed endings
    Dorian mode
    Dance for couples from the Middle Ages
    Stately, royal character
    Royal Estampie no. 4
    Completed in 1798, inspired from the Bible and Milton’s Paradise Lost
    STB soloists
    van Swieten
    The Creation
    Strophic setting of five stanzas
    Cheerful music does not reflect the text
    Monophonic vocal line (likely with improv accompaniment)
    Monophonic chanson
    Ce fut en mai
    Three-voiced work in rondeau form, uses a text written by composer
    Polyphonic chanson
    Employed musica ficta (performance practice, raised/lowered pitches by semitones to avoid undesirable intervals)
    Puis qu’en oubli
    Counterpoint/Contrapuntal clarity
    Ideals of the Counter-Reformation
    For SATTBB (rarely heard together)
    Missa Papae Marcelli
    Wrote Renaissance madrigals and Baroque operas
    Wrote symphonies that often feature monothematic expositions in sonata-allegro movements
    Wrote religious dramas drawing upon newly-composed melodies influenced by plainchant
    Hildegard von Bingen
    Wrote madrigals featuring word painting, chromaticism and dissonance
    Wrote instrumental compositions that embodied the Classical spirit, as well as vocal works who looked towards the Romantic
    Wrote polyphonic chansons demonstrating new rhythmic complexity (new devices such as syncopation/hocket/isorhythm)
    Guillaume de Machaut
    Wrote motets containing triadic modal harmonies and demonstrate mastery of counterpoint
    Josquin des Prez
    Wrote single-movement sonatas for the keyboard featuring many technical challenges (hand crossing/arpeggiated figures/ornaments/repeated notes/rapid passagework)
    Wrote vocal counterpoint that defined Renaissance polyphony (clear phrasing/stepwise melodies/lack of dissonance)
    Wrote piano works demonstrating a wide range of uses of the sonata cycle, considered among the most important compositions in keyboard repertoire
    Late 18th century movement in Germany toward a more emotional expression in the arts
    German for ‘storm and stress’
    Sturm und Drang (Piano Sonata op. 13 ‘Pathétique’)
    Secular Renaissance work originating in Italy for voices, set to a short lyrical love poem
    Madrigal (Fair Phyllis, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
    Monophonic melody, free-flowing unmeasured vocal line, the Liturgical chant of the RCC
    Plainchant (Haec Dies, Mass for Easter Sunday)
    Dramatic recitative of the Baroque period, in which melodies move freely over a foundation of simple chords
    Stile rappresentativo
    Baroque concerto type between a group of solo instruments (concertino) and orchestra (ripieno)
    Third movement has a four-voice fugue
    Concerto grosso (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
    Medieval poet-musicians in Northern France, would perform their own poems set to music, often singing of courtly love
    Trouvère (Ce fut en mai, Puis qu’en oubli)
    Musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device
    Word painting
    Earliest kind of polyphony, developed from adding voices above a plainchant in the early Middle Ages
    Organum (Haec Dies, organum)
    Early form of musical notation in the Middle Ages
    Neumes (Haec Dies)
    Repetition of the same tone in string playing, done rapidly at the tip
    A male singer who has been castrated so as to preserve their soprano/alto vocal register
    Castrato (Coronation of Poppea)
    Music written for small ensemble, generally one player to a part
    Chamber music (Piano Quintet in A+ ‘The Trout’)
    The full orchestra in a concerto grosso
    Ripieno (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
    The group of soloists in a concerto grosso
    Concertino (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
    The Italian word for harpsichord
    Gravicembalo (Harpsichord Sonata in D+)
    Predecessor to the trombone
    Sackbut (ha)
    A virtuosic passage played by the soloist in an improvisatory style
    Basis for harmonic function, usually the root note of a chord played in the bass
    Ground bass
    A male opera role sung by a woman
    Trouser role (The Marriage of Figaro)
    A texture where all instruments/parts move in the same rhythm
    Homorhythmic texture
    The exposition is presented first in the orchestra, then by the soloist
    Double exposition (Piano Concerto in G+)
    A large-scale programmatic work originating in the Baroque, similar to an opera but about sacred material and without sets, costumes and action
    Uses vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra
    Oratorio (The Creation)
    A repeating melody usually in the bass throughout an instrumental or vocal composition
    Ground bass (Dido and Aeneas)
    A Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for vocals set to a lyrical love poem (later the English did it as well)
    Madrigal (Fair Phyllis, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
    Italian comic opera, sung throughout
    Opera buffa (The Marriage of Figaro)
    ‘Agitated style’, term used by Monteverdi to express the soul/passion
    Uses tremolo/pizzicato/ornamentation/rapidly repeating notes
    Stile concitato (Coronation of Poppea)
    12th to 13th century
    The first composers who used gregorian chants as the basis for freely-composed works
    Explored and developed early polyphony
    Léonin produced two-part organum, using organal and discant style
    Pérotin expanded by using three and four-part polyphony
    Notre Dame School (Haec Dies, organum)
    A group of aristocratic intellectuals, poets and musicians who aimed to resurrect the musical dramatic art of Greece
    Credited with the creation of the first operas
    Introduced the monidic style of singing (single vocal line delivers text with clarity)
    Florence, Italy at the end of the 16th century
    L’Euridice is the oldest surviving opera
    Giulio Caccini, singer and composer, was a member with Vicenzo Galilei, composer, theorist, and Galileo Galilei’s father
    Florentine Camerata
    The most important service in the liturgy of the RCC
    (Includes prayers, readings from the Bible, and the Holy Communion)
    Mass Ordinary = Unchanging prayers of the Mass
    (Kale Grows Crusty SADness)
    Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
    Mass Proper = Variable prayers of the Mass (linked to Church calendar
    (In Great Anarchy, Offer Commies)
    Introit, Gradual, Allelulia, Offertory, Communion
    In 1517, a German priest posted a list of ‘protests’ on the door of an RCC, now called the set of ‘Ninety-Five Theses’ that outlined objections to questionable practices
    (Bible and church service should be in German, not Latin, melodies should be easy to hear and sing)
    Led to the Protestant Reformation and his founding of the Lutheran Church
    Martin Luther
    16th century Christian reform movement in Europe led by Martin Luther, resulted in many new Protestant denominations
    The Reformation
    The RCC’s reaction in the mid 16th century to the Protestant Reformation
    Attempted to win back support, regain political power
    The Counter-Reformation
    Series of meetings of the highest members of the RCC in Trento, Italy, in the mid 16th century
    (Condemned ‘heresies’, reaffirmed Catholicism, etc.)
    For liturgical music (main points):
    Text should be audible, no displays of virtuosity
    Counterpoint shouldn’t be too dense, avoid chromaticism
    No instruments other than organ
    Council of Trent
    Earliest written examples of polyphony, 9th century Medieval document
    ‘Music Handbook’
    Musica enchiriadis
    ‘Songbook for the King’
    Anonymous 13th century French manuscript, earliest examples of notated dance music
    Troubadou and trouvère songs and 8 monophonic dances, including Royal Estampie no. 4
    Chansonnier du Roy
    ‘Fixed song’, borrowed material usually from a Gregorian chant
    Serves as the structural skeleton for a new polyphonic composition
    Cantus firmus
    Beginning of the 14th century, ‘new art’
    Turning from religious to secular
    Ars nova (Ave Maria)
    In the late Baroque, operas favored empty musical display over dramatic integrity – Gluck wanted to restore it, believing like Monteverdi, that the music should serve the poetry
    -Restored the chorus
    -Minimized contrast of recitative and aria by using ‘arioso’
    -Overtures used themes heard later (were relevant)
    -Rejected empty virtuosity (e.g. they would use an aria from another opera sometimes if they felt it would display their abilities better, pls no)
    Gluck’s operatic reform
    Refers to Vienna, Austria emerging as a musical center in the 18th century
    Principal composers including Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, leaders in the forging of the Classical style
    Viennese School
    Group of composers at the court of Mannheim, Germany in the latter half of the 18th century that strongly influenced the Viennese School
    Created rocket theme, orchestral crescendo and the menuet & trio in the symphony (establishing the 4-movement sonata cycle)
    Mannheim School
    Multi-movement structure of the Classical era
    In symphony sonata and concerto
    First (I, lively tempo, sonata form, may have slow intro)
    Second (IV, slow tempo, ternary/theme and variations/rondo, lyrical and expressive)
    Third (I, medium/fast tempo, ternary/menuet & trio/scherzo and trio by Beethoven)
    Fourth (I, fast/lively tempo, sonata/rondo/sonata-rondo/theme and variations, a lively finale)
    Sonata cycle (with a symphony example)
    A large-scale programmatic work originating in the Baroque, similar to an opera but about sacred material and without sets, costumes and action
    Oratorio (The Creation)
    Formal structure often used in the first movement of the sonata cycle
    Exposition (2 or more contrasting themes, bridge in between, optional coda)
    Development (themes are expanded upon)
    Recapitulation (themes restated)
    Sonata form
    Baroque philosophy referring to emotional states of the soul
    In Baroque music, a single emotion is usually projected through an entire movement/work (union of text and music)
    Reaction to the complex polyphony of Renaissance music
    The Affections
    Texture consisting of a single line of melody without harmony or accompaniment
    Monophonic (Haec Dies, Mass for Easter Sunday)
    Term for performing choral music without instrumental accompaniment
    A cappella (Missa Papae Marcelli, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
    ABACA or ABACABA form, often used in sonata cycle for the 2nd or 4th movement
    Rondeau form (Puis qu’en oubli)
    Lively English dance in triple meter originally associated with sailors
    Hornpipe (Water Music)
    Lutheran hymn used as the basis for many Baroque compositions
    Chorale (Cantata no. 80)
    Italian term for a musical number sung by three characters in an opera
    Terzetto (Marriage of Figaro)
    Incorporated new orchestral instruments: piccolo, trombone, contrabassoon
    Developed and expanded classical forms:
    -replacing Minuet and Trio with Scherzo
    -cyclical structure
    -programmatic elements
    -inclusion of chorus in symphony

    Early – absorbed Haydn/Mozart, Sturm und Drang preference for minor and abrupt contrast
    Middle – Romantic, chromatic harmony and abrupt modulations, lengthened development/coda, scherzo and trio, cyclical form, new instruments
    Late – more abstract and meditative, more counterpoint, more experimentation with form/content (adding chorus)

    Innovations and style of Beethoven
    ‘Mass of Our Lady’, composed by Guillaume de Machaut
    For four voices
    Musical unity through recurring motives
    Among earliest complete polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary by a single composer
    Messe de Nostre Dame
    Lute (guitar, plucked)
    Recorder (end-blown, finger holes)
    Psaltery (trapezoidal wooden soundbox with gut strings, plucked)
    Rebec (pear-shaped, bowed with three strings)
    Vielle (violin, bowed)
    Bas instruments (indoor)
    Sackbut (trombone)
    Shawm (oboe, double reed, shrill tone)
    Cornetto (trumpet)
    Crumhorn (double reed, J-shaped)
    Haut instruments (outdoor)

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