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RCM History 2 Cram :D

Monothematic exposition
in sonata form: theme 2 is transposed theme 1.
Based on an earlier polyphonic chanson by Josquin des Prez
Responsorial style
Two-voice work with newly composed counterpoint against the original chant melody
Example of music from the Notre Dame School (in the style of Léonin)
Haec Dies (organum)

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Gradual from the mass for Easter Sunday
Homophonic, single melody line
Unmeasured rhythm
Haec Dies (Mass for Easter Sunday)
Concertino includes a violin, oboe, recorder and trumpet
Ripieno is a string orchestra with continuo
First movement uses a ritornello
Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+
Terzetto in sonata form, featuring musical characterization
Overture in D+ uses modified sonata-allegro form without a development
Characters include a teenage page boy and a gossipy music teacher
Makes fun of aristocrats
Da Ponte
The Marriage of Figaro
Twenty-two movements in three suites
In the opening, trumpets play ascending triadic figures answered by descending scales
Was first performed on a barge in 1717 (intended for outdoor performance, no harpsichord)
Terraced dynamics
Allegro in loose ternary, features brass instruments
Hornpipe is in ternary form
Water Music
Five voices (a cappella), highly chromatic
Meter shifts from duple to triple, then duple
Descending chromatic line represents death and grief
Exaggerated use of word painting is typical of the late Renaissance style
Moro lasso al mio duolo
Strophic Latin poem
Contains continuous imitation, paired imitation and homorhythmic passages
Opens with imitative entries of an upward perfect 4th, from highest to lowest voice
Consonant harmony based on thirds and sixths
For SATB (a cappella)
15th century motet with a single text
Characteristics of the ars nova
Written by a Franco-Flemish composer
Ave Maria
Five movements
Violin, viola, cello, bass and piano
Fourth movement based on a Lied by same composer, a theme and variations
Theme is played by the double bass in the third variation
Modified strophic form, piano accompaniment describes splashing water
Piano Quintet in A+ ‘The Trout’
Arranged by Tielman Susato
In the collection Danserye
Source is a chanson by Josquin des Prez
Duple meter
E Phrygian
Pavane ‘Mille Regretz’
First movement is in sonata-allegro form with a double exposition (first presented by orchestra, then by soloist)
Second theme is in the dominant
Cadenza after recapitulation
Piano Concerto in G+
Three movements (sonata, ABACA coda, ABACABA coda)
Slow intro with dotted rhythms reminiscient of French overture
Piano Sonata op. 13 ‘Pathétique’
Slow introduction
Monothematic exposition in first movement, second theme is in the dominant
Symphony no. 104 in D+
Used a chorale by Martin Luther (movements 1258)
Ritornello in the first movement
Word painting
Eight movements create a balanced, arch-like structure
Cantata no.80
Four voices
Imitation overlaps and obscures the meter
Extensive use of word painting
Fair Phyllis
Rhythmic ostinato (long-long-short-long) in tenor
Uses a different text for each part (polytextuality)
Triplum in the top voice, duplum in the middle, cantus firmus in the bottom (the ‘tenor’)
Overlapping triplum and duplum that create the effect of a triple meter (they also share the same range)
Upper voices are syllabic/neumatic, tenor is melismatic
13th century motet
O Mitissima/Virgo/Haec Dies
Demonstrates stile concitato/opera seria/ground bass
Coronation of Poppea
L’Orfeo, L’Arianna
Monteverdi’s operas
Plot from an epic poem written by Roman poet Virgil
Ground bass
First true English opera
Dynamic string writing of Italy and regal character of France
Dido and Aeneas
King Arthur, The Fairy Queen
Purcell’s dramatic music
Te Deum, Jubilate
Purcell’s sacred vocal works
Rose, liz, Douce dame jolie
Guillaume de Machaut’s chansons
Ave Maria, Absalon, fili mi
(over 100)
Josquin des Prez’s motets
Missa l’homme armé, Missa La sol fa re mi
Josquin des Prez’s masses
El grillo, Mille regretz
(over 60)
Josquin des Prez’s chansons
Rinaldo, Giulio Cesare, Serse, Orlando and Alcina
Handel’s operas
Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks
Handel’s orchestral works
Messiah, Creation, Judas Maccabeus, Israel in Egypt
Handel’s oratorios
Te Deum, Ode for Saint Cecilia’s Day
Coffee, Peasant
Bach’s secular cantatas
Christmas, St. Matthew Passion, St. John Passion
Bach’s oratorios
Magnificat, Mass in B Minor
Bach’s motets
Surprise, Farewell, Clock, London
Haydn’s symphonies
Seasons, Seven Last Words of Christ
Haydn’s oratorios
Haydn’s operas
Standard dances (All Cats Sing Gross)
Allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue
Optional dances (May Green Bunnies Attack)
Menuet, gavotte, bourée and aria
Two dances in the Renaissance paired for contrast
Pavane and Galliard
Idiomatic harpsichord writing, from the collection ‘Esercizi per graicembalo’
Homophonic texture
Rounded binary (no cadenza)
Harpsichord Sonata in D+
Stabat mater, Salva regina
Scarlatti’s sacred works
Tolomeo et Alessandro
Scarlatti’s operas
Orfeo ed Euridice, Alceste
Gluck’s operas
Don Giovanni (dramma giocosa/tragic comedy) Idomeneo (opera seria), The Magic Flute (Singspiel), the Absudcion from the Seraglio, Cosi fan tutte
Mozart’s operas
Haffner, Linz, Prague, Romantic, Jupiter
Mozart’s symphonies
Hunt, Dissonance
Mozart’s chamber music
Moonlight, Appassionata, Fur Elise
Beethoven’s solo piano sonatas
Eroica, Pastoral, Choral
Beethoven’s symphonies
Beethoven’s operas
The Unfinished, The Great
Schubert’s symphonies
Erlkonig, An die Music, Die Forelle, Standchen, Heidenroslein
Schubert’s lieder
Schubert’s operas
Performances of this monophonic dance may have included improvised accompaniment
Earliest examples of Medieval dance
Contained in Chansonnier du Roy
Sectional structure, open and closed endings
Dorian mode
Dance for couples from the Middle Ages
Stately, royal character
Royal Estampie no. 4
Completed in 1798, inspired from the Bible and Milton’s Paradise Lost
STB soloists
van Swieten
The Creation
Strophic setting of five stanzas
Cheerful music does not reflect the text
Monophonic vocal line (likely with improv accompaniment)
Monophonic chanson
Ce fut en mai
Three-voiced work in rondeau form, uses a text written by composer
Polyphonic chanson
Employed musica ficta (performance practice, raised/lowered pitches by semitones to avoid undesirable intervals)
Puis qu’en oubli
Counterpoint/Contrapuntal clarity
Ideals of the Counter-Reformation
For SATTBB (rarely heard together)
Missa Papae Marcelli
Wrote Renaissance madrigals and Baroque operas
Wrote symphonies that often feature monothematic expositions in sonata-allegro movements
Wrote religious dramas drawing upon newly-composed melodies influenced by plainchant
Hildegard von Bingen
Wrote madrigals featuring word painting, chromaticism and dissonance
Wrote instrumental compositions that embodied the Classical spirit, as well as vocal works who looked towards the Romantic
Wrote polyphonic chansons demonstrating new rhythmic complexity (new devices such as syncopation/hocket/isorhythm)
Guillaume de Machaut
Wrote motets containing triadic modal harmonies and demonstrate mastery of counterpoint
Josquin des Prez
Wrote single-movement sonatas for the keyboard featuring many technical challenges (hand crossing/arpeggiated figures/ornaments/repeated notes/rapid passagework)
Wrote vocal counterpoint that defined Renaissance polyphony (clear phrasing/stepwise melodies/lack of dissonance)
Wrote piano works demonstrating a wide range of uses of the sonata cycle, considered among the most important compositions in keyboard repertoire
Late 18th century movement in Germany toward a more emotional expression in the arts
German for ‘storm and stress’
Sturm und Drang (Piano Sonata op. 13 ‘Pathétique’)
Secular Renaissance work originating in Italy for voices, set to a short lyrical love poem
Madrigal (Fair Phyllis, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
Monophonic melody, free-flowing unmeasured vocal line, the Liturgical chant of the RCC
Plainchant (Haec Dies, Mass for Easter Sunday)
Dramatic recitative of the Baroque period, in which melodies move freely over a foundation of simple chords
Stile rappresentativo
Baroque concerto type between a group of solo instruments (concertino) and orchestra (ripieno)
Third movement has a four-voice fugue
Concerto grosso (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
Medieval poet-musicians in Northern France, would perform their own poems set to music, often singing of courtly love
Trouvère (Ce fut en mai, Puis qu’en oubli)
Musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device
Word painting
Earliest kind of polyphony, developed from adding voices above a plainchant in the early Middle Ages
Organum (Haec Dies, organum)
Early form of musical notation in the Middle Ages
Neumes (Haec Dies)
Repetition of the same tone in string playing, done rapidly at the tip
A male singer who has been castrated so as to preserve their soprano/alto vocal register
Castrato (Coronation of Poppea)
Music written for small ensemble, generally one player to a part
Chamber music (Piano Quintet in A+ ‘The Trout’)
The full orchestra in a concerto grosso
Ripieno (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
The group of soloists in a concerto grosso
Concertino (Brandenburg Concerto no. 2 in D+)
The Italian word for harpsichord
Gravicembalo (Harpsichord Sonata in D+)
Predecessor to the trombone
Sackbut (ha)
A virtuosic passage played by the soloist in an improvisatory style
Basis for harmonic function, usually the root note of a chord played in the bass
Ground bass
A male opera role sung by a woman
Trouser role (The Marriage of Figaro)
A texture where all instruments/parts move in the same rhythm
Homorhythmic texture
The exposition is presented first in the orchestra, then by the soloist
Double exposition (Piano Concerto in G+)
A large-scale programmatic work originating in the Baroque, similar to an opera but about sacred material and without sets, costumes and action
Uses vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra
Oratorio (The Creation)
A repeating melody usually in the bass throughout an instrumental or vocal composition
Ground bass (Dido and Aeneas)
A Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for vocals set to a lyrical love poem (later the English did it as well)
Madrigal (Fair Phyllis, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
Italian comic opera, sung throughout
Opera buffa (The Marriage of Figaro)
‘Agitated style’, term used by Monteverdi to express the soul/passion
Uses tremolo/pizzicato/ornamentation/rapidly repeating notes
Stile concitato (Coronation of Poppea)
12th to 13th century
The first composers who used gregorian chants as the basis for freely-composed works
Explored and developed early polyphony
Léonin produced two-part organum, using organal and discant style
Pérotin expanded by using three and four-part polyphony
Notre Dame School (Haec Dies, organum)
A group of aristocratic intellectuals, poets and musicians who aimed to resurrect the musical dramatic art of Greece
Credited with the creation of the first operas
Introduced the monidic style of singing (single vocal line delivers text with clarity)
Florence, Italy at the end of the 16th century
L’Euridice is the oldest surviving opera
Giulio Caccini, singer and composer, was a member with Vicenzo Galilei, composer, theorist, and Galileo Galilei’s father
Florentine Camerata
The most important service in the liturgy of the RCC
(Includes prayers, readings from the Bible, and the Holy Communion)
Mass Ordinary = Unchanging prayers of the Mass
(Kale Grows Crusty SADness)
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Mass Proper = Variable prayers of the Mass (linked to Church calendar
(In Great Anarchy, Offer Commies)
Introit, Gradual, Allelulia, Offertory, Communion
In 1517, a German priest posted a list of ‘protests’ on the door of an RCC, now called the set of ‘Ninety-Five Theses’ that outlined objections to questionable practices
(Bible and church service should be in German, not Latin, melodies should be easy to hear and sing)
Led to the Protestant Reformation and his founding of the Lutheran Church
Martin Luther
16th century Christian reform movement in Europe led by Martin Luther, resulted in many new Protestant denominations
The Reformation
The RCC’s reaction in the mid 16th century to the Protestant Reformation
Attempted to win back support, regain political power
The Counter-Reformation
Series of meetings of the highest members of the RCC in Trento, Italy, in the mid 16th century
(Condemned ‘heresies’, reaffirmed Catholicism, etc.)
For liturgical music (main points):
Text should be audible, no displays of virtuosity
Counterpoint shouldn’t be too dense, avoid chromaticism
No instruments other than organ
Council of Trent
Earliest written examples of polyphony, 9th century Medieval document
‘Music Handbook’
Musica enchiriadis
‘Songbook for the King’
Anonymous 13th century French manuscript, earliest examples of notated dance music
Troubadou and trouvère songs and 8 monophonic dances, including Royal Estampie no. 4
Chansonnier du Roy
‘Fixed song’, borrowed material usually from a Gregorian chant
Serves as the structural skeleton for a new polyphonic composition
Cantus firmus
Beginning of the 14th century, ‘new art’
Turning from religious to secular
Ars nova (Ave Maria)
In the late Baroque, operas favored empty musical display over dramatic integrity – Gluck wanted to restore it, believing like Monteverdi, that the music should serve the poetry
-Restored the chorus
-Minimized contrast of recitative and aria by using ‘arioso’
-Overtures used themes heard later (were relevant)
-Rejected empty virtuosity (e.g. they would use an aria from another opera sometimes if they felt it would display their abilities better, pls no)
Gluck’s operatic reform
Refers to Vienna, Austria emerging as a musical center in the 18th century
Principal composers including Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, leaders in the forging of the Classical style
Viennese School
Group of composers at the court of Mannheim, Germany in the latter half of the 18th century that strongly influenced the Viennese School
Created rocket theme, orchestral crescendo and the menuet & trio in the symphony (establishing the 4-movement sonata cycle)
Mannheim School
Multi-movement structure of the Classical era
In symphony sonata and concerto
First (I, lively tempo, sonata form, may have slow intro)
Second (IV, slow tempo, ternary/theme and variations/rondo, lyrical and expressive)
Third (I, medium/fast tempo, ternary/menuet & trio/scherzo and trio by Beethoven)
Fourth (I, fast/lively tempo, sonata/rondo/sonata-rondo/theme and variations, a lively finale)
Sonata cycle (with a symphony example)
A large-scale programmatic work originating in the Baroque, similar to an opera but about sacred material and without sets, costumes and action
Oratorio (The Creation)
Formal structure often used in the first movement of the sonata cycle
Exposition (2 or more contrasting themes, bridge in between, optional coda)
Development (themes are expanded upon)
Recapitulation (themes restated)
Sonata form
Baroque philosophy referring to emotional states of the soul
In Baroque music, a single emotion is usually projected through an entire movement/work (union of text and music)
Reaction to the complex polyphony of Renaissance music
The Affections
Texture consisting of a single line of melody without harmony or accompaniment
Monophonic (Haec Dies, Mass for Easter Sunday)
Term for performing choral music without instrumental accompaniment
A cappella (Missa Papae Marcelli, Moro lasso al mio duolo)
ABACA or ABACABA form, often used in sonata cycle for the 2nd or 4th movement
Rondeau form (Puis qu’en oubli)
Lively English dance in triple meter originally associated with sailors
Hornpipe (Water Music)
Lutheran hymn used as the basis for many Baroque compositions
Chorale (Cantata no. 80)
Italian term for a musical number sung by three characters in an opera
Terzetto (Marriage of Figaro)
Incorporated new orchestral instruments: piccolo, trombone, contrabassoon
Developed and expanded classical forms:
-replacing Minuet and Trio with Scherzo
-cyclical structure
-programmatic elements
-inclusion of chorus in symphony

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Early – absorbed Haydn/Mozart, Sturm und Drang preference for minor and abrupt contrast
Middle – Romantic, chromatic harmony and abrupt modulations, lengthened development/coda, scherzo and trio, cyclical form, new instruments
Late – more abstract and meditative, more counterpoint, more experimentation with form/content (adding chorus)

Innovations and style of Beethoven
‘Mass of Our Lady’, composed by Guillaume de Machaut
For four voices
Musical unity through recurring motives
Among earliest complete polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary by a single composer
Messe de Nostre Dame
Lute (guitar, plucked)
Recorder (end-blown, finger holes)
Psaltery (trapezoidal wooden soundbox with gut strings, plucked)
Rebec (pear-shaped, bowed with three strings)
Vielle (violin, bowed)
Bas instruments (indoor)
Sackbut (trombone)
Shawm (oboe, double reed, shrill tone)
Cornetto (trumpet)
Crumhorn (double reed, J-shaped)
Haut instruments (outdoor)

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RCM History 2 Cram :D
Monothematic exposition in sonata form: theme 2 is transposed theme 1. Based on an earlier polyphonic chanson by Josquin des Prez Danserye
2021-02-24 03:18:45
RCM History 2 Cram :D
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