Middle Ages (Medieval) and Renaissance
What are the dates of Middle Ages?
up to 1450
Who was Hildegard of Bingen?
Religious woman, composed sacred music, brought mood to religious music.
Who was the most important patron of music during the Middle Ages?
What are the characteristics of Gregorian Chants.
Monophonic in texture, free verse in rhythm, meditative and spiritual, and conjunct movement.
What is the portion of the Mass that remains the same in every celebration of the service?
What portion of the Mass changes from day to day depending on the feast celebrated?
What cultures influenced the music of the early Christian church?
Hebrew or Judaic, or Greek .
Earliest woman composer of importance?
Hildegard of Bingen
What is the musical texture that arose around 1000 AD?
What is the Notre Dame style of polyphony?
Organum from Notre Dame
What is the early polyphonic genre that resulted from the addition of texts to all voices?
Motet. (Medieval Motet)
What is the name of the medieval poet musicians of southern France?
Who were itinerant minstrels who wandered among the courts and towns of medieval French?
Function of secular music in medieval court life?
Dinner and dancing music, ceremonial occasions (i.e. military), tournaments or sporting events.
What is Ars Nova?
New art, music of 14th century underwent change of styles in rhythm or meter, and counter or harmony.
What is the Chanson?
A French courtly love song. It was written down.
What are the dates of the Renaissance?
1450 – 1600.
What was the chief institution that supported music and Renaissance society?
Church, aristocratic courts (Kings or Queens), towns and cities.
Name a few ways Renaissance musicians made their living.
1) choir director, 2) singer in choir, 3) an organist, 4) builder of instruments, 5) musicians for parades, 6) music printer, 7) music publisher.
What is acapella?
Singing music without instrumental accompaniment.
What is word painting?
To express the music through lyrical verse, for example, if you say up and down, the vocal notes go up when you say up, and go down when you say down.
What kind of vocal music was used during the Renaissance?
1) Gregorian chants 2) sacred motets 3) hymns 4 ) Madrigal 5) love songs
What was the recommendation of the Council of Trent regarding music?
1) Remove all earthly parts 2) to make the words more understandable 3) to discipline the irreverent attitude of instrumentalists 4) to get rid of all instruments
What were the fixed poetic forms set to music?
1) Rondeau 2) Ballade 3) Virelai
What was a lively circle / line dance performed outdoors?
What was a stately court dance?
What is a Chanson?
Monophonic or polyphonic song of the medieval or Renaissance era set to courtly or popular poetry.
What is a Madrigal?
A’capella music set to a poem, originating in Italy, but also popular in France.
What were the two most important sacred kinds of music during the Renaissance?
1) Mass. 2) Motet
What were the two most important secular kinds of music during the Renaissance?
1) Chanson 2) Madrigal
What is a saltarello?
A Renaissance dance ‘jumping dance’ characterized by triplets in 4/4 time.
What era and style of music was word painting used in?
The Renaissance madrigal.
What is a cantus firmus?
Fixed melody based on Gregorian chant.
What is the name of the group of soft Medieval instruments that are mainly used for indoor occasions?
What is the name of the category of loud Medieval instruments that are mainly used for outdoor occasions?
Name three Medieval woodwind instruments.
Recorder, Shawm, crumhorn.
What family of instruments are the sackbut and cornetto categorised in?
Medieval brass instruments.
What is a vielle?
Medieval bowed string instrument.
What are tabors and nakers?
What is the name of the plucked instrument used in Medieval times?
What is the name of the plucked instrument used in both Medieval and Renaissance times?
What is another word for a Gregorian chant?
What is the term used to describe an ensemble when it is divided into two or more groups who perform in alternation an then together?
What is responsorial singing?
Music that alternates between a soloist and chorus.
What are neumes?
Early musical notation
What is a melisma?
Many notes sung on one syllable.
What is the musical term for when two to four notes are set to each syllable.
What is syllabic singing?
One note sung to each syllable of text.
What is contrary motion in polyphonic music?
music moves in opposite directions between individual parts.
What is oblique motion in polyphonic music?
One voice remains stationary while others move.