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    Chapters 10-12 World History

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    How did the Crusades lead to globalization in later centuries?
    They introduced Europeans to luxury goods from Asia, encouraging trade
    The magnetic compass and the astrolabe encouraged the development of
    Exploration by ship
    How did Captain James Cook contribute to changes in the first global age?
    His explorations helped bring Pacific lands into the new global system
    Westernization was the process by which
    European ideas and values spread around the world
    Which military tactic was part of the gunpowder revolution?
    Battering city walls with cannonballs
    Why is the empire of the Ottoman Turks considered a “gunpowder empire?”
    They used guns to conquer a large area on three continents
    Which empire controlled the territory between India and the Ottomans?
    Who were the shoguns?
    Strong military rulers of a centralized Japanese state
    The mestizo shelf a middle place in the Spanish colonial social structure because
    Their ancestry was partly European
    Which import from the Americas to Europe had the greatest long-term effect on the European economy?
    What was the job of most slaves in Brazil and the Caribbean?
    Growing sugarcane
    What group was affected most by the Great Dying?
    American Indians
    Humanism was a belief in the value of
    The individual
    Which of these began with the teachings of Martin Luther?
    The Reformation
    Other people in Europe had voiced ideas similar to Luther’s in earlier centuries. What change by Luther’s time gave his ideas more influence?
    Invention of a printing press on Europe
    Which development during the first global age would later be threatened by the Enlightenment?
    The increase of royal power
    How did the Enlightenment differ from the Scientific Revolution?
    It focused on human society
    What new approach to learning brought the advances of the Scientific Revolution?
    Applying reason to observation of nature
    How did Johannes Gutenberg contribute to a split in the Catholic Church?
    He invented a printing press that spread new ideas
    One way the slave trade changed Africa was that
    European guns were introduced
    Which of these food crops, first introduced to Europe from the Americas, changed the health of people in Europe?
    How did the Commercial Revolution raise living standards in Europe?
    Business activity expanded rapidly, increasing wealth
    How did the Renaissance affect exploration?
    The artistic and cultural flowering inspired a thirst for knowledge
    The Columbia Exchange explains all of the following except…
    Why corn was introduced in the Americas
    In the Ottoman state many of the top officials were
    How did the Ottomans deal with different cultures and religions within their empire?
    They were generally tolerant and allowed separate communities to manage their own religious affairs
    The strong legal code developed under the sultan Suleyman the Magnificent was based on
    Shari’a law
    How did the Ottoman Empire come to an end?
    It gradually declined over many centuries
    Where did the Mughal Empire arise in the 1500s?
    The reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar was characterized by
    The flourishing of art and culture
    Why did many people in Southeast Asia convert to Islam during the Mughal era?
    Mughal merchants and Sufi missionaries spread the Islamic faith along trade routes
    As the power of Mughal Emperors in India declined in the 1700s
    Europeans began to dominate the subcontinent
    What was the goal of the Ming dynasty when it first took power in China in the 1300s?
    To restore traditional Chinese rule
    How were civil service officials selected during the among dynasty?
    By a state examination system
    How did Zheng He help to expand China’s influence outside its borders?
    He led seven sea voyages to faraway lands
    Who were the Tokugawa?
    Feudal lords who united Japan and established a dynasty
    What motivated Japan to try to prevent contact with foreigners?
    Concern about Catholic missionaries attracting converts
    Russia considered itself to be the “Third Rome” because it
    Saw itself as heir to the Roman and Byzantine Empires
    What family came to power in Russia in 1614 and ruled for the next 300 years?
    The Romanovs
    How did Peter the Great change Russian culture?
    He introduced European customs and learning
    The Chinese idea that the right to rule came from divine approval
    Mandate of Heaven
    A geographically extensive group of states and people’s united and ruled by a central authority
    Ottoman sultan who captured Constantinople; “The Conqueror”
    Mehmet II
    The greatest Ottoman sultan. Know as “The Magnificent”; expanded the empire greatly
    The main reason the Ottoman Empire expanded
    To spread Islam
    In 1453, the Ottoman armies attacked Constantinople and brought the end to:
    Byzantine rule
    Which of the following statements concerning the reign of Akbar is NOT accurate
    He attempted to purify Islam by removing Hindu influence
    After the voyages of Zheng He, Ming rulers
    Increased China’s isolation
    What was one purpose of the voyages of Zheng He?
    Increasing the flow of tribute to China
    The culture of the Mughal Empire was
    A fusion of Indian, Persian, and Arab traditions
    What was the religion of the rulers of the Mughal Empire?
    The Russian term for Emperor:
    What change happened in Europe as a result of Gutenberg’s innovation?
    Far more books became readily available
    Money to support the arts in Renaissance Italy came primarily from
    The destruction of feudalism and the growth of urban workshops resulted in part from changes in population caused by
    The bubonic plague
    The Renaissance artist most famous for his painting the “Mona Lisa” was
    Leonardo da Vinci
    Humanist writers such as Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio emphasized
    The worth of the individual
    Indulgences were considered a sign of church corruption because they were
    Pardons that people could buy
    Which reformer said that and Christian could read the Bible and understand God’s message?
    Martin Luther
    The Council of Trent was part of the
    When sea voyages began to require sailing out of sight of land, this encouraged a growing interest in
    Astronomy for navigation
    Galileo Galilei added support for the heliocentric theory by
    Observing the sky through a telescope
    Isaac Newton’s “Principal” explained
    The lows of gravity and motion
    Who developed a new system for classifying plants and animals?
    Carl Linnaeus
    Inspired by the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment thinkers believed that
    Society matters more than individuals
    In “The Wealth of Nations,” Adam Smith argued for
    A free market based on competition
    What were the salons of French Enlightenment thinkers?
    Gatherings in private homes
    The Enlightenment overall promoted an attitude of
    The greatest writer of the Northern Renaissance, wrote Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet
    A movement, based on Classical Greek and Roman ideas, that began in Italy in around
    During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they
    Examined natural laws governing the universe
    What kind of person represented the ideal of the “Renaissance Man”?
    Someone who excelled in many areas of study
    What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press?
    It increase literacy and the use of vernacular
    What was the main reason for Henry VIII’s split with the Roman Catholic Church?
    His desire for a male heir
    Luther protested the selling of indulgences. What was that practice?
    The clergy sold pardons that released people from performing penalties for their sins
    What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?
    Art and learning
    As a result of King Henry VIII breaking from Rome, England became
    The Renaissance was all of the following EXCEPT
    the end of poverty
    Humanist educators of the Renaissance stressed all of the following EXCEPT
    practical tool skills
    The division of Christianity in Germany into Catholic and Lutheran states was recognized by
    The Peace of Augsburg
    John Calvin believed in
    The “eternal decree” of an all powerful God
    According to Castiglione’s book, The Book of the Courtier, a noble should do all of the following EXCEPT
    Farm the land
    Renaissance women were educated in
    Religion and morals
    The Scientific method was all of the following EXCEPT
    reliant on the use of ancient authorities
    Rene Descartes believed in one absolute truth,
    His own existence
    Francis Bacon, who developed the Scientific method, was a
    Diderot’a Encyclopedia was used to
    Attack religious superstition
    Despite their importance in developing a new view of the family, Protestants
    Did nothing to change women’s subordinate role in society
    The final decrease of the Council of Trent
    Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
    Francis Bacon, and English Philosopher, believed scientists should
    Use inductive readoning
    Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitation
    Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe
    Montesquieu’ most lasting contribution to political thought was his
    Analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances

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