How did the Crusades lead to globalization in later centuries?
They introduced Europeans to luxury goods from Asia, encouraging trade
The magnetic compass and the astrolabe encouraged the development of
Exploration by ship
How did Captain James Cook contribute to changes in the first global age?
His explorations helped bring Pacific lands into the new global system
Westernization was the process by which
European ideas and values spread around the world
Which military tactic was part of the gunpowder revolution?
Battering city walls with cannonballs
Why is the empire of the Ottoman Turks considered a “gunpowder empire?”
They used guns to conquer a large area on three continents
Which empire controlled the territory between India and the Ottomans?
Who were the shoguns?
Strong military rulers of a centralized Japanese state
The mestizo shelf a middle place in the Spanish colonial social structure because
Their ancestry was partly European
Which import from the Americas to Europe had the greatest long-term effect on the European economy?
What was the job of most slaves in Brazil and the Caribbean?
What group was affected most by the Great Dying?
Humanism was a belief in the value of
Which of these began with the teachings of Martin Luther?
Other people in Europe had voiced ideas similar to Luther’s in earlier centuries. What change by Luther’s time gave his ideas more influence?
Invention of a printing press on Europe
Which development during the first global age would later be threatened by the Enlightenment?
The increase of royal power
How did the Enlightenment differ from the Scientific Revolution?
It focused on human society
What new approach to learning brought the advances of the Scientific Revolution?
Applying reason to observation of nature
How did Johannes Gutenberg contribute to a split in the Catholic Church?
He invented a printing press that spread new ideas
One way the slave trade changed Africa was that
European guns were introduced
Which of these food crops, first introduced to Europe from the Americas, changed the health of people in Europe?
How did the Commercial Revolution raise living standards in Europe?
Business activity expanded rapidly, increasing wealth
How did the Renaissance affect exploration?
The artistic and cultural flowering inspired a thirst for knowledge
The Columbia Exchange explains all of the following except…
Why corn was introduced in the Americas
In the Ottoman state many of the top officials were
How did the Ottomans deal with different cultures and religions within their empire?
They were generally tolerant and allowed separate communities to manage their own religious affairs
The strong legal code developed under the sultan Suleyman the Magnificent was based on
How did the Ottoman Empire come to an end?
It gradually declined over many centuries
Where did the Mughal Empire arise in the 1500s?
The reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar was characterized by
The flourishing of art and culture
Why did many people in Southeast Asia convert to Islam during the Mughal era?
Mughal merchants and Sufi missionaries spread the Islamic faith along trade routes
As the power of Mughal Emperors in India declined in the 1700s
Europeans began to dominate the subcontinent
What was the goal of the Ming dynasty when it first took power in China in the 1300s?
To restore traditional Chinese rule
How were civil service officials selected during the among dynasty?
By a state examination system
How did Zheng He help to expand China’s influence outside its borders?
He led seven sea voyages to faraway lands
Who were the Tokugawa?
Feudal lords who united Japan and established a dynasty
What motivated Japan to try to prevent contact with foreigners?
Concern about Catholic missionaries attracting converts
Russia considered itself to be the “Third Rome” because it
Saw itself as heir to the Roman and Byzantine Empires
What family came to power in Russia in 1614 and ruled for the next 300 years?
How did Peter the Great change Russian culture?
He introduced European customs and learning
The Chinese idea that the right to rule came from divine approval
Mandate of Heaven
A geographically extensive group of states and people’s united and ruled by a central authority
Ottoman sultan who captured Constantinople; “The Conqueror”
The greatest Ottoman sultan. Know as “The Magnificent”; expanded the empire greatly
The main reason the Ottoman Empire expanded
To spread Islam
In 1453, the Ottoman armies attacked Constantinople and brought the end to:
Which of the following statements concerning the reign of Akbar is NOT accurate
He attempted to purify Islam by removing Hindu influence
After the voyages of Zheng He, Ming rulers
Increased China’s isolation
What was one purpose of the voyages of Zheng He?
Increasing the flow of tribute to China
The culture of the Mughal Empire was
A fusion of Indian, Persian, and Arab traditions
What was the religion of the rulers of the Mughal Empire?
The Russian term for Emperor:
What change happened in Europe as a result of Gutenberg’s innovation?
Far more books became readily available
Money to support the arts in Renaissance Italy came primarily from
The destruction of feudalism and the growth of urban workshops resulted in part from changes in population caused by
The bubonic plague
The Renaissance artist most famous for his painting the “Mona Lisa” was
Leonardo da Vinci
Humanist writers such as Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio emphasized
The worth of the individual
Indulgences were considered a sign of church corruption because they were
Pardons that people could buy
Which reformer said that and Christian could read the Bible and understand God’s message?
The Council of Trent was part of the
When sea voyages began to require sailing out of sight of land, this encouraged a growing interest in
Astronomy for navigation
Galileo Galilei added support for the heliocentric theory by
Observing the sky through a telescope
Isaac Newton’s “Principal” explained
The lows of gravity and motion
Who developed a new system for classifying plants and animals?
Inspired by the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment thinkers believed that
Society matters more than individuals
In “The Wealth of Nations,” Adam Smith argued for
A free market based on competition
What were the salons of French Enlightenment thinkers?
Gatherings in private homes
The Enlightenment overall promoted an attitude of
The greatest writer of the Northern Renaissance, wrote Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet
A movement, based on Classical Greek and Roman ideas, that began in Italy in around
During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they
Examined natural laws governing the universe
What kind of person represented the ideal of the “Renaissance Man”?
Someone who excelled in many areas of study
What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press?
It increase literacy and the use of vernacular
What was the main reason for Henry VIII’s split with the Roman Catholic Church?
His desire for a male heir
Luther protested the selling of indulgences. What was that practice?
The clergy sold pardons that released people from performing penalties for their sins
What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?
Art and learning
As a result of King Henry VIII breaking from Rome, England became
The Renaissance was all of the following EXCEPT
the end of poverty
Humanist educators of the Renaissance stressed all of the following EXCEPT
practical tool skills
The division of Christianity in Germany into Catholic and Lutheran states was recognized by
The Peace of Augsburg
John Calvin believed in
The “eternal decree” of an all powerful God
According to Castiglione’s book, The Book of the Courtier, a noble should do all of the following EXCEPT
Farm the land
Renaissance women were educated in
Religion and morals
The Scientific method was all of the following EXCEPT
reliant on the use of ancient authorities
Rene Descartes believed in one absolute truth,
His own existence
Francis Bacon, who developed the Scientific method, was a
Diderot’a Encyclopedia was used to
Attack religious superstition
Despite their importance in developing a new view of the family, Protestants
Did nothing to change women’s subordinate role in society
The final decrease of the Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
Francis Bacon, and English Philosopher, believed scientists should
Use inductive readoning
Isaac Newton’s universal law of gravitation
Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe
Montesquieu’ most lasting contribution to political thought was his
Analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances