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    Culture & Values: Chapter 13 – The High Renaissance & Mannerism in Italy

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    Chiaroscuro
    From the Italian for “light-dark”; an artistic technique in which subtle graduations of value create the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional forms in space; also called modeling
    Glaze
    In painting, a semitransparent coating on a painted surface that provides a glassy or glossy finish
    Horizon Line
    In linear perspective, the imaginary line (frequently where the earth seems to meet the sky) along which converging lines meet; also see vanishing point
    Iconography
    A set of conventional meanings attached to images; as an artistic approach, representation or illustration that uses the visual conventions and symbols of culture. Also, the study of visual symbols and their meaning (often religious)
    Madrigal
    A song for two or three voices unaccompanied by instrumental music
    Mannerism
    A style of art characterized by distortion and elongation of figures; a sense of flattened space rather than depth’ a lack of defined focal point and the use of clashing pastel colors
    Orthogonal
    In perspective, a line pointing to the vanishing point
    Patronage
    In the arts, the act of providing support for artistic endeavors
    Peristyle
    A series of column enclosing a court or surrounding a building
    Pieta
    In artistic tradition: a representation of the dead Christ, held by his mother, the Virgin Mary (from the Latin work for “pity”)
    Polyphony
    Music with two or more independent melodies that harmonize or are sounded together
    Sacophagus
    A coffin; usually cut or carved from stone although Etruscan sarcophagi were made of terracotta
    Terza rima
    A poetic form in which a poem is divided into sets of three lines (tercets) with the rhyme schele aba, bcb, cdc, etc
    Triglyph
    In architecture, a panel incised with vertical grooves (usually three, hence, tri-) that serve to divide the scenes in a Doric Frieze
    Vanishing Point
    In linear perspective, a point on the horizon where parallel lines appear to converge
    Venus pudica
    A representation of a nude Venus with her hands held over her genitals for modesty
    Leonardo da Vinci
    Began to write to his treatises on art and science (1490-1495)
    The Aldine Press
    Was established in Venice
    Strozzi
    Wrote his poem on Michelangelo’s”Night”
    Vittoria Colonna
    Began writing poms in memory of her husband
    Martin Luther
    Translated the Bible into German (1527)
    Castiglione
    Published “The Courtier”
    Michelangelo
    Began exchanging letters and poems with Colonna
    Cellini
    Wrote his autobiography (1558)
    Sir Thomas Hoby
    Translated “The Book of the Courtier” into English
    Sixtus IV
    Established the Sistine Choir
    Leonardo da Vinci
    Painted the “Madonna of the Rocks”
    Rome
    Because the Vatican is within this city, it is most closely associated with fostering the artistic creativity of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael
    Raphael
    Raphael
    This artist’s “The School of Athens” reveals his respect for pagan philosophers
    Michelangelo
    Created the magnificent frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
    Venice
    Is the city most closely associated with Titian and the late Renaissance in Italy
    Pontormo
    “Entombment” illustrates the characteristics of Mannerism, especially in its use of distortion and ambiguity of space
    Venus of Urbino
    Titian’s love of the nude female body is displayed in this work
    Venice
    Italian city is most famous for its oil paintings (not frescoes)
    sprezzatura
    Used by Castiglione, this term means “effortless mastery.”
    Leonardo da Vinci
    The creator of Madonna of the Rocks and The Last Supper
    Bramante
    Pope Julius II commissioned this architect to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican
    Terribilità
    Describes awe-inspiring power and grandeur, and is often used to describe Michelangelo’s Moses
    Raphael
    The Artist’s Madonna of the Meadow includes Mary, Jesus, and John the Baptist
    The Creation of Adam
    This panel is one of the most famous on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, partly because of its use of negative space
    Castiglione
    The Book of the Courtier contends that the true courtier should be a person of humanist learning, impeccable ethics, refined courtesy, physical and martial skills, and fascinating conversation
    a cappellla
    Music sung without instrumental accompaniment.
    Michelangelo
    Summoned to Rome to create a monumental tomb for Pope Julius II
    Cellini
    Artist and creator of a bronze statue of Perseus also was imprisoned for assault, was banished from Florence, and fled Rome after murdering a man
    The School of Athens
    Plato and Aristotle appears in this painting
    Willaert
    Dutch composer became choirmaster of Saint Mark’s Basilica
    Palestrina
    Musician composed over 100 masses and directed all music for the Vatican during the final twenty years of his life
    Bronzino
    Painted “Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time”
    Sofonisba Anguissola
    Painted portraits of her three sisters around a chessboard.
    El Greco
    Spanish artist incorporated Venice’s color and Mannerism’s use of distortion into his paintings
    Josquin des Prez
    Music director of the Sistine Choir is most famous for his polyphonic motets
    Vittoria Colonna
    Corresponded with Michelangelo and wrote more than 400 poems, mostly Petrarchan sonnets

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    Culture & Values: Chapter 13 – The High Renaissance & Mannerism in Italy. (2017, Aug 29). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/culture-values-chapter-13-the-high-renaissance-mannerism-in-italy-15480/

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