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    AP Euro Chapter 12 & 13: Renaissance and Humanism

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    Medici family
    most famous dynasty of Florentine merchants/bankers; used wealth to govern city-states & patronize arts
    “man is the measure of all things”; human power over religious awe; involvement (life of activity); all-around Renaissance man
    Renaissance architect; Greco-Roman influence; Florence Cathedral & Basilica di San Lorenzo (didn’t overwhelm worshiper)
    Renaissance painter; “Tribute Money”; light/shadow; nude figures; perspective
    Renaissance painter; “Primavera”; mythological subjects
    Renaissance painter; “School of Athens”; Madonnas epitomized idealism;
    da Vinci
    “Renaissance man”= painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist; “Mona Lisa” & “Last Supper”; perfection & beauty
    Primarily a sculptor; marble “David” sculpture showed human form; painted Sistine Chapel ceiling; glorified God; nicknamed Il Divino
    inspired by Greco-Roman antiquity; studied ancient texts; wrote in Italian (vernacular) over Latin
    Father of humanism
    wrote 1st modern history; history of Florence; “New Cicero”
    “The Book of the Courtier”; outlined skills to epitomize civic humanism (in service of prince & state); polite, skilled in arms/sports, educated, musically talented, good-humored
    “The Prince”; precursor for modern statecraft; mainly concerned with Italy’s separated, vulnerable state; “the end justifies the means”
    Christian Humanism
    turned to Hebrew and Greek texts of church fathers; originated because northern students traveled to Italy to study and returned with new ideas/ideals; strongest in Germanic areas & Low Countries (Belgium and Holland)
    printing press; changeable moveable type; spread Reformation ideas; cheaper books=increased literacy; Bible printed in vernacular, widespread
    developed heliocentric system, upsetting Ptolemaic (geocentric) universe; contradicted Catholic church’s views
    belief that the individual alone could communicate with god; inner piety
    Thomas a Kempis
    mysticism; “Imitation of Christ”
    Brothers of the Common Life
    stressed personal virtues of Christianity over doctrine; modern devotion; love, tolerance, humility
    “The Christian Gentleman”; admired antiquity and emphasized purified Latin; advocated gradual reform; ridiculed hypocrisy; satirized clerical abuses in “The Praise of Folly”; “Handbook of Christian Knight” showed practical Christianity; tolerance/reform
    Thomas More
    “Utopia” criticized abuses of contemporary institutions, offering a perfect version of society; beheaded for not supporting King Henry VIII against Pope during English Reformation
    sum of money presented by wife’s family to the husband upon marriage; depended on whether the bride was moving up or down in society
    cultural and commercial center of 15th century Italy
    Isabella d’Este
    daughter of duke of Ferrara; “first lady of the world”; effectively ruled Mantua; attracted artists and intellectuals
    Peace of Lodi
    ended about 50 years of war in Italy; alliance system (Milan, Florence, Naples vs. Venice and papacy); failed to create lasting cooperation
    liberal arts
    grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, history; all based on classical writings
    civic humanism
    15th century Florentine humanism; based on service to state
    emphasized pure Latin; literary criticism of ancient texts
    Platonic love
    all people are bound by love
    Neoplatonism; hierarchy of substances, spiritual love; Hermeticism
    “Oration on the Dignity of Man”
    alchemy, astrology, magic; some parts pantheistic (God in all things); humans created divine but chose to freely enter material world, must purify soul to regain original divinity
    Renaissance sculptor; bronze David was first since antiquity
    Renaissance architect; designed Tempietto on supposed site of St. Peter’s martyrdom; columns, dome, sanctuary inspired by antiquity; later designed St. Peter’s Basilica (Pope Julius II)
    van Eyck
    Northern Renaissance painter; “Giovanni Arnolfini & Wife”; meticulous detail
    Northern Renaissance painter; “Adoration of the Magi”; combined Renaissance perspective and proportion with Northern Renaissance detail
    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
    Charles VII; agreement with papacy that strengthened French church’s liberties at expense of papacy; king assumed control of French church
    Charles VII
    taille without Estates-General; established royal army
    Spanish medieval town organizations; “brotherhoods”; corregidores replaced municipal officers
    Jews who converted to Catholicism in Spain
    Henry VII
    England’s 1st Tudor king; “livery and maintenance” (aristocrats couldn’t raise private armies); relied on commissioned armies; helped economy (thrifty); used diplomacy instead of war
    Court of Star Chamber
    Henry VII; punished nobles without juries; used torture
    War of Roses
    English civil war; aristocratic houses of Lancaster (red rose) vs. York (white rose)
    King Louis XI
    Louis the Spider; kept taille as income; couldn’t repress nobility (Charles the Bold, Burgundy)
    English Lollardy; disgusted with clerical corruption; Bible was the sole authority; condemned external religion
    Hussites; criticized papacy’s excessive power
    Council of Constance
    tried to suppress heresy
    church received authority from God
    provided for regular holding of councils to continue church reform
    Pope Pius II’s bill, condemned appeals to council over head of pope as heretical
    Julius II
    “Warrior Pope”; led armies into battle
    Sixtus IV
    used nepotism (giving church offices to family)
    Leo X
    patron of Renaissance; son of Lorenzo de Medici
    disgusted by sale of indulgences; justification through faith alone, but good works out of goodness of heart; 95 Theses; Leipzig Debate vs. Eck; “Babylonian Captivity” attacked sacraments; “On Freedom of Christian Man”; emphasized Bible; ecclesiastical hierarchy
    sold indulgences to fund construction of St. Peter’s Basilica
    Diet of Worms
    Charles V called Luther to recant heresy; Luther refused, resulting in Edict of Worms (deemed him heretic and outlawed)
    follower of Luther
    Peasants’ War
    caused by social discontent; turned to Luther, but Luther condemned it (encouraged princes to kill revolutionary peasants)
    inflamed peasants of Peasants’ War
    Peace of Augsburg
    recognized Lutheranism, same rights as catholicism; German rulers determined their subjects’ religion; ended German religious wars
    Swiss; Communion was only symbolic; movement died after he died in war against Catholics
    militant Protestantism; adult baptism; separation of church and state
    adhered to millenarianism; Munster was “New Jerusalem”
    Henry VIII
    Divorced Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn due to lack of male heir
    divorced Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
    Act of Supremacy
    Henry VIII controlled English Church; broke from papacy
    Treason Act
    forced English to accept Henry VIII as head of English Church
    Book of Common Prayer
    new Protestant prayer book imposed by Cranmer during Edward VI’s reign
    “Bloody” (burned heretics); attempted Catholic restoration, failed; England became more Protestant by end of reign
    Geneva; “Institutes”; predestination (eternal decree); justification through faith alone; God’s absolute sovereignty
    Ecclesiastical Ordinances
    special body (Consistory) for moral discipline in Geneva
    Ignatius Loyola; absolute obedience to papacy; instrument of Counter-Reformation
    Council of Trent
    called by Pope Paul III; reaffirmed both faith and good works, sacraments, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, purgatory, indulgences, established theological seminaries (train priests)
    forbade “unwholesome” books for Catholics

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    AP Euro Chapter 12 & 13: Renaissance and Humanism. (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from

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