In cognitive linguistic, fictive motion refers to the description of castles that do not really exist. In ancient Chinese literature, expressions such as ( ) and ( ) may well be a typical illustration of fictive motion. Others like “fin -unlatch” and are examples in classical Chinese poetry. Given the particular form of the latter, it is assumed that fictive motion has Its own way of exhibiting itself in this specific genre.
With a collection of fictive motion sentences In Chinese verses and a detailed analysis, this paper attempts to discover the feature of fictive motion and the way by which it is construed in classical Chinese poetry. Key words: fictive motion; classical Chinese poetry; path; preposition Introduction Fictive motion is a linguistic term proposed by Leonard Tally, who explains that “languages systematically and extensively refer to stationary circumstances with forms and constructions whose basic reference Is to motion” (Tally, 2000: 104).
For instance in the sentence The river runs all the way down to the mountain, it describes the location of the stationary river but evokes the conception that the river eves toward the mountain. In a study of fictive motion in Chinese language, it has been pointed out that this linguistic phenomenon is more frequently seen in prose, novels and poems (Gao & Song, 2010). It is easily understood because such literature forms might need to resort to victory manifest a novel conception. This paper Is an attempt of analyzing the phenomenon of velvet motion In classical Chinese poetry.
In the next part, some previous work done on this field is introduced as the lead of the paper. From the third part on, the research of this paper will be elaborated at great length. Section 3 shows the fictive motion couplets collected from a large amount of Chinese poems. Section 4 will account for how fictive motion is formed in this particular circumstance. The conclusions will be drawn In the last part, falling the results of the research. Literature review Ever since Leonard Tally introduces the term of fictive motion, much follow-up work has been done to investigate this special phenomenon.
Subsequently, Teenier Mattock raised the question of whether people will mentally simulate motion when trying to understand fictive motion sentences. In his paper, four experiments were inducted in search of the answer. He concluded that “people simulate motion or visual scanning while trying to understand fictive motion” (Mattock. 2004: 1396). Likewise, Line Brandt devoted to analyze what part human subjectively plays In the course of construing fictive motion described. “Subjectivity phenomena”, as termed by Brandt, is probably a “spontaneous, effortless engagement of virtual cognition in meaning construction” (Brandt, 2009: 599).
For the consideration of how fictive motion sentences are formed, Karl Real et al. (2009) carried out two in situ experiments to collect the verbal descriptions of route choices. Twenty participants mechanics of motion descriptions. In the same year, another article studies the conception of axis and direction of motion implied in 299 English verbs, all collected from native British English speakers. A set of norms were employed in their study, the result of which validated the ability of these norms of capturing the motion content of individual verbs (Mattered & Voicing, 2009).
There are also researches of fictive motion in languages other than English. Ana Roll and Xavier Valuable (2003) studied the differences in the expression of fictive motion between English and Spanish. Their study was based on the results of two previous researches. One is about the differences in the expression of motion in the two languages and the other the similarities and differences for English and Japanese. Besides, another paper analyzed the rhetoric forms constructed by fictive motions in Chinese language.
It discovers that rhetoric forms presented in this way include metaphor, simile, personification, kinesthesia, and exaggeration, etc. (Gao & Song, 2010: 10). Moreover, another investigation was made on the fictive motion of range extension path particularly. Based on Tally’s theory on motion event, this paper analyzes the linguistic characteristics of Chinese fictive motion from the aspect of frame, background, motion pattern, motion path, etc. It claims that in Chinese, in cases where such verbs as “alai” and “quo” appear to indicate the tendency of move, prepositions are also necessary to point out the direction (Lie, 2011: 35).
Fan An (2011: 23) analyzed the path condition and manner condition of fictive motion in Chinese literary works. Her work showed that path condition is applicable to Chinese fictive motion expressions while manner condition is not. These are the studies made on fictive motion as of now. It is obvious that there is room for further study on a particular genre. Inspired by this idea, this paper will concentrate the research on classical Chinese poetry alone. The questions to be inquired are as follow: 1) How is fictive motion of different categories exhibit itself in classical Chinese poetry? ) How is fictive motion formed in this certain field? What are its characteristics? 3) How are the categories of fictive motion discovered by Tally applied to classical Chinese poetry? The study starts with collecting poetic couplets of different disagrees of fictive motion. The selected couplets will be analyzed with the consideration of the special characteristics of classical Chinese poetry. Finally, the efforts will be made with the attempt to make generalizations concerning the research questions shown above.
With classical Chinese poetry as the particular material, this paper is bound to serve as a prelude of further study into a new classification for fictive motion in this genre scope. Collection of Fictive Motion in Classical Chinese Poetry Tally classifies fictive motion into several categories, respectively “emanation”, pattern paths”, “frame-relative motion”, “advent paths”, “access paths”, and “extension path”. For the purpose of analyzing the fictive motion in the genre of classical Chinese poetry, a great amount of poems have been covered to find the couplets in question.
In this part, the poetic lines of each of the categories will be discussed one by one. A. Emanation This category is “basically the fictive motion of something intangible emerging from paths”, “radiation paths”, “shadow paths”, and “sensory paths”. (1) Orientation Paths Generally, this category relates to an invisible entity emitting from an object and each another along a certain path, thus forming the fictive conception of move. (a) Prospect Paths The first subtype of orientation paths can be found in the following couplets. The words exhibiting fictive motion is marked as bold. ) fifeВЇLeigh, ) Couplet (1) describes the moon as a flying mirror towards a red-roof hall. A front face of the moon becomes visible in such a case. Similarly, the high hall in couplet (2) is facing a running stream downward, while in (3) the flower is facing in front of itself a pool. Finally, in couplet (4) and (5), the temple gate is open facing towards the mountain and the moon towards the hill. In all of these selected lines, the conception of some intangible line or shaft moving from the front of the object is formed to become a fictive motion. B) Demonstrative Paths This type also contains the fictive emergence of a line from an object towards a certain direction, with the effect of guiding or distracting one’s attention. 6) -he”Г, In the sixth couplet, the whip is pointing out beyond the wind in the sky. An invisible line is easily outlined in this case as if it was emitted from the point of the whip right toward the high sky. Couplet (7) shows the direction of a road that leads towards a city. In both poems, the direction of the object is described in an activated way. C) Targeting Paths In this type, a linear path is conceived with the description of aiming at a target, for which some action will, be it fictive or not, be taken along this path as the direction. В«tagВ») In this selected couplet, the general amid all the weapons is targeting the bow at his enemies. Here the front point of the bow is seemingly emitting a line towards the enemies, hence the fictive motion of targeting paths. (d) Line of Sight Sentences of this type may exhibit the visualization of the path of sight as if it was emitted from one’s eye all the way toward the object observed.
The illustrations in classical Chinese poetry are shown below. 9) k-t#Г?, (n ) As is described in couplet (9), the poet stands up high onto the hall, his eye looking far away into the end of the sight. The author of couplet (10) utters the philosophy that he contends: for one to observe one thousand lie farther, he must have to amount one storey higher. Both expressions construe the emission of the line of sight toward the object to be perceived. Couplet (1 1), however, belongs to a special case because it concerns how the observer fails to see the target.
By describing this failure as cutting out the line of sight, the emission of this intangible is depicted indirectly. (2) Radiation Paths The event of radiating refers to the radiation from an object as the source to anther object as the receiver. In the following selected lines, the light is described as 13) В«-bГI#)) ) Couplet (12) describes the moonlight shining into the golden cup, which is an apparent illustration of this type of fictive motion. In another couplet written by Lie Pat, almost known to all Chinese natives, the moonlight has spread onto the room bed. In (14), the moon is shining onto the high hall.
In (1 5), the sunlight of dusk is declining a decent hall. (3) Shadow Paths Sentences in this category present the fictive cast of shadow of an object. The object is regarded as the source of the emanation. 16) (-x-ГE ) 18) Couplet (16) depicts the shadow of flowers climbing up to the rails as the moon moves in the sky. Couplet (17) exhibits the shadow of trees falling onto the fan. The next couplet depicts a thread of deformed shadow of the sun at dusk spreading onto the water. In the last one, the moon is like a hook being thrown into the water for its clear shadow.
In all of the four cases, fictive motion appears as the shadow is described as leaving the source of emanation through a certain path onto an object, while in reality no entity moves at all. (4) Sensory Paths A “stimulus”, as Tally terms it, is emitted from the experienced along a path to the experience, who will therefore sense the stimulus, that is, perceive, smell, or hear the experienced. 23) In these lines above, be it the bell ring reaching the boat described in (20) or the fragrance coming to the poets’ faces in (21) and (22), the intangible stimulus is obviously conceptualized in the course of sensing it by the ear or the nose.
Couplet 23) has the same effect by describing the flute sound flying and dispersing all over the city. Besides this, Tally in his theory also mentions another pattern of line of sight outlined. The sentence below is used by Tally to demonstrate this pattern. It takes the experienced as subject and consolidates the conception of the experience as the source (Tally, 2000: 116). The old wallpaper show through the paint even to a casual passerby. The corresponding illustration is also seen in classical Chinese poetry. 24) (RAJA*L ) This couplet is an instance of the experienced, I. E. He willows, being perceived by the eye. In this way the subjectivity of the experienced is much more emphasized. B. Pattern Paths In this category, the motion depicted along a particular path is either a stationary event or a real one moving toward another direction. However, some form of motion must take place but meanwhile does not make out any fictive motion. In other words, the literary fictive motion is exhibited by virtue of the occurrence of another real motion. The real and the fictive together construe a pattern. 25) This poem composed for description of a sudden heavy rain.
In the couplet extracted, the rain dots are ascribed as running on the surface of the water. Here each of the dots is by no means moving across the water; the only motion in this picture is the big round rain The fictive motion in this category involves the observer and his surroundings. The latter is described as moving while the move is actually taken by the former. The following couplets represent the frame-relative motion. 26) In couplet (26), the object that actually in motion is the boat, but the poet describes the trees on the bank as impeding it, where the fictive motion takes place.
Couplet (27) presents the mountains walking towards the poet, who is moving n fact. In both cases, the frame, I. E. The stationary trees and the mountains, becomes activated relative to the motion by the boat and the poet respectively. D. Advent Paths Sentences of this type describe, in an animated way, the existence of a stationary object. It includes two sub-categories: the “site arrival” type, concerning the seemingly actual way of emergence of an object; and “site manifestation” type, depicting the appearance of an existing object. (1) Site Arrival Couplets of this type found in classical Chinese poetry are shown as follow. 8) E In couplet (28), it constructs the conception that he mountains have fallen to this location from a higher and more central place. In (29), the rock is described as lying onto the graceful stones, as if having previously kept a standing gesture. In both of these illustrations, fictive motion is mentally perceived concerning the existence of the described stationary objects. (2) Site Manifestation This type of “advent paths” depicts merely the existence of an object as if it came into being by the literal expression. The two couplets below are the examples of this type. 30) 31) The moon comes out, as in (30), as the cloud splits itself.
In couplet (31), the mountains on both sides of the river grow out oppositely. In such expressions, the appearance of the objects is described, which exhibits the fictive motion in this type. E. Access Paths In this category, the fictive motion is construed when describing the location of an object in relation to another one. 32) ( “SIDE ) 33) 34) 36) the hotfoot the Mount Titanium, the couple (32) describes the mountain as Jointed with the sky and even leaning across the sky. In couplet (33), the white sun is leaning toward the mountain. Couplet (34) shows the picture of green trees close to the village and mountains inclined to the county.
Couplet (35) describes the moon close to the hall. In couplet (36), the sky seems to be so close to the trees against the open and vast field. In such expressions, the fictive motion appears in the depiction of the closeness of an object to another. F. Extension Paths In this category, the fictive motion is construed when a stationary object is described of its extension along a path to illustrate its orientation or direction. In such sentences, it is conceptualized that an entity is moving along this described ) (-Г-AAA In couplet (37), the road extends into the bamboos in the distance.
Couplet (38) describes the tumultuous river clashes toward the mountain and extends along the high ground. Likewise, couplet (39) depicts the Yanking River runs up amid the winds. All these expressions involve the conceptualization of a fictive entity moving from one end of the object to the other. As stated above, the presented couplets are the selected ones from classical Chinese poetry with the exhibition of fictive motion, which are hereby explained within their respective categories. In the next section of the paper, a further analysis will be made on how the fictive motion is obtained in this genre.
The Construction of Fictive Motion in Classical Chinese Poetry In this part, the constructing of fictive motion in classical Chinese poetry will be investigated in three aspects. Firstly, the lexical role in construing fictive motion will be studied, followed by the analysis on the path outlined. Finally, the category of fictive motion in this particular genre will be further checked. A. The Lexical Role in Construing Fictive Motion In all these categories presented by Tally, the role of verbs and prepositions is defined as the key element for forming fictive motion, especially in the “emanation” tatter.
For prospect paths, “directional adaptations” are Jointly used with verbs to indicate the path (2000: 108), such as face, look out. The orientation of an object in the type of demonstrative paths directs one’s attention “along the path specified by the preposition” (ibid: 109). The line of sight is conceived as following a particular path defined by the “path preposition” (ibid: 110). In a radiation path, “the linguistic construction mainly involves the choices of subject, of path-specifying preposition, and of prepositional object” (ibid: 112).
Moreover, the shadow path in a sentence is established with “a motion verb like throw, cast, project, or fall”, and “a path preposition such as into, onto, across, or against” (ibid: 114). Despite the absolute importance of the co-occurrence of verbs and prepositions in English fictive motion, in Chinese poems, however, this is not always the case. As in the selected couplets with a “prospect path”, only a verb line (16) appears in the line to establish the fictive motion. On the other hand, prepositions alone can affect such a fictive motion as well. As these two lines go, and involve only the preposition “dud” (Nj) and “axing” (6).
The same analysis is made on all the extracted couplets of “orientation paths”, “radiation paths” and “shadow paths”. The table below exhibits the result. Table 1 Lexical Category construing the paths of fictive motion in classical Chinese poetry I Category I Sub-category Couplets I Lexical Category I I Emanation 1(1) 1(2) I Demonstrative Paths 1(6) (11) Paths I I Shadow Paths I none I Targeting Paths I Line of Sight I V+distance 1(13) 1(14) 1(18) I I Radiation According to this table, of the 19 couplets listed here, only three instances contain both the verb and the preposition.
The number of verbs alone indicating the path and that of prepositions is 6 and 5 respectively. Besides, other patterns are also seen here. In and a complement is combined with the verb Wang to trigger the fictive emission of the line of sight. Another case is seen in the line “G+ГГ”, where a distance is added to the verb going to outline a path. Furthermore, “RГBEg%” is the illustration of “radiation paths”, but no verbs or prepositions are used. The same case is shown in the line “AWEГњ-E*+”, with the moon (A) as the source, the shadow of flowers (u) as the figure, and the railings (E s the ground.
This case might be explained by the features of classical Chinese poetry. Due to the limits of characters of each line, the compact structure of the expression, and the magic idea it has to creates, a verb or a preposition may always be used alone to depict a picture. The feasibility of this practice lies in the fact that Chinese grammar allows a word to bear more than one lexical categories and a sentence to be lacking predicates. This is why the preposition Axing (6) and the adjective did (fГ) might be regarded as playing the role as verbs in “;E;#spill” ND “+178-83”, and no verb appears in the line “BEA-YГ?”. B.
The Paths Construed in the Fictive Motion On the ground of what has been discovered above, the paths construed in classical Chinese poetry manifest themselves in a different fashion. Generally speaking, apart from the subject and the object, a verb may decide which category of fictive motion a sentence belongs to, and a preposition may indicate the direction of the path constructed. Whereas in classical Chinese poetry, the lack of either verbs or prepositions will make the paths of fictive motion more implicit. Take for instance he line “Beg%”, only the radiator and the radiated appear in this picture, while the radiation is indeed hidden.
In “GEГњ-Et+”, the shadow of flowers climbs as the moon moves, because there must be is a projection of shadow implied in this course. The line has only an adjective did (fГ?) functioning as a verb to pressing down over the trees. In a word, the paths of fictive motion are usually implied between the lines in classical Chinese poetry, compared with that in English. C. The Categories of Fictive Motion From what has been discussed above, it is noticeable that some categories are not included in the analysis. This section deals with these categories as the main issue. 1) The Category Absent in Classical Chinese Poetry The first issue in this part concerns the “alignment paths” termed by Tally. In his doctrine an alignment path is construed from the front end of an object along a preposition specified orientation relative to a more distant object. The illustration of this category used by Tally is: The snake is lying toward/away from the light. It is contended by Tally that in this expression, “the snake’s body forms an approximately straight line that is aligned with the light” (Tally, 2000: 108). In spite of the validity of this understanding in English, at least in its according Chinese version, I. . None of such conception of alignment is evoked. The reason for this might be the difference of mental cognition between English and Chinese speakers, but no matter what accounts for the result, such category of fictive motion is hardly seen in Chinese poems. (2) New Category Emerging in Classical Chinese Poetry The special features of classical Chinese poetry bring about the appearance of a new category of fictive motion, shown in the following three examples. 40) ( 41) ) (n В«x;j-jВ» ) In the first couplet above, the willows are borrowing green color from the water.
In couplet (41), “on pink apricot branches spring is running wild” (translated by Xx, 2006). In both expressions, the stationary objects are personalized and equipped with the ability to move. However in couplet (42), the object is a formless one, I. E. The wrench and regret. Here it is described as possessing a certain shape with the verb IQ (W)). The visualization of psychological state is one of cases of kinesthesia. As a rhetorical device, “kinesthesia refers to the mixing of sensations or the stimulation f one sense (or ‘modality) that produces a mental impression associated with a different sense” (Ghana, 2005: 191).
Conclusion In this paper, the fictive motion is specifically investigated in the genre of classical Chinese poetry based on the categories proposed by Tally. A large amount of poems is covered in this research to find the illustrations of each category. The fictive motion in each selected couplet is explained in detail. Given the unique features of classical Chinese poetry, I. E. The compaction of words used, the way of constructing such fictive motion is analyzed and generalized. Firstly, by contrast with fictive motion in English, that in classical Chinese poetry is not necessarily construed by the combination of verb and preposition.
Other form such as the coexistence of verb and complement is also seen. Besides, in some cases no verb or preposition appears in a sentence of fictive motion. Furthermore, due to the lack of verb or preposition or both, the path of fictive motion is always implicit. Sometimes a mere subject and an object are symbolizing a fictive motion, or the radiated and the radiator alone is indicating an intangible path. And above all, as frequent rhetorical devices in also trigger the conceptualization of fictive motion.