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    ch 23 (Renaissance Instruments and Instrumental Music)

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    Buxheim Organ Book
    *one of the largest sources of Renaissance organ music; written about 1470, it contains 256 mostly anonymous compositions
    *most are arrangements of sacred and secular vocal music
    *written in keyboard tablature, a combination of note symbols (for the fast-moving upper part) and pitch letter names (for the lower parts)
    *for the first time we see bar lines in music (not always consistent, but generally mark off units of equal duration); this is much earlier than when bar lines appear in vocal music
    *Buxheim=the site of a monastery that still exists todaynear Munich in southern Germany
    keyboard tablature
    a combination of note symbols (for the fast-moving upper part) and pitch letter names (for the lower parts)
    clavichord
    a keyboard instrument that makes sound when a player depresses a key and thereby pushes a small metal tangent in the shape of a “T” upward to strike a string; the sound produced is very quiet, the softest of any musical instrument; but also the most expensive instrument
    consort
    an ensemble of instruments all of one family
    intabulation
    *an arrangement of a vocal or ensemble piece for keyboard, lute, or other plucked-string instruments
    (earliest intabulation appeared in the mid-14th century Robertsbridge Codex
    fantasia
    an imaginative composition the exact nature of which depends on the period of origin; in earlier eras these were usually contrapuntal works; later, the term suggested an improvisatory piece in free form, or sometimes pieces incorporating preexisting themes
    lute
    *a pear-shaped instrument with six sets of strings called courses, as well as frets created with thin strips of leather wrapped around the fingerboard at measured intervals, and a distinctive peg box that turns back at a right angle to the fingerboard; *during the sixteenth century the most popular of all musical instruments
    lute tablature
    a special type of notation for lute music that directs the fingers to stop strings at specific frets so as to produce sounds
    prelude
    a preliminary piece, one that comes immediately before and introduces the main musical event
    ricercar
    (sixteenth century) an instrumental piece, usually for lute or keyboard, similar in style to the imitative motet; (seventeenth century) Frescobaldi perfected a tightly organized, monothematic ricercar that influenced the later fugal writing of J.S. Bach
    viol
    *a six-string instrument fretted and tuned like the lute and vihuela, but bowed and not plucked;
    *it came in three sizes-treble, tenor, and bass- and was played with the instrument resting on the lap or legs
    *considered the aristocrat (while the violin was considered only for lowly professional musicians who labored playing for students at dancing lessons, at street parades, and in taverns)
    virginal
    a diminutive harpsichord possessing a single keyboard with the strings placed at right angles to the keys
    broken consort
    a mixed ensemble of different types of instruments
    canzona
    a freely composed instrumental piece, usually for organ or instrumental ensemble, which imitated the lively rhythms and lightly imitative style of the Parisian chanson
    Vihuela (Spanish guitar)
    a plucked string instrument with a waisted body, and a long pole-neck that serves as a fingerboard; the direct ancestor of the modern classical guitar
    violino
    (little viol) original name for the violin
    organ
    *keyboard instrument
    *first widely introduced into churches only during the late Middle Ages (14th)
    *embodiments of the newest technology in metallurgy and scientific measurement
    *for this reason, organs were usually put in the people’s part of the church at the back (west end), where they could be seen and heard by all
    *by the 16th, many churches in Europe had two organs,a large “show” organ at the back and a smaller one in the area of the church called the choir (east end)
    violin
    *first appeared in northern Italy around 1520 in towns such as Cremona (which became the center of violin building)
    *thought to be low class during the renaissance

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    ch 23 (Renaissance Instruments and Instrumental Music). (2017, Aug 28). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/ch-23-renaissance-instruments-and-instrumental-music-12713/

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