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    ch 23 (Renaissance Instruments and Instrumental Music)

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    Buxheim Organ Book
    *one of the largest sources of Renaissance organ music; written about 1470, it contains 256 mostly anonymous compositions
    *most are arrangements of sacred and secular vocal music
    *written in keyboard tablature, a combination of note symbols (for the fast-moving upper part) and pitch letter names (for the lower parts)
    *for the first time we see bar lines in music (not always consistent, but generally mark off units of equal duration); this is much earlier than when bar lines appear in vocal music
    *Buxheim=the site of a monastery that still exists todaynear Munich in southern Germany
    keyboard tablature
    a combination of note symbols (for the fast-moving upper part) and pitch letter names (for the lower parts)
    a keyboard instrument that makes sound when a player depresses a key and thereby pushes a small metal tangent in the shape of a “T” upward to strike a string; the sound produced is very quiet, the softest of any musical instrument; but also the most expensive instrument
    an ensemble of instruments all of one family
    *an arrangement of a vocal or ensemble piece for keyboard, lute, or other plucked-string instruments
    (earliest intabulation appeared in the mid-14th century Robertsbridge Codex
    an imaginative composition the exact nature of which depends on the period of origin; in earlier eras these were usually contrapuntal works; later, the term suggested an improvisatory piece in free form, or sometimes pieces incorporating preexisting themes
    *a pear-shaped instrument with six sets of strings called courses, as well as frets created with thin strips of leather wrapped around the fingerboard at measured intervals, and a distinctive peg box that turns back at a right angle to the fingerboard; *during the sixteenth century the most popular of all musical instruments
    lute tablature
    a special type of notation for lute music that directs the fingers to stop strings at specific frets so as to produce sounds
    a preliminary piece, one that comes immediately before and introduces the main musical event
    (sixteenth century) an instrumental piece, usually for lute or keyboard, similar in style to the imitative motet; (seventeenth century) Frescobaldi perfected a tightly organized, monothematic ricercar that influenced the later fugal writing of J.S. Bach
    *a six-string instrument fretted and tuned like the lute and vihuela, but bowed and not plucked;
    *it came in three sizes-treble, tenor, and bass- and was played with the instrument resting on the lap or legs
    *considered the aristocrat (while the violin was considered only for lowly professional musicians who labored playing for students at dancing lessons, at street parades, and in taverns)
    a diminutive harpsichord possessing a single keyboard with the strings placed at right angles to the keys
    broken consort
    a mixed ensemble of different types of instruments
    a freely composed instrumental piece, usually for organ or instrumental ensemble, which imitated the lively rhythms and lightly imitative style of the Parisian chanson
    Vihuela (Spanish guitar)
    a plucked string instrument with a waisted body, and a long pole-neck that serves as a fingerboard; the direct ancestor of the modern classical guitar
    (little viol) original name for the violin
    *keyboard instrument
    *first widely introduced into churches only during the late Middle Ages (14th)
    *embodiments of the newest technology in metallurgy and scientific measurement
    *for this reason, organs were usually put in the people’s part of the church at the back (west end), where they could be seen and heard by all
    *by the 16th, many churches in Europe had two organs,a large “show” organ at the back and a smaller one in the area of the church called the choir (east end)
    *first appeared in northern Italy around 1520 in towns such as Cremona (which became the center of violin building)
    *thought to be low class during the renaissance

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