What factors lead to the beginning of the renaissance in Northern Europe?
1. Population began to grow after bubonic plague declined.
2. Hundred year war between France & England ended.
3. Urban merchants became wealthy enough to give patronages to artists.
4. England & France had strong monarchs, sponsored artist by supporting and purchasing their works.
5. Humanist ideas spread to north after scholars, students, and merchants visited Italy.
What happened after the end of the plague in 1450 and the Hundred Years’ War in 1453?
Populations began to grow, Cities grew rapidly
By the late 1400’s where did the Renaissance spread?
Northern Europe – especially England, France, Germany and Flanders (part of France & Netherlands).
What did the works of DaVinci, Michelangelo and Raphael and Renaissance writers accomplish?
1. Demonstrated interest in classical culture.
Created a curiosity about the world.
3. Created a belief in the human potential.
These ideas impressed scholars, students, and merchants who visited Italy spreading Renaissance ideas.
What did merchants in northern cities do when they became wealthy?
They became patrons of the arts and sponsored artists.
Italy had strong city-states what did England and France have?
What unified Europe and France?
Strong monarchs that were patrons of the arts.
What was the artistic center of Northern Europe?
What was Fontainebleau
The castle of Francis I ruler of France.
Hired Italian architects and artists to rebuild and decorate. Became a showcase for Renaissance art.
Why did artists in 1494 move to northern Europe?
A French King invaded Naples in southern Italy and waged a war to the north. Artist moved to Europe for saftey, helped spread European Renaissance.
What were Northern Renaissance artists interested in?
What were northern humanists interested in?
Ideal of human dignity and social reform based on Judeo-Christian values.
German artist famous for realistic woodcuts and engravings. His works portrayed religious subjects, classical myths, and realistic landscapes. The popularity of his works helped spread Renaissance ideas.
German painter, photographic like portraits of English royalty.
What Flemish painter pioneered oil-based painting (layer on layer of paint to obtain subtle colors)?
Jan van Eyck
In addition to the new painting techniques that Van Eyck created, what else was notable about his painting?
Paintings displayed unusually realistic details to reveal the personalities of his subjects.
What Flemish artist captured realistic scenes of peasant life?
What techniques did Bruegel use to give life to his paintings?
1. Rich colors
3. Balanced use of space to give sense of life and feeling.
What were Northern humanists critical of?
The failure of the Christian Church to inspire people to live a Christian life. This was called Christian Humanism.
What was the focus of Christian Humanism?
1. To reform society and
2. To promote education, especially for women.
Foundation of schools for girls and boys.
Who were two of the best-known Christian humanist?
Desiderius Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More.
Desiderius Erasmus’s book, Praise of Folly, pokes fun at whom?
Greedy Merchants, lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests.
What did Thomas More write?
The book “Utopia”, a description of a model society with no greed, no corruption and no war.
People lived in peace and harmony with very little need for money?
What does “utopia” mean?
means “no place”, today it means the ideal place.
Christine de Pizan
First women writers, defender of women education and woman’s rights. The different treatment of boys and girls.
What did Christine de Pizan promote?
Education and equal treatment for boys and girls.
When did the Renaissance spread to England?
Why were the mid-1500s referred to as the Elizabethan Age?
After Queen Elizabeth I, who was reigning over England at the time. She spoke 4 languages and wrote poetry and music.
When did Queen Elizabeth I reign?
1558 to 1603
Who was referred to as the world’s greatest playwright and writer of the Elizabethan Age?
Where was Shakespeare born?
Where were Shakespeare’s plays performed?
London’s Globe Theatre
What are some ways that Shakespeare’s work showed Renaissance influence?
1. Revered the classics for inspiration and plots
A command of the English language (venacular)
3. Deep understanding of human nature.
4. Dramatic conflict involving human flaws.
Who invented movable type in 1045?
Bi Sheng of China
What is unique about moveable type?
It uses a separate piece of type for each character.
Who incorporated movable type and other new technologies to develop a printing press in 1440?
Johann Gutenberg a German craftsman.
What was the first book Gutenburg printed?
The Holy Bible
What were the major effects of the invention of the printing press on society?
1. Printer could produce hundreds of copies of a work making more information available.
2. Books cheap enough that many people could buy.
3. Produced a variety of books other than religious books.
4 Greater availability of books promoted increase in learning.
5. Laws were published, people got better understanding of their rights.
Increased the questioning of political structures and religious practices
What was art influenced by?
Classical Greece and Rome
Was art secular or religious?
What did writers use?
Their vernacular language.
What did art praise?
What changes in the Arts did the European Renaissance cause?
1. Techniques and styles of Greece and Rome.
Portrayed individuals and nature as more realistic and lifelike.
3. Art was both secular and religious.
Writers used the vernacular to express ideas.
5. Artist praised individual achievement.
What changes in the society did the European Renaissance cause?
All those created by the printing press.
2. Christian humanist reform changed views of how life should be lived.
People began to question political structure and religious practices.