AP Euro: Women’s History
2. Christine de Pizan was a prolific author who wrote a history of famous women and is now remembered as Europe’s first feminist.
3. Isabella d’Este was the most famous Renaissance woman. Her life illustrates that being a patron of the arts was the most socially acceptable role for a well-educated Renaissance woman.
2. The Protestant Reformation reduced access to convents, thus changing the role of sixteenth-century women.
3. Quakers regularly allowed women to preach.
4. Older, widowed women were most often accused of practicing witchcraft.
2. Support for superstition and witchcraft declined as educated Europeans turned to rational explanations for natural events.
2. Most couples postponed marriage until they were in their mid- to late 20’s.
3. Young peasant women increasingly left home to work as domestic servants.
2. Women did not gain the right to vote or to hold political office.
3. Olympia de Gouges wrote the “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen.” She demanded that French women be given the same rights as men.
4. Mary Wollstonecraft wrote “A Vindication of the Rights of Women.” She argued that women are not naturally inferior to men. They only appear to be inferior because of a lack of education.
5. Napoleon Bonaparte’s Civil Code reasserted the Old Regime’s patriarchal system. The Code granted husbands extensive control over their wives. For example, married women needed their husband’s consent to dispose of their own property. Divorce and property rights taken away by the Napoleonic Code were not fully restored until 1881.
2. Henrik Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” criticized conventional marriage roles.
3. The ideal middle-class woman was expected to be an “angel in the house.” Her most important roles were to be a devoted mother and the family’s moral guardian.
4. Rising standards of living made it possible for men and women to marry at a younger age. At the same time, the rising cost of child rearing caused a decline in the size of middle-class families.
5. Few married women worked outside the home. Most working women were single.
6. Opportunities for well-educated women were limited to teaching, nursing, and social work.
7. Law codes in most European countries gave women few legal rights. Divorce was legalized in Britain in 1857 and in France in 1884. However, Catholic countries such as Spain and Italy did not permit divorce.
8. 19th century women’s rights advocates worked for the right of women to control their own property.
9. By the end of the 19th century, educated middle-class “new women” enjoyed more independent lifestyles.
10. As mass culture developed, fashion magazines made middle-class and working-class women more aware of style. At the same time, booksellers began to publish more fictional romances as well as articles and poems by female authors.
2. Led by Emmeline Pankhust, British women waged an aggressive campaign for women’s suffrage.
3. During WWI, millions of women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops.
4. In 1918, Parliament granted the suffrage to women over the age of 30.
2. The Bolsheviks proclaimed complete equality of rights for women.
3. Soviet women were urged to work outside the home. Divorce and abortion were both easily available.
4. Soviet women were encouraged to become professionals. By 1950, women comprised three-quarters of the doctors in the Soviet Union.
2. During World War II, the commitment to total war caused millions of women to enter the workforce.
3. Women contributed directly to the war effort by serving as nurses and medics. In the Soviet Union, women known as “night witches” served as combat pilots.
4. Postwar reconstruction required women to continue working.
5. French and Italian women gained the franchise in 1945.
2. European feminists worked for liberalized divorce laws, improved access to birth control information, and expanded child-care facilities.
3. During the postwar period, European women married earlier and gave birth to fewer children.
4. Employment rates for married women dramatically increased.