Benner’s theory of Novice to Expert has been adopted by the operating room where I pattern. This theory was chosen because the operating room has alone educational demands and novice versus adept hierarchy issues that are non normally found in general nursing units. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief history of the development of nursing and how the pattern of nursing has evolved into a theory based profession. The following subdivision. Benner’s theory. Novice to Expert. will incorporate an analysis of the cardinal constructs of the theory and how this theory relates to the nursing metaparadigm. The 3rd subdivision will exemplify how Benner’s theory is applied in clinical pattern and sketch the functions of nurses. nursing leading and nurse pedagogues. Last. the 4th subdivision will reason what has been learned from analysing this theory.
The Importance of Nursing Theory The nursing profession has been around for centuries. long before formal instruction was introduced. In 1863 the University of Pennsylvania offered a six month class in nursing. and is considered one of the first organized schools for nurse in the United States. Many other schools followed suit. and began offering formal instruction for nurses under the way of doctors. and was structured as an on-the-job preparation plan within the infirmaries. These colleges taught the same theoretical format to the nursing pupils. utilizing chiefly regulations. rules of pattern and traditions. In the same epoch. Florence Nightingale was making an instruction and theoretical attack to nursing in Europe. As the profession established itself as a care-maiden to doctors. the profession and the theory of nursing pattern didn’t progress until about a century subsequently.
Get downing in the early 1950s. nursing pattern took a dramatic alteration from regulations and tradition to scientifically based higher instruction and pattern theory. In the seventies. the National League of Nursing required that nursing course of study be based on theoretical and conceptual model. At this clip theorists began to progress and spread out as colleges taught nursing theory as a model for higher instruction. Nursing theory defines the nature. construction. constructs and relationships between nursing constructs ( Fawcett 1995. Meleis 2005 ) . Patricia Benner is a nursing theoretician who foremost published From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. in 1984. This theory is still widely used and respected. and has continued to germinate. Harmonizing to Benner. the theory of nursing encompasses both the medical and nursing scientific cognition that has been imparted to the trainee. largely in nursing school. and the regulations of pollex that are mostly acquired during on-the-job preparation and experience ( Benner. Tanner & A ; Chesla. 2009 ) . This theory outlines the development of the nurse from novitiate to expert in professional pattern and focuses on the nurse’s function independent of the doctor. Benner’s Theory. Novice to Expert
Benner‘s theory. Novice to Expert. provinces that pattern and theory are intertwined. Neither can stand entirely. and each drama an built-in function in the development and proficiency of the practicing nurse. To farther depict the importance of the relationship between theory and pattern and specify the intent of the theory. Benner provinces. “nursing is a lovingness pattern that goes beyond theory wholly and shows that where human significance is at interest. one needs a sort of intuition that can ne’er be captured by rational theory. theory is dependent on pattern. and ground requires intuition” ( Benner. Tanner & A ; Chesla. 2009 ) . This has been my experience as a new nurse in the operating room many old ages ago and. soon. as an operating room nursing manager. Benner’s theory is designed around several stages in the development of the nurse from come ining the field after graduation. to accomplishing a degree of pattern competency. to going an expert with the ability to present sound. consistent clinical judgement.
The nursing metaparadigm outlines nursing attention in four basic constructs. individual. environment. wellness and nursing pattern. The inquiry is. are new nurses able to run into the four constructs of the nursing metaparadigm upon entry into pattern? Benner’s premiss was centered on an country of nursing that had non been studied. the existent pattern and clinical acquisition of new nurses ( Benner. 1984. Benner. & A ; Benner. 1979 ) . In 2001. the National Council of State Board of Nursing was describing something really similar. “new nurses enter pattern feeling unprepared. and they report that employers rank the readying for new registered nurses as inadequate in many areas” ( National Council of State Boards of Nursing ( NCSBN. 2001 ) . Benner’s theory designs a civilization of recognition that Fosters learning and larning through the continuum of the nurse’s calling. This is in an attempt to supply safe. competent attention to every patient. every clip. When the theory is followed. the nurse can guarantee the demands of the patient within the nursing metaparadigm are reached. Novice to Expert in Clinical Practice
Benner’s Novice to Expert theory places the burden on nursing leading and pedagogues to plan orientation processes to help the new nurse in the passage from school to pattern. One such recommendation provinces. “a new-graduate residence plan lasting at least 1 twelvemonth with planned coursework. mentoring. and usage of first-person experience-near-nursing narrations of experiential acquisition to assist new nurses reflect on their experiential acquisition and joint what they are larning in practice” ( Geertz. 1987 ) . This closely theoretical accounts the Association of Operating Room Peri-operative Nurse 101 developing plan that is in topographic point in the establishment where I pattern. Every nine months two nurses are selected ( either new alumnus or experienced ) and are put through an integrated didactic and practical preparation plan.
They are given lessons on pattern theory so paired with a don for on-the-job preparation. Regular ratings are performed and the nurse bit by bit evolves into unsupervised pattern. The novitiate nurses in this plan become safe. confident. competent nurses who are able to acknowledge when they are non the best qualified individual to run into the demands of the patient.
On the opposite terminal of Benner’s theory is the adept nurse. The expert nurse has frequently been an unclear participant in the attention of the patient. This nurse is the “go-to” individual that solves alone jobs or has experience with alone clinical presentation. In an article turn toing patient mortality rates. the writers Aikinm. Smith and Lake suggest the nurse expert should be treated as: “While competent clinical nurses are extremely skilled. the ability of the adept nurse to be proactive instead than reactive. and to see and move on behalf of the patient before the formal indexs are clear. is such a spring in applied nursing that their public presentation must be recognized. rewarded. and provided the organisational support to run effectively” ( Aikin. Smith. & A ; Lake. 1994 ) . In the operating room where I pattern. nurse experts are acknowledged as experts and have a duty that comes with that differentiation. Meeting the demands of the patient does non ever intend merely patient attention.
The adept nurse is able to lend to the nursing metaparadigm constructs of individual. environment. wellness and nursing pattern in a more extremely skilled manner. Some adept nurses are trained as dons and work in the peri-op preparation plan to assist novitiate nurses grow and view the patient as a complex being. and acquire beyond executing merely undertakings. Many adept nurses take part in shared-leadership undertakings such as patient safety. operating room efficiencies and patient satisfaction. These functions address infirmary policy and aid set procedures in topographic point that make the multifaceted attention of the patient safer and more efficient. In an attempt to besides take the expert into their following functions as leaders. expert nurses are put into the hospital’s endowment mapping plan for future publicities and leading preparation. Bringing nursing theory to the head of our mundane pattern has had a positive consequence on the nurses. phsycians and patients. No longer do we believe a nurse is a nurse. There is a witting recognition of the skill sets of practicians and everyone is proud of their functions in the patient experience. Decision
Nursing pattern is an of all time altering field. Theories in nursing have evolved. and much like Benner’s theory. the theory takes on deeper penetration into the attention of the patient with regard to the development of nurses pattern accomplishments and experience and is relevant in todays pattern. Benner’s theory is designed to steer nurses and nurse leaders in the ripening procedure of nursing accomplishments and to promote those accomplishments to the following degree. Nurses must continuously intermix practical experience and established theory to make a safe. holistic experience for every patient. every clip.
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