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    Trade, Travel, and Education
    How did Renaissance ideas spread?
    Painting the Sistine Chapel and his marble sculptures that show his ability in realistic masterpieces
    What is Michelangelo known for?
    Moveable type printing press
    Johannes Gutenburg made the 1st…
    Giorgione a skilled fresco artist
    Titian trained under…
    Nuremberg, Germany
    Albrecht Durer was from…
    Beautiful woodcuts and engravings
    Albrecht Durer was talented at making…
    Named Italy’s court painter under HRE Charles V and appointed by Charles V a knight
    An achievement of Titian would be…
    Andreas Vesalius shed light on … errors of the human body
    On he Structure of the Human Body, the 1st modern medical textbook
    Andreas Vesalius’s book … is considered…
    Who came up with the theory Earth and other planets orbit the Sun
    On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres by: Nicolaus Copernicus, his idea went against the Catholic Church belief that God put humans in the center of the universe
    Why was the book… banned by the Church in 1616
    Supporter of: art, scholarship, CC’s voyages, unified Spain with Ferdinand of Aragon
    What are 3 characteristics of Queen Isabella I
    Shakespeare’s 14 line poems…
    human behavior and emotions
    Shakespeare’s plays show he had a deep understanding of …
    authorizing English trading in companies in other continents
    Queen Elizabeth encouraged trade and commerce by…
    Don Quixote
    Miguel Cervantes (Spanish writer) wrote …
    artist, architect, engineer
    Leonardo da Vinci was a seasoned…
    North Africa, he was a slave, until his family came to get him
    Why was Miguel Cervantes in … for five years
    Born in Florence, Italian Sculptor and painter, bad temper
    bad temper, (mother died at 6, dad was stern) became an apprentice to a painter in Florence at 13, Age 15 studied with a sculptor who worked for the Medici family, where he met thinkers, artists, and writers
    Michelangelo’s Training and personality
    art= idealistic beauty with expressive emotion, Sistine Chapel ceiling (took 4 years to paint the ceiling with bright scenes from the Bible
    Michelangelo’s talent/Achievements
    (shows 300 figures that still leave tourists in awe)
    Embracing the body of Jesus on her lap
    Michelangelo’s La Pieta shows…
    1. 17 ft with idealistic beauty and an intense look of youth about to go into battle 2. A strong powerful Moses holding the 10 commandments
    Michelangelo’s David (2.) and Moses (1.) show…
    Italian court painter, born in the Italian Alps, moved to Venice
    Sent to Venice as an apprentice with famous painters, studied examples of art from Rome and Florence, soon created his own style (after he became rich, he convinced patrons to support his art by claiming to be poor) -persuasive – generous
    Titian’s Personality/Training
    Earlier style: precise Later style: free Used blobs of paint to create vivid forms, colors, and texture
    1516: official painter of Venice
    Titian’s Talent/Achievements
    Color, lively brushwork that made pictures lifelike , expressed human personality; his art depicted scenes of myths and Bible stories, portraits of the rich and powerful (ex. HRE Charles V)
    Titian is known for…
    -son of a goldsmith, learned his father’s trade -became an apprentice at 15 (of a painter/printmaker) -studied math, Latin, and classic literature -met humanists while traveling through Germany, Italy, and Flanders – studied classical sculpting to learn ideal human proportions
    Albrecht Durer’s training/personality
    fashionable, confident, with an intellectual approach to life and art (asked himself what is beauty, his art reflected an answer)
    Albrecht Durer’s self portraits showed him to be …
    -blended the detailed style of Germany with the perspective and idealized beauty he learned from Italy -encouraged the study of math as a key understanding to the Ren. and classical art
    Durer’s style…
    religious figures and subjects from myths, like other, he mad portraits of powerful people
    Durer’s art depicted
    HRE Maximilian, his work admired his engravings and woodcuts, they set a new standard for printmaking because of their clarity, expressiveness, and fine detail
    Durer was a court artist for…
    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Polish scientist from Torun, Poland
    Age 10, his father died , his uncle (a Catholic bishop) became his guardian and assured him a good education. Attended university of Krakow (Poland) -Highly creative -free thinker -unafraid to question accepted beliefs
    Copernicus’s Personality/Training
    studied medicine and Church law in Italy, and rented a room from an astronomy teacher and soon became fascinated by astronomy
    Copernicus studied…
    Talent: skilled in math and observation, based his thinking on what he saw instead of what he though he should see
    Copernicus’s talent
    Although, he was taught Earth was the center of the universe, he proposed Earth and the other planets orbit the Sun, and Earth rotates on an axis.
    Copernicus’s Theory
    1514: printed a booklet on his theory, “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres” Although, the idea of the Earth traveling around the Sun went against the Catholic belief. 1616: The Church forbade people to read his book
    Copernicus’s Accomplishments
    Andreas Vesalius
    Belgian Scientist, from Brussels, Flanders
    Always been interested in anatomy -Hardworking, curious, and confident -gloomy/distant sometimes
    Vesalius’s Personality
    -Raised by doctors and pharmacists -Went to Universities in: Italy, Belgium, and France -1537: medical degree in anatomy -Personal doctor to Italian and Spanish royalty
    Vesalius’s Training
    -Observant -independent thinker -artistic skill (to make detailed drawings of observations)
    Vesalius’s talent
    The human anatomy was the same as animal anatomy
    Galen’s original theory (greek physician)
    By dissecting dead human bodies, he proved animal anatomy was different from human, which caused Galen’s theory to have many errors. -AV found the heart had 4 chambers
    Vesalius’s Theory
    Wrote: On the Structures of the Human Body, 7 volume first modern medical textbook. Explained the body’s functions with prints based on his drawings. Changed the way people studied the human body and their understanding of medicine
    Vesalius’s Achievements
    Isabella I
    Queen of Spain from Castile, Spain
    -Strong willed -highly intelligent -Catholic -supported art and scholarship -collected fine paintings and built schools -forceful and brave ruler
    Isabella’s Personality
    Daughter of Castile’s king, with limited education she taught herself Latin
    Isabella’s training
    Marries Prince Ferdinand of Aragon
    Isabella 1469
    Becomes queen of Castile
    Isabella 1474
    Ferdinand inherits the throne of Aragon , both isabella
    Isabella 1479
    From giving her support to Christopher Columbus (who proposes to find a new route to Asia) who sails across the Atlantic to the Americas, his discovery of the New World led to a Spanish Empire
    Isabella 1492
    By trying to unify Spain as a Catholic country, Jews who didn’t convert had to leave, many talented and productive citizens were gone
    Spanish Inquisition
    Elizabeth I
    Queen of England, from London, Daughter of King Henry VIII and Queen Anne
    Elizabeth’s Training
    Claiming she was unfaithful, her dad ordered her mom to be beheaded when Elizabeth was 2. She was raised separate away form the royal court -english scholar was her teacher, was educated as a future monarch
    -Gifted -Highly Educated -Fluent in Greek, Latin, French, Italian -strong minded -open to advice -knew what was best for the people of England (never married because she felt she was married to the people of England)
    Elizabeth’s Personality
    (inspired great love and royalty to her subjects, they called her: Good Queen Bess)
    Worked to strengthen England’s economy -showed political skill in balancing different interests of people in her court
    Elizabeth’s Talent
    Reigned until her death, considered the Golden Age (culture thrived) She supported: theater, fashion, literature, dance, and education. Poets and playwrights composed their greatest works during her reign. Her funding of sea exploration helped gain territory in North America
    Elizabeth’s Achievements
    The English Navy beat the Spanish Armada , the victory sparked a national celebration and strengthened England’s sea power
    Elizabeth 1588
    William Shakespeare
    English Poet and Playwright from Stratford-on- Avon, England
    Studied Latin and classic literature, never went to a university. Became an actor with a theater company in London, learned about drama by performing and writing plays. Most of his were performed at London’s Globe Theater
    Shakespeare’s training
    -Quiet and Mysterious -his writings convey him as curious and observant -thought deeply about life and its sufferings -also had a sense of humor
    Shakespeare’s Personality
    -skilled actor -better poet/playwright -used rhetoric for thoughts and feelings -used vivid character, exciting drama
    Shakespeare’s Talent
    Sonnets and 38 plays are most admired poetry -wrote tragedy and comedy 0many of his plays are still performed in tv series and movies
    Facts about Shakespeare
    Wrote about timeless themes; cover a broad range of subjects
    Shakespeare’s writing style
    Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, Julius Caesar, All’s Well That Ends Well, The Merchant of Venice
    Most popular plays
    -had a deep influence on future writers -left a mark in the English language (ex. much ado about nothing)
    Shakespeare’s Achievements
    Miguel Cervantes
    Spanish Writer, from Madrid, Spain
    -little is known about his education -became a soldier at 23
    Miguel’s Training
    -loved to read -courageous and adventureous -biting sense of humor, that he sometimes turned on himself
    Miguel’s Personality
    In a battle on sea, he was shot twice and his left hand was useless.
    Cervantes Facts
    -Gifted writer: plays, poems, novels, and satire
    Cervantes’s Talent
    Makes fun of romantic stories of knights as well as Spanish society. Don Quixote (character) read too many tales of knights, knowing he is too old to be a knight he suites up in armor and sets out to do noble deeds . His sidekick: Sensho Panza a farmer who rides a mule is Don’s faithful squire. Together they have comic adventures, in Don’s imagination: hotels are castles and windmills are giants. Although, it is funny, he is still noble in the way he fights (even if it is his imagination)
    Don Quixote Facts
    Don Quixote became very popular in Spain (King Phillip III) Considered a masterpiece in world literature
    Cervantes’s Achievements
    Leonardo da Vinci
    Renaissance person from Florence, Italy
    -in Florence under a master sculptor/painter -spent his life in Florence and Milan working as an artist, engineer, and architect for kings, popes, and other wealthy people
    da Vinci’s training…
    -special love for animals -bought caged animals at the market and set them free -vegetarian -his notebooks show him to be one of the most creative minds in the world
    da Vinci’s personality…
    -studied principles of geometry, mechanics, and the science of motion and force to help organize space in his paintings
    da Vinci’s art technique
    -designed weapons, buildings (helicopter/submarine) that were WAY ahead of his time – displays a remarkable use of perspective, balance, and detail -rich effects of shade and color, showed his study of light -inspired other artists like Michelangelo
    da Vinci’s achievements
    Central Europe
    Holy Roman Empire’s location
    Central Italy, small part of the bottom of the HRE
    Papal State’s location
    France borders the HRE to the..
    Spain borders the HRE and France to the…
    North (island in the North Sea)
    England borders the HRE to the…
    France (Sien River)
    England (Thames River)
    HRE (Rhine River)
    Hungary (Danube River)
    Vienna and Budapest
    Border of HRE
    Southern France
    moved the Church from the Papal States to Avignon, France
    1309 Pope Clement V…
    revival of the classical period’s culture as well as improvements
    Renaissance is a…
    Merchants and Crusaders brought back ideas and goods from the East (classical learning was preserved from the Byz. empire)
    1. cause for the Renaissance
    The Church kept knowledge of ancient times alive by copying books that survived from classical times
    2. cause for the Renaissance
    Europeans also read classical works that came by way of Muslim scholars (Moorishes)
    3. cause for the Renaissance
    importance of ordinary people , civic leaders, gods and goddesses
    Purpose of Classical art
    teach religion to people who were illiterate
    Purpose of Medieval art
    Show importance of people and nature (not just religious ideas)
    Purpose of Renaissance art
    -faces had no emotion -bodies look in motion -nude or in togas/robes – valued balance and harmony -heroic real people doing daily tasks
    Characteristics of Classical art
    -religious -important figures were bigger than those around them -stiff -fully dressed -faces were stiff -flat – background one color -inproprtional
    Characteristics of Medieval Art
    -religious or non religious -interest in nature -realistic or 3-D -shows increase in knowledge ( anatomy) – bodies in motion -faces were expressive -colors responded to light -symmetrical -full background showed perspective and depth
    Characteristics of Renaissance Art
    increase of wealth=art/learning rich families supported art and new buildings (universities, libraries, and hospitals)
    Influence of Italian City-States
    Growing trade= more classical text, art, and artifacts on trade routes= more interest in classical culture. Money currency= wealth for merchants and bankers= new buildings and beautiful cities
    Growth of Trade and Commerce
    Question everything, changed ideas about government, social class, and religion. New study techniques and inventions put ancient ideas into practice while still improving on them.
    Growth of Humanism
    conquests made it safe to travel along the Silk Road. Marco Polo’s travels sparked a greater interest in the East and helped encourage the transport of food, art, and luxury goods on the route
    In the 13th century Mongol…
    Money economy, coins to buy merchandise, gave wealth and social class to merchants and bankers
    Results of an increase in trade
    Powerful cities, surrounding towns an countryside-independent -usually republic -governed by elected councils -or ruled by rich merchants, guilds, and powerful families
    Italian City-State definition
    (governed by boards in a republic, but basically the rich had the power
    central location, Mediterranean=trade prosper -middle of trade routes -each city-state had their own specialty
    City-States became powerful because of…
    people could shape their own lives and achieve great things, they weren’t limited by their birth status
    Humanists believed…
    classical art, architecture , government, history, poetry, and language
    Humanists studied…
    Church: laws by God that made people follow its teachings without questions like focusing on the afterlife; Humanists: say to focus on your life on Earth and question everything
    Why did humanist beliefs conflict with the Church
    Santa Maria del Fiore uses the dome ,(Ancient Rome) bridges have arches, and Churches have stain glass windows
    Florence is in a valley, what type of architecture does the city utilize from the classical and medieval periods
    LOCATION on the Arno river, banking center, center of trade and commerce (rued by the Medici family)
    What gave Florence so much wealth?
    patrons for artists and thinkers
    Wealthy residents were…
    -do business -study art -learn at schools and libraries -brought new ideas, goods, and technology
    Travelers came to Florence to…
    ancient ruins
    Renaissance buildings were modeled on…
    Columns and arch/dome/roofs
    Inspired by Greek… and Roman …
    Humanists valued…
    public buildings for citizens to interact, humanists valued citizenship
    Architects built… because…
    8 stone arches lean into each other with iron, wood, and brick hoops wrapped around each arch
    Brunelleschi’s dome
    1. real people of all classes (self portraits) 2.more realistic, concerned with emotion and perspective
    1. Humanist influence 2. Classical influence on painters
    Muslim inhabitants on the Iberian Penn., who were pushed back into Granada during the Reconquista, they preserved classical texts
    Located on the Arno river, the most populous in the Tuscany region of Italy, is considered the cradle of the Renaissance
    feudal system
    One reason Italy became the birthplace of the Renaissance is because, there was no…
    Don Quixote
    First major work in Spanish literature
    It was written in Italian instead of Latin
    Dante Aligheri’s work The Divine Comedy was important because
    Italian city-states on the East became wealthy
    How did trade on the Silk Road help cause the Renaissance?
    The author of the Divine Comedy, a humanist novel that was the first to be written in a native language, Italian
    Dante Aligheri was…
    an architect who studied ancient ruins and math involving constructing buildings, he created a dome for the Santa del Fiore (duomo)
    Filipo Brunelleschi was…
    a Florentine states man and historian, served as a diplomat and observed actions of Italian rulers. He wrote The Prince an account of how government and politics really worked
    Niccolo Machiavelli was
    a leading patron of art and scholarship, ruled Florence for about 20 years
    Lorenzo de’Medici was…
    -natural -1st freestanding statue since ancient times -showed expression -life sized
    Donatello’s David
    -17 ft -marble
    Michelangelo’s David
    -secular -vernacular -individual style-expressed thoughts and feelings about life
    Three differences between Ren. and Med. literature
    Something written in a native language (rather than Latin) so more people could read their work
    What is vernacular?
    -questioned old ideas -used scientific methods (made observations and performed experiments) -analyzed results using math and logic
    How did science change during the Renaissance
    Perspective (more realistic) Oil painting,(easier to paint over, and make new details and textures) anatomy/geometry (divide space)
    Three advances in painting techniques
    The Adoration of Magi (1482)
    Boticelli painted…
    Social commentary-real people as characters
    Displayed people’s own thoughts and feelings
    Why was the Divine Comedy an example of humanist art
    Do what is best rather then what is good or moral, they could even lie to help them rule, it doesn’t matter what happens in the beginning as long as the end is good, rulers should be feared rather than loved
    Machiavelli advises rulers to…
    humanist ideals about people’s goodness, it separates ideas about government from ideas about religion, it is a very modern work
    The Prince seemed to contradict …
    being bankers and patrons
    The Medici family gained power by…
    -controlled many aspects of life -built palaces -sponsored art, writers, and musicians, beautified Florence -watchful of plots against them
    How did the Medici rule influence Florence?
    government and politics and how rulers could make their states strong
    The Prince was about…
    -live your life according to the art of war -master war above all else -be adaptable -your outcome justifies your actions
    Machiavelli suggested to…
    -woolen cloth -banking
    What industries was Florence the center of
    -clean -banking, convert money into florins and get loans -no food or weapons -clothes
    New Market
    -crowded, busy -everyday goods
    Old Market

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