Burke Marx MLK Malcolm X De Gouges WollstoneCraft Mill CLASSIFICATION Conservative Socialist Radical Radical Liberal Liberal Liberal HISTORICAL TIME PERIOD 18th century 19th century 20th century 20th century 18th century 18th century 19th century HISTORICAL CONTEXT -French Revolution -End of enlightenment – Books: “reflections on the revolution in Fr” -England -Industrial Revolution -Rise of factories -Decline of agrarian economy -Class divisions between owners of factories (bourgeoisie) and wage earners (proletariat) -American civil rights movement.
-letter from Birmingham jail – reasons for why this happened in 1950s: 1. migration of blacks country –> city 2. WWII against racism 3. TV showed the reality of the situation Same as MLK Besides his work is called -The ballet or the bullet – her book: Declaration the Rights of Women and Citizens -reasons for why it happened now: -Spirit of the age econ dev. Indust rev. (rise of factories) no sexual division of labor -right after fr. + am. Rev -inv. Of childhood new role for women as maternal -same historical context- De Gourges.
-wrote revolutionary text on rights of women -her book is called: A vindication of the Rights of Women -rise of democracy -Associated with Am + Fr. Revolution (50, 40 yrs) -rise of popular sovereignty -suffrage gets expanded -Rise of popular newspaper -increased literacy -On liberty – personal rights has a new enemy the ppl themselves -old enemy defeated (powers of kings, clerics, arist. ) -proposed bill in parl. To allow ppl to vote HUMAN NATURE -humans have very small capacity to reason, not rational (pg 72, 74 in packet) -creatures of emotion and feeling.
-men produce goods even when they don’t have immediate needs–> separates man from animal -humans have capacity to be creative -4 types of alienation 1. alienation of the worker from the product of his work 2. alienation of the worker from the activity of production 3. alienation of the worker from his “species-being” or human identity 4. alienation of man from man -integrationalist (integration between blacks and whites, he still have hope in the right race) -christ notion of universal love -non-violent resistance -all Christians, black and white are capable of universal love
– -separatist (races have to be separate) -emphasizes that blacks can do civi.l rights movement themselves -All humans, whether men or women are rational -Reject ideas of previous thinkers that women are weak by nature (intellectually) -there is an inequality physically, but not mentally -All humans, whether men or women are rational -Reject ideas of previous thinkers that women are weak by nature (intellectually) -there is an inequality physically, but not mentally -idea of women being mentally weak comes from socialization, not from actual truth.
-ppl have natural rights -discusses issue of authenticity -all human beings are rational but we are also fallible (386) PURPOSE OF STATE -keep order -restrain and suppress individual passion because people are irrational -basis of government not based on abstract ideas, metaphysical rights but on experience of past (353) and (72-73) -people need to respect the state’s authority -reality: to serve and protect economic and political interests of the dominant class (449) -ideal: in a classless society there is no dominant class so there is no state. -in favor of reform.
-extends right and opportunities for women (locke’s theory applied on women) -in favor of reform -extends right and opportunities for women (locke’s theory applied on women) -provide education for all children -tyranny of the majority is suppressing the minority -protect freedom of speech -protect fundamental rights of everyone including women -suppress the majority so we cant invade the minority’s right WHO SHOULD RULE -no preference, govt that has been around should rule -people with experience rather than expertise (opp of plato) (353, 72-73 pkt).
-Ultimately, temporary dictatorship of the proletarian and eventually, no state because it is a communist utopia -anyone who promotes non violence and equality for all races -black measures to bring about equality but separation for races -no preference, so long as basic rights upheld for both men and women -both sexes can rule -no preference, so long as basic rights upheld for both men and women -both sexes can rule -to have legitimacy, the govt must include the people -popular sovereignty–> the people decide who should rule–> monarchs, nobles + clergy are agents of tyranny.
-mill supports limited democracy with safeguards that prevent the majority from infringing on nights of minority (379-380) INDIVIDUAL VS. COMMUNITY -people do not have natural rights –> do not exist -natural rights are abstract ideas made by intellectuals -people cannot choose gov. -community over individual -community has a sense of history -community: favors the happiness and equality of the community over individual wealth and happiness -individual rights of women and men should be the same -women educated -individual rights of women–> some rights as men -women educated.
-community–> everyone should have free education where both sexes have education together -support for individual rights -harm principle –> the community can only infringe upon the individuals rights if the individual causes physical or economic harm -sanctity of the individual-no one can tell the individual what to do-but you can argue and persuade him Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Philosophy and Theology section.