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Music Appreciation-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance

Characteristics of the Middle Ages
Everything was done anonymously
Everyone (including rulers) was illiterate
-Exception: Priests, nuns, bishops, ect
Two Divisions of the Middle Ages
Romanesque Period (450-1000 AD); otherwise known as the “Dark Ages”
Gothic Period (1000-1450 AD); otherwise known as the “High Middle Ages”
Two Areas of Power in the Middle Ages
The state (lords, dukes, kings, ect)
The Holy Roman Catholic Church
-directed everything with regard to art
-daily life revolved around the life of the church
-all of the service was sung
-all in Latin

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Liturgy
Higher authority
Highly organized system of worship in the church
Church seasons: Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, Pentecost (Trinity)
Chant
Responsible for everything in liturgy for 600 years
Also called Gregorian chant, plainchant or plainsong
5 Characteristic of Chant
Monophonic
Limited Pitch Range
Non-metrical
Church modes (early version of scales)
In Latin
Organum
Around 1100, Leonin took an existing chant and added another voice creating polyphonic music (took place at Notre Dame Cathedral)
Earliest form of polyphonic music
Over 75-100 years 2 part gave way to 3 part which gave way to 4 part
Leonin
Organist and Choir master at Notre Dame Cathedral in the 12th century
Created 2 part organum that still supported the liturgy and was written for mass
Perotin
Student of Leonin
Organist and choir master at Notre Dame Cathedral in the 13th century
Created 3 and 4 part organum that still supported the liturgy and was written for mass
Mass
most important part of the services of the Catholic church
Two Main Parts of the Mass
Ordinary: parts that never change
Proper: All other parts who texts change daily, weekly or for special occasions
5 Parts of the Ordinary
Kyrie
Gloria
Credo
Sanctus/Benedictus
Agnus Dei
Guillame De Machaut (1300-1377)
Wrote both sacred and secular music
First composer to compose all 5 parts of the mass (complete setting)
Troubadors (S. France)/Trouveres (N. France)
Noble singer poets who travelled from court-to-court to perform
Instruments of the Middle Ages
simple accompaniment
Played what was sung
Woodwinds of the Middle Ages
Recorder
Crumhorn (early oboe)
Strings of the Middle Ages
Harp
Lute
Brass of the Middle Ages
Cornetto
Herald Trumpets
Sackbut (early trombone)
Percussion of the Middle Ages
Tambourine
Tabor
Hacker
Keyboards of the Middle Ages
Harpsichord
Organ
What was the Renaissance?
A rebirth/reawakening/renewal of the arts and culture of the ancient Greeks and Romans
3 Major Events of the Renaissance
Discovery of America
The Protestant Reformation
The Printing Press
Style of the Renaissance
A capella
Word Painting
Cantus Firmus
Paraphrase
The embellishment of chant with extra notes, set in graceful rhythms and smoothed out passages that struck composers as awkward or old fashioned
Homophony
Music in a harmonic, chordal texture
Imitative Counterpoint
Depends on a carefully controlled balance among multiple voice parts
Josquin Desprez
Pioneered the genres of chanson and motet
Famous for both his technical prowess and for his expressive innovations
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
104 complete settings of the mass
Composed over 250 motets
Savior of polyphonic music (Pope Marcellus Mass)
Married with children
Classes in his style to this day
Never ordained
Madrigal
Most important secular genre
Simple verse and text
common topics: love, sattire, political themes, unsatisfied desires
word painting, nonsense syllables
Famous Madrigal Composers of Italy
Gesualdo
Marenzio
Uechi
Monteveridi
Famous Madrigal Composers of England
Morley
Gibbons
Farmer
Weelkes
What happened in 1585?
Instruments were introduced into music
Began at St. Mark’s Basillica in Venice by Giovanni Gabrielli
Venetian Polychoral
Started by Giovanni Gabrielli
By placing choirs of singers and instrumentalists in some of St. Mark’s many different choir lofts, they obtained brilliant echo effects that even modern equipment cannot duplicate

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Music Appreciation-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Characteristics of the Middle Ages Everything was done anonymously Everyone (including rulers) was illiterate -Exception: Priests, nuns, bishops, ect Two Divisions of the Middle Ages
2017-10-12 07:25:44
Music Appreciation-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
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