What is the Renaissance?
A shift in thinking, new knowledge, whole society was affected. People were less religious and thought more about themselves, their surroundings and new types of knowledge “Rebirth from the dark ages”
How does Humanism relate to the Renaissance?
Without the belief that humans have great potential and we should use reason to approach problems in the world, the Renaissance would not be possible. There was an emphasis on learning.
How were Humanist values present in artwork?
most artwork during the Renaissance, focused on humans doing every day things and less on religion
Why did Humanism “ruffle some feathers? in Renaissance society?
Humanist ideas clashed with the Church, but Humanists were NOT Atheists. There was less focus on God, but people were still faithful. Humanists believed God wanted humans to expand their knowledge.
Medieval Thinkers vs. Renaissance Thinkers
-Greeks and Romans are heretics
-art was only meant for the glorification of God
-everyone had a specific place in the world
-leaders of society benefit from increased faith
-believe in reason
thought the ideas of Romans and Greeks was good
-art for themselves
-leaders benefit from increase of knowledge
How did the Crusades contribute to making Italy the starting point of the Renaissance?
The Crusades increased trade through Italy and Europe. Italy made boats during the Crusades which made money.
How did Humanist values make Italy an obvious starting point?
Italy was the center of the Mediterranean world and people could see great pieces (the coliseum) right in front of them
How did Italian city states help the Renaissance develop?
Each city was separate. They competed with each other to see which was the most advanced/wealthiest. Rich paid for artwork etc
How did the Medici family influence the beginning of the Renaissance?
They funded art, sponsored artists, revolutionized business.
-became wealthy because of banking
-bank became successful because it had rules
-church forbade usury because it was a mortal sin
-Medicis were afraid of eternal damnation so they payed for religious art and sponsored religious museums
What conditions led to a new focus in art?
How was Renaissance art (the techniques) different from Medieval times?
bright colors, perspective, pyramid configuration
How did Leonardo Da Vinci’s art differ from others and how did it affect society?
Da Vinci’s artwork showed scientific knowledge, challenged current knowledge and observed the world closely
How did Brunelleschi’s Santa Maria Del Fiore reflect the classics?
soaring dome, rounded arches, more color, columns, inspired by Pantheon
Why did Michelangelo struggle as a Renaissance artist?
He was an amazing artist, but had a terrible temper and therefore reputation. he was a humanist but most of his masterpieces were religious.
What were the basic views of Castiglione and Machiavelli?
Castiglione: people needed to be well rounded and educated in many fields of academics, education was essential for success. Machiavelli: leaders should not be loved, being feared is better, leaders should keep secrets if needed, leaders could be good but no ideal
What do each of the following terms mean? What impact did they have? Why did Machiavelli come to these conclusions?
– “Is it better for a prince to be loved more than feared? Or is it better to be feared more than loved?” It means that a prince should be feared because you can accomplish more, he came to this conclusion because you can get to a greater goal if you are feared
– “The ends justify the means.” It means that you should do whatever you can to get to a greater goal, he came to this conclusion because he thinks you should do whatever you can to accomplish a goal
What aspects of the Renaissance were appealing to Northern Europeans?
connection to Classics, humanism, advancements in architecture and science, education, opportunity and social mobility
How did Renaissance ideas “travel to” the north?
What areas of Northern Europe experienced a Renaissance?
France, Spain, England, Holland, Belgium, Germany
How did Northern Artists reflect Renaissance ideas? What did they do that was different too?
focus was on everyday humans and events, color/light to portray realism, not as much obsession with Classics, engraving
How did Gutenberg contribute to the Renaissance?
Why was it better to have a printing press/moveable molds rather than use illuminated manuscripts?
more identical copies could be produced instead of slow, hand written books with human error
How did the printing press/moveable type impact religion, science, language and social classes?
-Christian ideas spread more easily
-people felt they can have a more direct connection to God
-they could question/build off scientific findings
-more emphasis in writing in the vernacular
-use Bible to teach themselves a new language
-lower class could get educated because Bibles were cheaper
-emerge of a middle class
How were women treated during Medieval times? Did the Code of Chivalry encourage respect?
They were treated as weak and in need of a man for protection. Code of Chivalry encouraged being nice but not equal
How were women generally portrayed in art and through literature?
women were portrayed as objects for pleasure and education wasn’t good for women, seen as seductresses, domestic duties
How did Joan of Arc try to defy stereotypes?
she said that God sent her to save France from English invaders. (She got burned at the stake in 1431)
What types of accomplishments did women achieve? Did all women experience a Renaissance? What were the limitations?
women learned how to act like ladies, marriage. not all women experienced a Renaissance, limitations were that only upper-class women experienced a Renaissance
What are some of the geographic features of early Russia?
Kiev located on the Dnieper River, landlocked, near bodies of water, mountains toward the west
How did people come to settle in early Russia and Kiev?
small communities began to develop along trade routes
How did Russian society reflect Byzantine culture? Why did early Russian kings want to connect to Byzantine culture?
soaring dome, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Cyrillic alphabet. Early Russian Kings wanted to be connected to Byzantine culture as it was known as the second Rome. Knowing this The early Russian kings wanted to Become the third Rome due to Rome’s power and influence.
Why didn’t Russia experience a Renaissance?
The Mongol Invasion Captured Russia and cut off Trade. Thus stopping Cultural diffusion and the idea of a renaissance.
In general, how did Russia’s development in the Middle Ages and Renaissance differ from Western Europe?
strong autocratic rule
shift in thinking
philosophy that states humans have great potential and should use reason to approach problems in the world
Know where Florence, Venice, Rome and Milan are located on a map
rich family that influenced the Renaissance
people who funded something
Leonardo Da Vinci
artist that challenged current knowledge. His artwork was mainly focused around scientific knowledge.
point where perspective appears to converge
medieval rigid formal portraits and horizontal groupings gave way to a more three dimensional pyramid
Italian Renaissance painter
Italian Renaissance architect, made the Santa Maria Del Fiore
Santa Maria Del Fiore
church, soaring dome, columns, symmetry, made by Brunelleschi
Renaissance painter who painted in the Sistine Chapel
giant church painted by Brunelleschi
wrote “The Courier”
told people values of a good citizen
wrote “The Prince”
a prince should be feared rather than loved, leaders should keep secrets, leaders could be good but not ideal
painter that developed oil
vernacular and utopian society in writing
drawing on rocks
Joan of Arc
said God sent her to save France from England
Capital city of Early Russia
viking that becomes the first Russian king
became mixed with local culture
Russian king that married Olga
converted to Greek Orthodox
Fierce Warriors originating from asia. They are known for their archery and horseback skills. They also invaded Russia causing it to not experience a Renaissance and leaving it in economic distress.