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    Renaissance flashcards

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    What is the Renaissance?
    A shift in thinking, new knowledge, whole society was affected. People were less religious and thought more about themselves, their surroundings and new types of knowledge “Rebirth from the dark ages”
    How does Humanism relate to the Renaissance?
    Without the belief that humans have great potential and we should use reason to approach problems in the world, the Renaissance would not be possible. There was an emphasis on learning.
    How were Humanist values present in artwork?
    most artwork during the Renaissance, focused on humans doing every day things and less on religion
    Why did Humanism “ruffle some feathers? in Renaissance society?
    Humanist ideas clashed with the Church, but Humanists were NOT Atheists. There was less focus on God, but people were still faithful. Humanists believed God wanted humans to expand their knowledge.
    Medieval Thinkers vs. Renaissance Thinkers
    Medieval Thinkers
    -Greeks and Romans are heretics
    -art was only meant for the glorification of God
    -everyone had a specific place in the world
    -leaders of society benefit from increased faith
    Renaissance Thinkers
    -believe in reason
    thought the ideas of Romans and Greeks was good
    -art for themselves
    -leaders benefit from increase of knowledge
    How did the Crusades contribute to making Italy the starting point of the Renaissance?
    The Crusades increased trade through Italy and Europe. Italy made boats during the Crusades which made money.
    How did Humanist values make Italy an obvious starting point?
    Italy was the center of the Mediterranean world and people could see great pieces (the coliseum) right in front of them
    How did Italian city states help the Renaissance develop?
    Each city was separate. They competed with each other to see which was the most advanced/wealthiest. Rich paid for artwork etc
    How did the Medici family influence the beginning of the Renaissance?
    They funded art, sponsored artists, revolutionized business.
    -became wealthy because of banking
    -bank became successful because it had rules
    -church forbade usury because it was a mortal sin
    -Medicis were afraid of eternal damnation so they payed for religious art and sponsored religious museums
    What conditions led to a new focus in art?
    How was Renaissance art (the techniques) different from Medieval times?
    bright colors, perspective, pyramid configuration
    How did Leonardo Da Vinci’s art differ from others and how did it affect society?
    Da Vinci’s artwork showed scientific knowledge, challenged current knowledge and observed the world closely
    How did Brunelleschi’s Santa Maria Del Fiore reflect the classics?
    soaring dome, rounded arches, more color, columns, inspired by Pantheon
    Why did Michelangelo struggle as a Renaissance artist?
    He was an amazing artist, but had a terrible temper and therefore reputation. he was a humanist but most of his masterpieces were religious.
    What were the basic views of Castiglione and Machiavelli?
    Castiglione: people needed to be well rounded and educated in many fields of academics, education was essential for success. Machiavelli: leaders should not be loved, being feared is better, leaders should keep secrets if needed, leaders could be good but no ideal
    What do each of the following terms mean? What impact did they have? Why did Machiavelli come to these conclusions?
    – “Is it better for a prince to be loved more than feared? Or is it better to be feared more than loved?” It means that a prince should be feared because you can accomplish more, he came to this conclusion because you can get to a greater goal if you are feared
    – “The ends justify the means.” It means that you should do whatever you can to get to a greater goal, he came to this conclusion because he thinks you should do whatever you can to accomplish a goal
    What aspects of the Renaissance were appealing to Northern Europeans?
    connection to Classics, humanism, advancements in architecture and science, education, opportunity and social mobility
    How did Renaissance ideas “travel to” the north?
    trade routes
    What areas of Northern Europe experienced a Renaissance?
    France, Spain, England, Holland, Belgium, Germany
    How did Northern Artists reflect Renaissance ideas? What did they do that was different too?
    focus was on everyday humans and events, color/light to portray realism, not as much obsession with Classics, engraving
    How did Gutenberg contribute to the Renaissance?
    printing press
    Why was it better to have a printing press/moveable molds rather than use illuminated manuscripts?
    more identical copies could be produced instead of slow, hand written books with human error
    How did the printing press/moveable type impact religion, science, language and social classes?
    -Christian ideas spread more easily
    -people felt they can have a more direct connection to God
    -more education
    -they could question/build off scientific findings
    -more emphasis in writing in the vernacular
    -increased education
    -use Bible to teach themselves a new language
    Social Class
    -lower class could get educated because Bibles were cheaper
    -emerge of a middle class
    -increased literacy
    How were women treated during Medieval times? Did the Code of Chivalry encourage respect?
    They were treated as weak and in need of a man for protection. Code of Chivalry encouraged being nice but not equal
    How were women generally portrayed in art and through literature?
    women were portrayed as objects for pleasure and education wasn’t good for women, seen as seductresses, domestic duties
    How did Joan of Arc try to defy stereotypes?
    she said that God sent her to save France from English invaders. (She got burned at the stake in 1431)
    What types of accomplishments did women achieve? Did all women experience a Renaissance? What were the limitations?
    women learned how to act like ladies, marriage. not all women experienced a Renaissance, limitations were that only upper-class women experienced a Renaissance
    What are some of the geographic features of early Russia?
    Kiev located on the Dnieper River, landlocked, near bodies of water, mountains toward the west
    How did people come to settle in early Russia and Kiev?
    small communities began to develop along trade routes
    How did Russian society reflect Byzantine culture? Why did early Russian kings want to connect to Byzantine culture?
    soaring dome, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Cyrillic alphabet. Early Russian Kings wanted to be connected to Byzantine culture as it was known as the second Rome. Knowing this The early Russian kings wanted to Become the third Rome due to Rome’s power and influence.
    Why didn’t Russia experience a Renaissance?
    The Mongol Invasion Captured Russia and cut off Trade. Thus stopping Cultural diffusion and the idea of a renaissance.
    In general, how did Russia’s development in the Middle Ages and Renaissance differ from Western Europe?
    strong autocratic rule
    shift in thinking
    philosophy that states humans have great potential and should use reason to approach problems in the world
    City state
    Florentine, Venetian
    city states
    Know where Florence, Venice, Rome and Milan are located on a map
    money lenders
    rich family that influenced the Renaissance
    people who funded something
    Leonardo Da Vinci
    artist that challenged current knowledge. His artwork was mainly focused around scientific knowledge.
    Vanishing point
    point where perspective appears to converge
    Pyramid configuration
    medieval rigid formal portraits and horizontal groupings gave way to a more three dimensional pyramid
    like real
    Italian Renaissance painter
    Italian Renaissance architect, made the Santa Maria Del Fiore
    Santa Maria Del Fiore
    church, soaring dome, columns, symmetry, made by Brunelleschi
    Renaissance painter who painted in the Sistine Chapel
    Sistine Chapel
    giant church painted by Brunelleschi
    wrote “The Courier”
    “The Courtier”
    told people values of a good citizen
    wrote “The Prince”
    “The Prince”
    a prince should be feared rather than loved, leaders should keep secrets, leaders could be good but not ideal
    Renaissance writer
    Dutch painter
    Van Eyck
    painter that developed oil
    “German Leonardo”
    vernacular and utopian society in writing
    drawing on rocks
    Illuminated manuscript
    copying words
    Moveable type
    Joan of Arc
    said God sent her to save France from England
    Capital city of Early Russia
    viking that becomes the first Russian king
    Vikings, Slavs
    became mixed with local culture
    Russian king that married Olga
    Princess Olga
    converted to Greek Orthodox
    Fierce Warriors originating from asia. They are known for their archery and horseback skills. They also invaded Russia causing it to not experience a Renaissance and leaving it in economic distress.

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