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    Italian Renaissance and Baroque Villas

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    Villa Medici del Trebbio
    Villa Medici del Trebbio
    Trebbio, Italy
    Villa Medici Fiesole
    Villa Medici Fiesole
    Fiesole, Italy
    Villa Barbaro
    Villa Barbaro
    Maser, Italy
    Villa Rotunda
    Villa Rotunda
    Vicenza, Italy
    Belvedere Court
    Belvedere Court
    Rome, Italy

    Designed as part of the Vatican complex, and meant to serve as the “villa” for the pope, this project reflects the reemergence of axial planning in Renaissance design.

    Villa Giulia
    Villa Giulia
    Rome, Italy
    Vignola, Ammannati, and Vasari
    Villa d'Este
    Villa d’Este
    Tivoli, Italy
    Line of axis points toward the Vatican in Rome.
    Allegorical narratives revealed through fountains, grottoes, and pools places on transverse axis.
    Known for its spectacular fountains, which were powered entirely via gravity-flow of water down the hillside.
    Villa Lante
    Villa Lante
    Bagnaia, Italy
    Casini = “little houses”
    Allegorical narratives of the Myth of the Four Ages of Man in descending sequence of spaces.
    Villa Orsini
    Bomarzo, Italy
    Villa Aldobrandini
    Villa Aldobrandini
    Frascati, Italy
    Early 1600s

    Included an outdoor theatre

    Boboli Gardens
    Boboli Gardens
    Florence, Italy
    1550 – 1650
    Isola Bella
    Isola Bella
    Lago Maggiore, Italy
    1630 – 1730
    The transitional period in Europe between medieval and modern times, beginning in the 14th century in Italy and lasting into the 17th century.
    – Marked as humanistic revival
    A philosophy that places humans as being of primary importance. It is a perspective that attached importance to human dignity, concern, capabilities, and rationality.
    – Rediscovery of Greek and Latin texts.
    Factors that developed the Renaissance
    – Changes in Christian theology
    – Rediscovery of Greek and Latin texts
    – Conquest of Islamic Spain
    – Collapse of Byzantine Empire
    – Political and economic dynasties
    – Est. of universities for art and science
    – Invention of linear perspective
    – Mechanical printing technology
    A method of learning taught by academics of medieval universities.
    – emphasized reasoning as the primary tool to find answers and resolve contradictions.
    St. Augustine of Hippo
    354 – 430
    Teacher of Greek philosophy.
    Prolific Latin writer and responsible for introducing Greek thought into Christian theology.
    St. Francis of Assisi
    1181 – 1226
    Retreat into nature / wilderness as a way of seeking God.
    St. Thomas Aquinas
    1224 – 1274
    To deny human reason is to deny the power of generosity of God.
    Natural Law = a law that is set by nature that is valid everywhere.
    The Three Natures
    1. Wilderness
    2. Cultivated field
    3. The garden (art and nature in harmony)
    Platonic Polygons
    all angles are equal, and all sides have the same length.
    Perspective Drawing
    Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446)
    Devised method of drawing linear perspective, ca. 1424
    One of the key places for revival of knowledge and design, philosophy, arts
    Alberti’s Guidelines for Villas
    – Situated on hillside for sun & fresh air
    – View of farmland/nature
    – Incorporate the house/garden
    – Garden provides walking and strolling
    – Fountains and grotto for amusements
    – Public/private gardens
    – conform to the rules of perfect geometry
    High Renaissance
    – Re-emergence of axial planning
    – Investigation and study of Roman ruins
    – Embrace classical mythology
    – Classical mythology as allegory for modern civilization
    Andrea Palladio
    “The Four Books of Architecture”
    Artificial cave, usually featuring a fountain w/ a sculpture meant to mimic a natural cave and spring.
    Papal States
    States of the Roman Catholic Church.
    An artistic movement that emphasized artificial more than naturalistic qualities. It was a reaction to, and extension of, the more restrained approach of High Renaissance artists such as Alberti or Leonardo da Vinci.
    – Emergence during the High Renaissance.
    – Focused on studies of classical art.
    An individual who possesses outstanding technical ability
    A story in which characters or events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts
    – Extended metaphor
    Covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level.
    Outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches.
    Early Renaissance Villa
    – Square and rectangular in form.
    – Laid out to be viewed from upper level of house.
    – Used for holding discussions and entertaining friends.
    High Renaissance Villa
    – Hillside terrace and central axis
    – Outward perspective, both physically and intellectually.
    – Used to display collections of ancient statuary.
    Mannerist Villa
    – Surprise, novelty and allusion.
    – Used for outdoor masques and parties.
    – Allegorical stories.
    – Movement and drama became important.
    Early Baroque
    – Axes project beyond the garden walls to focus distant features.
    – Influenced by discoveries in geometry, optics, and perspective.
    – Movement, drama, and “spatial dynamism.”
    Golden Ratio
    Ideal proportions or golden ratios used throughout the Renaissance to achieve balance and beauty. Used extensively in art and architecture by artists like Leonardo da Vinci and architects like Palladio.
    –Fibonacci Sequence:
    a + b = 1.618..

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