Health promotion Essay and teaching are important tools for nursing. By promoting health and health teaching, nurses can help lay the foundation for a healthier future.
Major Concepts and Definitions
Belief-a statement of sense, declared or implied, that is intellectually and/or emotionally accepted as true by a person or group.
Attitude-a relatively constant feeling, predisposition, or a set of beliefs that is directed toward an object, a person, or a situation.
Value-a preference that is shared and transmitted within a community.
Behavioral diagnosis-the delineation of the specific health actions that are most likely to effect a health outcome.
Health Belief Model-a paradigm used to predict and explain health behavior that is based on value-expectancy theory.
Perceive-how one views oneself’s health.
Expectancies-outcomes and evaluation of how behavior is determined. Divided into three types.
Environmental cues-subconcept of expectancies, beliefs how events are connected.
Outcome expectation-subconcept of expectancies, consequences of one’s own actions.
Efficacy expectation-subconcept of expectancies, one’s own competence to perform the behavior required to influence outcomes.
Incentives- value of a particular object or outcome.
Domains of learning-information, skills, and attitudes needed to be taught to achieve the appropriate level of learning.
Cognitive domain-subconcept, development of new facts or concepts, building on or applying past knowledge to new situations.
Psychomotor learning-subconcept, development of physical skills from simple to complex actions.
Affective learning-recognition of values, religious and spiritual beliefs, family interaction patterns and relationships and personal attitudes that affect decisions and problem-solving progress.
Teaching-a planned and purposeful activity that nurses use to increase the likelihood that individuals will learn.
Major assumptions are taken from Rosenstock’s (1966) Health Belief Model, Bandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (Edleman ; Mandle, 1998), and the teaching process (Boyd, Graham, Gleit, ; Whitman, 1998).
According to Leddy ; Pepper (1993), assumptions from the Health Belief Model include the following aspects:
1. Perceived susceptibility, the client’s perception of his likelihood of experiencing a particular illness.
Perceived severity, the client’s perception of the severity of the illness and its potential impact on his life.
3. Benefits of actions, the client’s assessment of the potential of the health action to reduce susceptibility or severity.
4. Costs of action, the client’s estimate of financial costs, time and effort; inconvenience; and possible side effects such as pain or discomfort.
According to Edleman ; Mandle (1998), assumptions for Bandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive Theory are:
Behavior is determined by expectancies and outcomes.
2. Behavior is regulated by its consequences, but only as those consequences are interpreted and understood by the client.
According to Boyd et al. (1998), assumptions from the teaching process include:
1. The teaching process is a planned and purposeful activity that nurses use to increase the likelihood that individuals will learn.
2. The teaching process follows the same steps as the nursing process: assess, plan, implement and evaluate.
Man is an individual, holistic being, comprised of social, psychological, spiritual and biological entities. Man is in constant interaction with the environment. Man’s well being is the perception of his or her health which is enhanced by nursing actions involving health promotion. Man is an outcome of his environment, beliefs, attitudes, values and willingness to learn.
Environmental cues affect man’s reaction to health promotion and teaching.
Nursing is a profession needed by man to promote health with an outcome of enhancing man’s perception of one’s health. A behavioral diagnosis can be accomplished by using the teaching process and incorporating the three domains of learning (a) cognitive, (b) psychomotor, and (c) affective. The goal of nursing is to educate man to help reduce the susceptibility or severity of any illness or disease resulting from interaction from the environment. This encompasses disease prevention and aiding in restoration of health. It is the nurse’s responsibility to assist each client to perceive themselves at their optimal level of functioning.
Since behavior is regulated by its consequences (but only as those consequences are interpreted and understood by man) (Edleman ; Mandle, 1998), it is nursing’s practice to assist man by working with beliefs, attitudes, values and environment to help achieve positive outcomes and efficacy expectation. Nursing is also responsible to assist man to realize outcome expectations.
Health is man perceiving oneself at his or her optimal level of functioning. Health can be achieved even in a diseased state by assisting clients to achieve the highest perceived state of health as possible. Health is a direct result of environmental factors and health .